Vegetable Gardens: Grow Food, Save Water - City of Aurora


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Vegetable Gardens: Grow Food, Save Water - City of Aurora

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  4. 4. Modern Food Production’s Environmental ImpactsPopulation growth. The Earth’s current population is 6.7 billion, and scientists estimate 9billion by 2040.Soil degradation. The main causes of soil degradation is erosion, contamination, and over-production. The outcome is a substantial reduction in the productivity of the land.Climate change. Believe what you will of its causes, the fact is that global weather patternsare changing. This process may have significant impacts on water resources around theworld because of the close connections between the climate, hydrologic cycle and wildlife.Limited water resources. The worlds supply of clean, fresh water is steadily decreasing.Water demand already exceeds supply in many parts of the world and as the worldpopulation – and therefore demand – continues to rise, so will water needs.Energy. The current industrial agriculture system is partially accountable for high energycosts. The average conventional produce item travels 1,500 miles, using as much as onegallon of gas per hundred pounds.Health. The method of crop production is linked to that crop’s nutritional value, it’sincidences of disease, and it’s contamination by pesticides/herbicides. All of these factorshave proven effects on the people and animals who eat that crop. 4
  5. 5. The public response to current food production practices is varied. Some may be trends, others are here for thelong haul.Urban Horticulture & Agriculture. Producing food in the urban environment occurs on two levels: small-scalehorticulture and larger-scale agriculture. When you hear “urban horticulture”, think of yard vegetable gardens.Victory gardens sprouted during the world wars, a relief measure by citizens to reduce food production pressure.These gardens typically feed only one individual or group. When you hear “urban agriculture”, think farms.These are organizations that are purchasing large plots in urban (or suburban) centers and growing largeramounts of produce for others, whether or not its for charity or sale. Community gardens could be consideredurban agriculture. Both urban horticulture and agriculture are methods for producing inexpensive, local andorganic foods. It addresses issues of perceived or real food security and safety.Composting. Composting is a valuable aid to sustainable agriculture. “Composting ‘upcycles’ organic kitchen andyard waste and manures into an extremely useful humus-like, soil end product, permitting the return of vitalorganic matter, nutrients, and particularly bacteria, that are vital to plant nutrition to the soil.”Watershed. Pesticide, herbicide, and bacterial run-off into watersheds is a real issue in agriculture and livestockproduction. Protecting watersheds is vital to protecting irrigation and drinking water quality.Rainwater Harvesting & Diversion. “Traditionally, rainwater harvesting has been practiced in arid and semi-aridareas, and has provided drinking water, domestic water, water for livestock, water for small irrigation and a wayto increase ground water levels.” Harvesting is illegal in Colorado, while diversion is perfectly legal.Local Food. Purchasing food that is produced locally (in your town, county, state, or region). The concept of thefoodshed is similar to that of a watershed; it is an area where food is grown and eaten. Said to build strong andself-reliant food economies, the “eat local” movement is sweeping the country. Those who prefer to eat locallyare sometimes called “localvores” or “locavores.” This means possibly eating a lesser variety of foods, and eatingin-season. Many locavores also believe in sustainable production methods and believe that “since food is neededby everyone, everywhere, every day, a small change in the way it is produced and marketed will have a greateffect on health, the ecosystem and preservation of cultural diversity.”Organics. “Health food is a term that has been used in the United States since the 1920s and refers to specificfoods claimed to be especially beneficial to health” but organic food refers to a specific certification processbacked by the USDA. To be certified organic, a food must never be treated by most herbicides, pesticides,artificial additives or dyes. Organic foods are not bioengineered. Organic meats are from animals that were nottreated with hormones and antibiotics. 5
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  7. 7. The results from converting a 1,000 square foot plot from turf grass to a vegetablegarden were significant. At the Aurora Municipal Center (AMC), the amount of waterused for irrigation dropped from 13,000 gallons over the course of the year to 2,500gallons. At the Griswold Water Treatment Facility, the water use dropped from10,250 gallons to 3,500 gallons. Irrigation at both properties was reduced from23,250 gallons to 6,000 gallons. This is an average reduction of 74%.Figures are based on our 1st year findings. 7
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  9. 9. Household Size. It takes an average of 200 sq.ft. to grow the amount of fruits/veggiesneeded by one person during the growing season at intermediate yields. To grow allthe food for one persons needs for the whole year requires at least 4,000 squarefeet.What is your available space? What does it look like, how big is it, how much lightdoes it receive?Determine your produce preferences. Different vegetables have remarkable sizedifferences. One squash plant, for instance, will take up 10 sq feet or more! Onelettuce plant will take up 1 sq foot.Annuals & Perennials. Some vegetables and fruits are perennials, meaning they laydormant through the winter or re-seed. Most are annuals, meaning you have toestablish new plants every year. Some require multiple seasons to produce.How much time do you have to devote to a garden? If you only have time to weed 20sq ft, don’t plant a 200 sq ft plot.Experience. Are you new to gardening? Start small! Take time to learn aboutsuccession planting. You can plant only one planting of squash per season, but youcan plant two plantings of lettuce: one in the early spring, one in the fall. 9
  10. 10. Sizing factors: spacing, planting configuration, seasonality/succession 10
  11. 11. Include an adequately sized walkway, 2-4’ depending on your comfort and tools youwill use (wheelbarrows and wheelchairs need a wider berth than your feet). To giveyou a visual comparison, 2’ is the width of a small paver, 4’ is the width of aresidential sidewalk.Design tools are available online, see the Design Online slide on page 24. 11
  12. 12. Companion planting, aka intercropping or polyculture. It’s not an exact science, butthere is some evidence that companion planting is beneficial. Companion plantingexists to benefit certain plants by providing natural pest control, encouragingpollinators, and adding vital nutrients.Inter-planting particular herbs and flowers amongst your crops can work in multipleways:1. Attract predators. By planting flowers and herbs among your vegetables, you can attract beneficial insects and birds, which are natural predators to those pests that eat brassica leaves.2. Chemical deterrents. The African marigold, along with other plants, are well known for companion planting, as they exude chemicals from their roots that repel pests and protect neighboring plants.3. Spatial/physical. Companion planting also works in a spatial way. For example, tall-growing, sun-loving plants may share space with lower-growing, shade- tolerant species, resulting in higher total yields from the land. This is called spatial interaction, and can also yield pest control benefits. The presence of prickly vines is said to discourage raccoons from ravaging sweet corn.4. Encouraging pollinators. Planting bright flowers next to crops that require pollination will attract pollinators like bees and butterflies.5. Nutrient fixation. Some crops are naturally “nitrogen fixers”, meaning they feed nitrogen into the soil, making it unnecessary to use nitrogen fertilizers in the next season. Crop rotation in this technique is essential. Soybeans and legumes are nitrogen fixers. 12
  13. 13. Examples:Cabbage is believed to pair well with Herbs, Celery, Beets, Onion Family, Chamomile,Spinach, Chard. Onion family plants are believed to repel aphids, weevils, carrot flies,moles, fruit tree borers; controls rust flies and some nematodes. HOWEVER,cabbages are believed to inhibit growth of peas & beans.Asparagus pairs well with Tomato, Parsley, Basil. Parsley repels asparagus beetles.REMEMBER! Some plants may INHIBIT others. 13
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  15. 15. There are six items to consider during your planning process. 15
  16. 16. Proximity It’s convenient to have garden close to house and/or water sourceCode. Keep in mind the Aurora Zoning Code, which states that residents must have50% long-lived (perennial) plant material in the front yard. So if you want a front yardgarden, make sure you have at least an equal square footage of perennials.Exposure to sun and wind. Leafy veggies tolerate shade. Fruit-producing plants needfull sun. Any windbreaks you build should not restrict sunlight. Living windbreaks’(like shrubs or corn) roots may interfere if they are planted too closeTerrain and drainage. Ideal terrain is flat or has a slight southern slope. Veggiesneed good drainage and deep fertile soil. Plant with our natural contours/slopes inmind. Plant at right angles to slope to utilize the drainage to your best advantage.Fencing to keep out animals – dogs, bunnies… 16
  17. 17. Rows are the traditional method and resembles large-scale agricultural practicesBlocks or wide rows create shade, reduce evaporation. This method prices 5 to 10 timesmore non-compacted soil space!Raised beds have either sloped, natural sides or you can build up structured boxes. Buildsupported edges at least 10” high for a retaining structure. These require increased time,labor and money to build. However, they’re good looking, good for areas adjacent to lawnsor gardens with limited space, and good for gardeners with disabilities. The process: 1. mark out perimeter 6. break up sod 2. cut sod 7. add compost 3. loosen soil 8. fill frame with topsoil 4. add frame 9. let settle for a week 5. invert cut sodMixed beds are beds that interplant with first year xeric plant material. Many veggies andveggie verities have ornamental qualities that blend nicely with purely aesthetic plants.Container gardens allow veggies to grow almost anywhere. Make sure your containers arelarge enough to give roots room to grow and have enough soil to retain moisture.Perennials can go in your front yard, and keep you in line with the 50% coverage code 17
  18. 18. We recommend planning for deep beds. If given the opportunity in loose soil, youcan see (as pictured) how far plant roots will dig down into the soil. 18
  19. 19. Plant spacing. Determine the size of your desired plants and each plant’s light andwater needs. Remember to provide supports (tomato cages) to the plants that needthem: tomatoes, cucumbers, eggplant, etc.Irrigation Zones. Group fruits and veggies according to water needs and put thesegroupings on separate irrigation zones if needed.Succession. Remember that many plants can be planted in multiple seasons. You canhave a spring / summer / winter plant rotation. This can save space.Companion. You will need a little extra space for your companion plants (marigolds),although some companion plant seeds can be sowed in the same holes as your cropseeds.Going Vertical. A solution for space constraints! Some plants like tomatoes, herbs,etc do well in containers or “green walls” like the one above. Think about makingyour vining plants, like cucumbers and some squash, grow vertically on strongsupports.Inter-planting can save space. If you have shorter, shade-tolerant plants like lettuces,put them closer to taller, sun-loving vegetables like eggplant. 19
  20. 20. Know your soil makeup: nutrient levels, pH, particle content. Even with a decent makeup,plan to add compost and other amendments like bone meal or fish emulsion at least once todifferent plantings.PH effects: Availability of nutrients, Microorganism activity, Plants’ competitive ability, Physical condition of soil (if lime used), Solubility/potency of toxic elements, Presence of diseaseAurora has generally loamy soil and clayey subsoil (examples: Renohill-Buick-Litle Associationin Lowry AFB Bombing Range). Fondis and other soils that have high shrink-swell potentialcan cause damage to a building’s foundation. Homes built on fondis should have specially-designed foundations. If you have heavily clay soil, add organic matter such as compost orgrass clippings.Front range soil is almost consistently alkaline. It is difficult to increase or decrease the pH ofsoil. You can add acid peat moss, or use acid-forming fertilizers such as ammonium sulfate oraluminum sulfate.At home pH kits have been rated and found wanting – for accurate and comprehensiveresults, look into CSU tests (for ph, salts, and nutrient levels, recommendations) for $28What is soil quality and soil health? When soil is at its best it can absorb and hold moisture,supports plant and animal life, and helps purify the air by storing CO2 in the soil (carbonsequestration) which helps the environment by giving cleaner air.How to improve Soil Health. Any activity to the soil affects the soil quality. Conservationtillage practices, crop rotation, pest and nutrient management, and soil testing help producebetter soil health. Leaving organic matter on the soil surface each year (at least 2tons/acre/year) helps build up the organic layer. 20
  21. 21. Spacing: know each plant’s sizes at planting and maturityWater and sun requirements – group similar plants togetherColor, texture, height, seasonal interest – think of all these factors as you designReproduction: seeds, runners, division – this will affect maintenance AND how plantswill “fill in” (desirable or undesirable)Money Saving Tips: • Share and trade with neighbors • Check out “big box store” sales • Coupons • *Be careful with mail order plants, the quality may be lacking 21
  22. 22. As a rule of thumb, vegetables use around ¼ inch of water per day, depending ontemperature, wind, and stage of crop development. Determine the best method foryou, depending on your irrigation zones you want to/be able to use multiple methodsStick your fingers in the soil! It’s the best way to determine if your veggies needwatering or if you’re overwatering. Irrigate if the top 3 inches are dry.Automate your irrigation system but be sure to put it on a different schedule thanturf! Veggies don’t need as much water.For veggie gardens, use an organic mulch like small wood chips, newspaper, or strawthat will break down over the fall and winter, enriching your soil. 22
  23. 23. Drip/bubblers are versatilePop-ups / Overhead • Pop-ups output level is approx 1½ inches per hour • Use Larger drops for higher absorption rates • May be able to use heads from separate zone • Only use at evening, night or early morning • Follow city watering restrictions • Some diseases are associated with overhead, creates favorable conditions for mold etcSoaker hoses show some problems, can clogHand watering and soaker hoses are best for small area or containersHand water takes more time but is more efficient and you can do it anytimeFor optimal efficiency, go with the drip/bubbler – it can be precisely targeted andthere’s less evaporation. Space them every 12” in dense plots under mulchYou can realize up to 50% water savings by converting to low pressure/filter or usespigot attachment/timers . Check out our Irrigation 101 class.Rainwater diversion is a great way to more effectively use rainwater. Check out theonline class. 23
  24. 24. Creating a design to scale will assist in knowing your seed and plant quantities.What and how much?Plant what you’ll eat and in appropriate quantities. Don’t plant two squash plants ifyou live alone – trust me. You’ll find that you’ll learn as you go. Discover whichveggies and fruits you prefer. Try something new every year.Remember code – front vs. backyardCheck out our class “Preparing for your Design Consultation” available online or in aclassroom with instructor. 24
  25. 25. Multiple spatial design tools are available online for free.www.GrowVeg.comGarden Planner Online at – tutorials arealso available.Other free tools, like “Family Feeder Calculator” and “Soil Calculator” are available atwww.vegetablegardenplanner.comFor larger plots, the “Fantastic Farm & Garden Calculator” at www.landshareco.orgare a good resource. 25
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  27. 27. Needed tools:SpadeBow rakeHoseTrowelGlovesAlternative tools:Digging forkHoeRecommended:WheelbarrowRototillerGarden Journal 27
  28. 28. All you need are stakes, twine, and a measuring tape. In one of the picturedexamples, somebody used poles or dowels of equal length.Before you begin, mow. 28
  29. 29. Removal of sodKilling turf with round-up not recommended for organic vegetable gardeningMethods Spade sharpen spade edge cut out blocks of turf with spade at low angle Sod cutter can rent at store like home depotFall Prep best time to prepare bed don’t have to physically remove turf, just turn over thesod blocks and use a spade to chop the blocks into pieces work well-rotted manure and/or other compost orleaves into soil add 6 inches of topsoil for a raised bed fall prep allows time for natural decompositionSpring Remove and compost turf not enough time to decompose Or turn under in raised bed 29
  30. 30. Fall is best time (unless you’ve put down a cover crop) - soil has time to settle, fewer air pockets - organisms can rebuild disturbed structure - light forking will expose clumps to freeze and thaw cycleHow you dig is just as important as what you add.Do not work wet soil - will damage soil structure/oxygen - soil that sticks to tools is generally too wet to workTopsoil layer has more organic matterMethods of loosening topsoil: Rototilling • First two years • Unnecessary tilling disturbs natural aggregates, promotes surface crusting & compactionMethods of loosening subsoil: Why? Subsoil layer contains minerals, or micronutrients, that vegetables need in small quantities they usually can’t get in the topsoil • provides additional depth (below 9 inches) for roots • increases water holding capacity Forking – simple & relatively quick process • eliminates the need of chopping with a spade • loosens soil without disturbing layers or weed seeds • Use a digging fork or a broadfork (has two handles, tines are deeper, tool is larger) 30
  31. 31. Amending is vital. Organic amendments feed soil (aka build soil) and soil feeds your plants! Soil-clay and sandysoils will both benefit from organic amendment, as it improves texture and breaks up fine clay particles.Amendment also increases the water holding capacity of sandy soils. Incorporate amendment thoroughly anddeeply; it is helpful to apply during soil tilling. All amendments are depleted over time, so replenish at leastbiannually.Compost is decomposed plant material. Add 2-3 inches of compost to your garden every year. Choose materialfree of insecticides, herbicides and weed seeds. A great compost is your recycled debris from last years’ garden,as long as it is mildew/weed free. Wood chips or fresh grass trimmings are not recommended, as they will depletenitrogen from the soil. If you have only partially decomposed plant material, add this mixture in the fall so it hastime to decompose fully.Manure is animal waste. Fresh (warm) manure has the potential to “burn” roots and may be contaminated bybacteria (including e. coli), so add this only in the fall so it has time to decompose fully. Look for aged/compostedmanure which does not smell and is dark in color. Manure may be high in salts, so add only 1 inch per season.Cover crops aka green manure are crops that are planted in the fall and allowed to die naturally in the winter.They then decompose with tilling in the spring, adding nutrients and aerating the soil. It virtually eliminates yourneed to haul in and add amendment! Plus, it provides extra fall shade, making a less desirable environment forweeds. Make sure to mow and tilled in at least 3 weeks before planting.Peat moss is low in nutrients and is not recommended. Plus, peat moss harvesting practices are questionable -peat moss bogs are fragile ecosystems, and peat harvesting greatly disrupts these ecosystems.Fertilizer. There are many different types of fertilizer, with different effects on soil and plant material. Some likenfertilizer supplements to artificial life support and advocate soil building over fertilizing, but soil building takestime. What we know for sure is that plants grow best with steady, uninterrupted growth, and adding organicamendment is the best place to start. Consider using fertilizer as a once-a-year supplement, especially for leafycrops which require more nitrogen.Natural types of fertilizer: compost tea, guano, worm castings, bone meal, fish emulsionTo remember when applying fertilizer: Applications near seedlings can burn roots Too much fertilizer can limit fruitingSoil Tests. Determine the chemical composition of your soil. See slide #19 for details. 31
  32. 32. There are really only two techniques for planting. You either start with seeds or start with aseedling.Seed sowing reduces your overall garden cost because seeds are inexpensive. You can startyour seeds indoors or outdoors depending on the plant type and time of year.Outdoor sowing:• Sow outdoors when soil conditions meet requirements of that particular seed’sgermination.• Start with a smooth surface• Create furrows with hoe or wood edge• Drill into soil with a finger to a depth related to seed size• Cover and gently pat soil to establish seed-soil contact• Water• Label rowsTransplanting:• Seedlings MUST be hardened off at least 2 weeks in advance of transplanting• Start with a smooth surface• Mark spots for planting• Trowel back soil• Plant (with amendment if needed)• Firmly pack soilHardening off means acclimatizing seedlings to harsher outdoor conditions. You can startthe process with an indoor fan, blowing it on your seedlings for 20 minutes, increasing to anhour a day. After they begin to strengthen, transition to placing them outdoors for 20minutes, building to a few hours a day. The seedlings will strengthen after at least 2 weeks toand become ready for transplant.Check out the CSU article 32
  33. 33. When to plant, when to plant?Each plant has a different soil and germination temperature requirement.There are generally three planting times: Early (cool) season • hardy means 2-4 weeks before last frost date • semi-hardy means 0-2 weeks before last frost date • e.g. lettuces, pole beans Mid (warm) season • tender means at last frost date • very tender means 2 weeks after last frost date • e.g. strawberries, tomatoes, squash Late (cool) season • plant hardy and semi-hardy plants at least 6 weeks before the first frost • great for succession planting • e.g. lettuces, cabbageFrost free dates along the Front Range generally means May 5th-October 10thCheck out this CSU factsheet (Garden Note #720) for more information: 33
  34. 34. Mulch is a surface covering applied to the garden bed. It’s benefits include: • retains moisture • prevents erosion • keeps plants clean • provides a place to walk • creates a tidy look • prevents crusting • prevents weeds • prevents compactionCareful! Mulch may slow soil warming in the spring. It may keep the soil more moistthan you planned on, so adjust your irrigation accordingly. Mulch can be a harbor forpests, but it can also be an attractant to birds and other predators who prey on pests.Make sure to mulch thickly, about 3”, to discourage beetles. This is not for everybody,but letting 2-3 of your chickens pick at your garden bed over the fall and winter willget rid of insects, eggs, and seeds! Plus, a few chickens will add great fertilizer toyour soil. (Current city law bans chickens in residential zones, but some homes are onagriculture zones that allow this use)Organic vs. InorganicPlastic is not recommended. They warm soil, are expensive, need to be disposed of,add nothing positive to the soil, and prevent water and oxygen from flowing betweensoil layers.Wood chips, straw, grass clippings, newspaper all decompose and add nutrients toyour soil. Apply 3 inches of material when plants are about 6 inches tall. 34
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  36. 36. Watering affects produce quality and yields. Vegetable gardens in CO generally requirebetween 1 inch and 1.5 inches per week, but pay attention to the weather and adjustaccordingly!Critical Stages. Veggies do not go dormant like bluegrass, they produce best with steady anduninterrupted growth. Maintain even water moisture. That said, water is most critical at thefollowing stages: (1) seed germination, (2) 1st few weeks of development, (3) after transplant,(4) flower and fruit production.VariablesThese techniques require less water: mulch, closer spacing, clay soils, highly compostedThese techniques require more water: raised beds and sandy soilOther variables: Sun, heat, wind and soil typePlant Choice High yield/small fruiting varieties need more water Beans and corn use more water Tomatoes and vine crops need less water, they’re often overwateredWatering Schedule Before seedlings emerge: Hand water , maintain consistent moisture! After emergence: Back off to get good root establishmentRemember: Always physically check soil moisture, get your fingers in the dirt! Temporary wilting is okay with some plants during the hottest part of day Clay soil? Water less frequently but for longer periods Sandy soil? Water more frequently for shorter periods 36
  37. 37. Pests compete with garden crops and impair growth!SolutionsIntegrated pest management (IPM) for weed, disease, insect and critters. Usemultiple methods at the same time or in the same season. • use the least invasive or toxic method • use deterrents that work with nature • make educated decisions • industrial methods (chemicals) upset natural balanceLike with most things, Prevention is the key! • Concentrate on plant health, not pests • Give your plants assistance • Companion planting (see slide on page #12) • Natural repellants • Onion family plants • Marigolds • Rosemary • Avoid monocultures (large areas of same crop) • Harvest on time to reduce likelihood of rotting plants that attract insects • Rotate crops to reduce likelihood of diseases establishing in soil • Row covers to keep out birds and insects 37
  38. 38. Weeds compete for water, nutrients and light, and harbor pests. Use all of thefollowing techniques for weed management: • Hoe • Pull them (and get the ROOTS) when they are young • Mulch • Glyphosate (Round Up brand for perennial weeds) but not on an organic garden • Nontoxic pre-emergent will prevent seed germinationDisease is generally a symptom of plant stress. Support is available! Contact a CSUextension agent for insect and disease identification. Do not just spray everythingwith a pesticide! There are some inexpensive alternatives to chemicals. For example,an equal mixture of milk and water sprayed on leaves covered in powdery mildew willreduce the mold’s spread.Insects. Depending on the species, use multiple methods: • Hand pick pests • Biological controls -natural enemies are used (e.g. ladybugs eat aphids) • Beneficial predators • Bt bacteria and diatomaceous earth • Natural pesticides: garlic spray, hot pepper wax, insecticidal soap, neemCritters have favorite veggies. Don’t plant them! Alternatively, create a physicalbarrier. Use fencing and crop covers. 38
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  40. 40. The Colorado Master Gardener Program offered through CSU Cooperative Extensionhas Fruit Trees, Fruit, and Vegetable Classes among many others. Check out public classes are available through CSU. Contact information atwww.ext.colostate.eduAurora Water Conservation offers many classes online and in the classroom. Checkout Xeriscape: Start to Finish, Meal Prep, Water Diversion, Irrigation 101, to name afew. See all our offerings 40
  41. 41. Edible Front Range Magazine is a quarterly magazine that celebrates the abundance of local,seasonal food in along Colorado’s Front Range.Grow Local Colorado “is a new project being developed by community leaders, gardeners,locavores, farmers and businesses to help more people grow more food locally.” Its websiteis a resource hub for information, expertise and partnerships for establishing a garden atyour home, business, or public space.Denver Urban Gardens (DUG) assists with the development and management of over 80community gardens in the metro area. “Primarily serving low to moderate incomepopulations in urban neighborhoods, DUG provides opportunities for participants tosupplement their diet with produce grown in nearby public gardens.”Community Roots. “Boulder, Colorados community farming project is the brain child offounder Kipp Nash, who has devoted his attention to the ways in which we can connect ourcommunities to bring traditionally rural ways of living into an urban context. Kipp utilizies theavailable land in urban settings (particularly front yards) to produce organically-grownproduce, which is then sold at the Boulder Farmers Market or via a CSA membershipprogram (or given to those who have donated their land).”Your Backyard Farmer provides “you with an organic vegetable farm right outside your door,customized to your familys size and dining choices. We do the work, you enjoy the healthfulharvest! The farmer comes to you.”Kitchen Gardeners International was founded in Maine but has spread internationally. “Ourmission is to empower individuals, families, and communities to achieve greater levels offood self-reliance through the promotion of kitchen gardening, home-cooking, andsustainable local food systems.” This organization has been influential in the White housegarden initiative. 41
  42. 42. Contact Diana Denwood if you have:1. Questions2. Interest in volunteering at the city’s xeriscape and vegetable garden3. Interest in starting or participating in a community garden 42