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  1. 1. Perception and Individual Decision Making Chapter FIVE
  2. 2. What Is Perception, and Why Is It Important? <ul><li>People’s behavior is based on their perception of what reality is, not on reality itself. </li></ul><ul><li>The world as it is perceived is the world that is behaviorally important. </li></ul>Perception A process by which individuals organize and interpret their sensory impressions in order to give meaning to their environment.
  3. 3. Factors That Influence Perception E X H I B I T 5 –1
  4. 4. Person Perception: Making Judgments About Others Distinctiveness: shows different behaviors in different situations. Consensus: response is the same as others to same situation. Consistency: responds in the same way over time. Attribution Theory When individuals observe behavior, they attempt to determine whether it is internally or externally caused.
  5. 5. Attribution Theory E X H I B I T 5 –2
  6. 6. Errors and Biases in Attributions Fundamental Attribution Error The tendency to underestimate the influence of external factors and overestimate the influence of internal factors when making judgments about the behavior of others. In general, we tend to blame the person first, not the situation.
  7. 7. Errors and Biases in Attributions (cont’d) Self-Serving Bias The tendency for individuals to attribute their own successes to internal factors while putting the blame for failures on external factors. Thought: When student gets an “A” on an exam, they often say they studied hard. But when they don’t do well, how does the self serving bias come into play? Hint: Whose fault is it usually when an exam is “tough”?
  8. 8. Frequently Used Shortcuts in Judging Others Selective Perception People selectively interpret what they see on the basis of their interests, background, experience, and attitudes.
  9. 9. Frequently Used Shortcuts in Judging Others Halo Effect Drawing a general impression about an individual on the basis of a single characteristic Contrast Effects Evaluation of a person’s characteristics that are affected by comparisons with other people recently encountered who rank higher or lower on the same characteristics
  10. 10. Frequently Used Shortcuts in Judging Others Projection Attributing one’s own characteristics to other people. Stereotyping Judging someone on the basis of one’s perception of the group to which that person belongs.
  11. 11. Specific Applications in Organizations <ul><li>Employment Interview </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Perceptual biases of raters affect the accuracy of interviewers’ judgments of applicants. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Performance Expectations </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Self-fulfilling prophecy ( Pygmalion effect ): The lower or higher performance of employees reflects preconceived leader expectations about employee capabilities. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Ethnic Profiling </li></ul><ul><ul><li>A form of stereotyping in which a group of individuals is singled out—typically on the basis of race or ethnicity—for intensive inquiry, scrutinizing, or investigation. </li></ul></ul>
  12. 12. Specific Applications in Organizations (cont’d) <ul><li>Performance Evaluations </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Appraisals are often the subjective (judgmental) perceptions of appraisers of another employee’s job performance. </li></ul></ul>
  13. 13. The Link Between Perceptions and Individual Decision Making Perception of the decision maker Outcomes Problem A perceived discrepancy between the current state of affairs and a desired state. Decisions Choices made from among alternatives developed from data perceived as relevant.
  14. 14. Assumptions of the Rational Decision-Making Model <ul><li>Model Assumptions </li></ul><ul><li>Problem clarity </li></ul><ul><li>Known options </li></ul><ul><li>Clear preferences </li></ul><ul><li>Constant preferences </li></ul><ul><li>No time or cost constraints </li></ul><ul><li>Maximum payoff </li></ul>Rational Decision- Making Model Describes how individuals should behave in order to maximize some outcome.
  15. 15. Steps in the Rational Decision-Making Model <ul><li>Define the problem. </li></ul><ul><li>Identify the decision criteria. </li></ul><ul><li>Allocate weights to the criteria. </li></ul><ul><li>Develop the alternatives. </li></ul><ul><li>Evaluate the alternatives. </li></ul><ul><li>Select the best alternative. </li></ul>E X H I B I T 5 –3
  16. 16. The Three Components of Creativity Creativity The ability to produce novel and useful ideas. Three-Component Model of Creativity Proposition that individual creativity requires expertise, creative-thinking skills, and intrinsic task motivation. E X H I B I T 5 –4 Source: T.M. Amabile, “Motivating Creativity in Organizations,” California Management Review , Fall 1997, p. 43.
  17. 17. How Are Decisions Actually Made in Organizations? Bounded Rationality Individuals make decisions by constructing simplified models that extract the essential features from problems without capturing all their complexity.
  18. 18. How Are Decisions Actually Made in Organizations? (cont’d) <ul><li>How/Why problems are Identified </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Visibility over importance of problem </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Attention-catching, high profile problems </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Desire to “solve problems” </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Self-interest (if problem concerns decision maker) </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Alternative Development </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Satisficing: seeking the first alternative that solves problem. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Engaging in incremental rather than unique problem solving through successive limited comparison of alternatives to the current alternative in effect. </li></ul></ul>
  19. 19. Common Biases and Errors <ul><li>Overconfidence Bias </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Believing too much in our own ability to make good decisions. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Anchoring Bias </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Using early, first received information as the basis for making subsequent judgments. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Confirmation Bias </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Using only the facts that support our decision. </li></ul></ul>
  20. 20. Common Biases and Errors <ul><li>Availability Bias </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Using information that is most readily at hand. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Recent </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Vivid </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>Representative Bias </li></ul><ul><ul><li>“ Mixing apples with oranges” </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Assessing the likelihood of an occurrence by trying to match it with a preexisting category using only the facts that support our decision. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Winner’s Curse </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Highest bidder pays too much </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Likelihood of “winner’s curse” increases with the number of people in auction. </li></ul></ul>
  21. 21. Common Biases and Errors <ul><li>Escalation of Commitment </li></ul><ul><ul><li>In spite of new negative information, commitment actually increases! </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Randomness Error </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Creating meaning out of random events </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Hindsight Bias </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Looking back, once the outcome has occurred, and believing that you accurately predicted the outcome of an event </li></ul></ul>
  22. 22. Intuition <ul><li>Intuitive Decision Making </li></ul><ul><ul><li>An unconscious process created out of distilled experience. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Conditions Favoring Intuitive Decision Making </li></ul><ul><ul><li>A high level of uncertainty exists </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>There is little precedent to draw on </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Variables are less scientifically predictable </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>“Facts” are limited </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Facts don’t clearly point the way </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Analytical data are of little use </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Several plausible alternative solutions exist </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Time is limited and pressing for the right decision </li></ul></ul>
  23. 23. Individual Differences in Decision Making Source: A.J. Rowe and J.D. Boulgarides, Managerial Decision Making , (Upper Saddle River, NJ: Prentice Hall, 1992), p. 29. <ul><li>Personality </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Aspects of conscientiousness and escalation of commitment. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Self Esteem High self serving bias </li></ul><ul><li>Gender </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Women tend to analyze decisions more than men. </li></ul></ul>
  24. 24. Organizational Constraints on Decision Makers <ul><li>Performance Evaluation </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Evaluation criteria influence the choice of actions. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Reward Systems </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Decision makers make action choices that are favored by the organization. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Formal Regulations </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Organizational rules and policies limit the alternative choices of decision makers. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>System-imposed Time Constraints </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Organizations require decisions by specific deadlines. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Historical Precedents </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Past decisions influence current decisions. </li></ul></ul>
  25. 25. Cultural Differences in Decision Making <ul><li>Problems selected </li></ul><ul><li>Time orientation </li></ul><ul><li>Importance of logic and rationality </li></ul><ul><li>Belief in the ability of people to solve problems </li></ul><ul><li>Preference for collective decision making </li></ul>
  26. 26. Ethics in Decision Making <ul><li>Ethical Decision Criteria </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Utilitarianism </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Seeking the greatest good for the greatest number. </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Rights </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Respecting and protecting basic rights of individuals such as whistleblowers. </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Justice </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Imposing and enforcing rules fairly and impartially. </li></ul></ul></ul>
  27. 27. WORKPLACE DEVIANCES Production Deviance Property Deviance Political Deviance Personal Aggression Minor Serious Organizational Interpersonal
  28. 28. Production Deviance <ul><li>Leaving early </li></ul><ul><li>Taking excessive breaks </li></ul><ul><li>Intentionally working slow </li></ul><ul><li>Wasting resources </li></ul>
  29. 29. Property Deviance <ul><li>Sabotaging equipment </li></ul><ul><li>Accepting kickbacks </li></ul><ul><li>Lying about hours worked </li></ul><ul><li>Stealing from company </li></ul>
  30. 30. Political Deviance <ul><li>Showing favoritism </li></ul><ul><li>Gossiping about coworkers </li></ul><ul><li>Blaming coworkers </li></ul><ul><li>Competing nonbeneficially </li></ul>
  31. 31. Personal Aggression <ul><li>Sexual harassment </li></ul><ul><li>Verbal abuse </li></ul><ul><li>Stealing from coworkers </li></ul><ul><li>Endangering coworkers </li></ul>
  32. 32. Principles of Ethical Decision Making Long-term self-interest Personal virtue Religious injunctions Government requirements Utilitarian benefits Individual rights Distributive justice
  33. 33. Principles of Ethical Decision Making Principle of long-term self-interest Never take any action not in your organization’s long-term self-interest.
  34. 34. Principles of Ethical Decision Making Principle of long-term self-interest Never take any action not in your organization’s long-term self-interest.
  35. 35. Principles of Ethical Decision Making <ul><li>Principle of Religious Injunctions </li></ul>Never take any action that is not kind and that does not build a sense of community.
  36. 36. Principles of Ethical Decision Making Principle of Utilitarian Benefit Never take any action that does not result in greater good for society.
  37. 37. Principles of Ethical Decision Making Principle of Individual Rights Never take any action that infringes on others’ agreed-upon rights.
  38. 38. Principles of Ethical Decision Making Principle of Distributive Justice Never take any action that harms the least among us: the poor, the uneducated, the unemployed.
  39. 39. Ethics in Decision Making <ul><li>Ethics and National Culture </li></ul><ul><ul><li>There are no global ethical standards. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>The ethical principles of global organizations that reflect and respect local cultural norms are necessary for high standards and consistent practices. </li></ul></ul>
  40. 40. Ways to Improve Decision Making <ul><li>Analyze the situation and adjust your decision making style to fit the situation. </li></ul><ul><li>Be aware of biases and try to limit their impact. </li></ul><ul><li>Combine rational analysis with intuition to increase decision-making effectiveness. </li></ul><ul><li>Don’t assume that your specific decision style is appropriate to every situation. </li></ul><ul><li>Enhance personal creativity by looking for novel solutions or seeing problems in new ways, and using analogies. </li></ul>
  41. 41. Toward Reducing Bias and Errors <ul><li>Focus on goals. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Clear goals make decision making easier and help to eliminate options inconsistent with your interests. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Look for information that disconfirms beliefs. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Overtly considering ways we could be wrong challenges our tendencies to think we’re smarter than we actually are. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Don’t try to create meaning out of random events. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Don’t attempt to create meaning out of coincidence. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Increase your options. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>The number and diversity of alternatives generated increases the chance of finding an outstanding one. </li></ul></ul>E X H I B I T 5 –5 Source: S.P. Robbins, Decide & Conquer: Making Winning Decisions and Taking Control of Your Life (Upper Saddle River, NJ: Financial Times/Prentice Hall, 2004), pp. 164–68.
  42. 42. <ul><li>It’s your little sister’s senior Prom night, and she notices that everyone is wearing the same dress she has on! Which perceptual shortcut may be occurring? </li></ul><ul><li>Escalation of commitment </li></ul><ul><li>Representative bias </li></ul><ul><li>Availability Bias </li></ul><ul><li>Hindsight Bias </li></ul>Chapter Check-Up: Perception
  43. 43. <ul><li>It’s your little sister’s senior Prom night, and she notices that everyone is wearing the same dress she has on! Which perceptual shortcut may be occurring? </li></ul>Chapter Check-Up: Perception <ul><li>Escalation of commitment </li></ul><ul><li>Representative bias </li></ul><ul><li>Availability Bias </li></ul><ul><li>Hindsight Bias </li></ul>Discuss with your neighbor what the answer would be if your sister came home and said “I just knew that everyone would buy that dress!”
  44. 44. If all of these perceptual shortcuts happen unconsciously, how can we keep the stereotypes we have from interfering with the way we work in group projects? Identify two specific things you could do to help prevent stereotypes from inhibiting effective group relationships. Discuss with a neighbor. Chapter Check-Up: Perception
  45. 45. <ul><li>Michael has just discovered he is double registered for two classes at the same time and must make a decision about which one to take this semester. He considers the professor teaching this semester, the time of the class, and the classes his friends are taking. He then considers his options for when he can take each class again, as well as the costs and benefits for taking each this semester versus later next year. He then makes his decision. Michael has just engaged in what? </li></ul>Chapter Check-Up: Decision Making
  46. 46. In making his decision, Michael forgot to consider the implications of the color of paint in the room where each class was being offered. Given that room color can influence mood, which can influence performance, why didn’t Michael consider it? Chapter Check-Up: Decision Making
  47. 47. Michael engaged in the rational decision making model, and didn’t consider the paint color of the rooms because he operates under the confines of bounded rationality. Chapter Check-Up: Decision Making
  48. 48. Chapter Checkup: What biases might have affected Martha Stewart’s judgment? Discuss with a classmate.