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Bukidnon State University
                      Graduate External Studies
                      Surigao City Study Center




PA 203 – Human Behavior in Organization and
         General Development
Models of Organizational Behavior




        To understand:
             The Elements of        an   Organizational
             Behavior System
             The Role of Management’s Philosophy
             and Paradigms
             Alternative Models of Organizational
             behavior and Their Effects
             Trends in the Use of These Models
Elements Organizational Behavior
Models of of Organizational Behavior System




                                      Management’s
                      Philosophy ● Values ● Vision ● Mission ● Goals

     Formal                                                         Social
                                        Organizational Culture
   Organization                                                   Environment
                                 Leadership ● Communication ●
     Informal                          Group Dynamics
   Organization
                                     Quality of Work Life (QWL)

                                              Motivation

                            Outcomes:
                             • Performance
                             • Employee satisfaction
                             • Personal growth and development
Elements Organizational Behavior
Models of of Organizational Behavior System




          The philosophy (model) of organizational
          behavior held by management consists and
          integrated set of assumptions and beliefs
          about the way things are, the purpose for
          these activities, and the way they should be.
          These philosophies are sometimes explicit,
          and occasionally implicit, in the minds of
          manager.
          Five    major      organizational  behavior
          philosophies includes autocratic, custodial,
          supportive, collegial and system.
Elements Organizational Behavior
Models of of Organizational Behavior System




          We are committed to quality, cost-
          effectiveness, and technical excellence.
          People should treat each other       with
          consideration, trust, and respect.
          Each person is valuable, is unique, and
          makes a contribution.
          All employees should be unfailingly
          committed to excellent performance.
Elements Organizational Behavior
Models of of Organizational Behavior System




      • Teamwork can, and should, produce far more
          that the sum of individual efforts. Team
          members must be reliable and committed to
          the team.
      • Innovation is essential.
      • Open communications are important for
          attaining success.
      • Decision should be reached participatively.
Elements Organizational Behavior
Models of of Organizational Behavior System




             Fact premise are acquired through direct
             and indirect lifelong learning and are very
             useful in guiding our behavior.

             Value premise represent our views of the
             desirability of certain goals and activities.
             Value premises are variable beliefs we hold
             and are therefore under our control.
Elements Organizational Behavior
Models of of Organizational Behavior System




         The rules by which we make decisions
         about right and wrong, should and
         shouldn't, good and bad.
         They also tell us which are more or less
         important, which is useful when we have to
         trade off meeting one value over another.




                                              http://changingminds.org/explanations/values/values_morals_ethics.htm
Elements Organizational Behavior
Models of of Organizational Behavior System




     Values Statement

     We believe in demonstrated competence,
     institutional integrity, personal commitment
     and deep sense of nationalism.
     (TESDA)




                                              http://www.tesda.gov.ph/page.asp?rootID=2&sID=17&pID=10
Elements Organizational Behavior
Models of of Organizational Behavior System




   Our Values
     INTEGRITY: We are morally upright, honest and sincere in
     our private and public lives.
     PROFESSIONALISM: We consistently implement the law,
     provide timely and accurate information to investors, and
     render efficient and competent service to the public.
     ACCOUNTABILITY: We abide by prescribed ethical and work
     standards in government service.
     INDEPENDENCE: We act without fear or favor, and render
     sound judgment in the performance of our duties and
     responsibilities.
     INITIATIVE: We are strategic and forward-looking in the
     fulfillment of our developmental and regulatory functions.
    (Philippine Securities and Exchange Commission)
                                                    http://www.sec.gov.ph/
Elements Organizational Behavior
Models of of Organizational Behavior System




    Value Statements
    The Commission, bound by its advocacy of genuine and ideal
      public service, remains committed in the propagation of the
      highest standards of integrity and organizational efficiency.
    As public servants whose cause is to serve the people …
    We recognize the value of gender-responsiveness on sustaining
      human development.
    We encourage the genesis of new ideas that lead to policies and
      growth-enhancing work environments.
    We espouse the philosophy of genuine selfless public service as
      the true mark of performance and excellence.
    WE OFFER OURSELVES TO THE CAUSE OF SERVING THE
      PEOPLE, THEY DESERVE NO LESS.
    (Philippine Civil Service Commission)
                                              http://www.csc.gov.ph/cscweb/value.html
Elements Organizational Behavior
Models of of Organizational Behavior System




          It represents a challenging portrait of the
          organization and its members can be – a
          possible, and desirable future.
          Leaders need to create exciting projections
          about the organization should go and what
          major changes lie ahead.
          Once the vision is established, persistent
          and enthusiastic communication is required
          to sell it throughout the ranks of employees
          so they will embrace it with commitment.
Elements Organizational Behavior
Models of of Organizational Behavior System




       A premier institution of higher learning in teacher
       education, sciences and humanities.(BSU)
       ABS-CBN      is     the   total  information   and
       entertainment company; a leading player and
       center of creativity in Asia, and a major player in
       the global market. (ABS-CBN)
       To be the Premier Countryside Financial Institution.
       (Green Bank, Inc.)
       TESDA is the leading partner in the development
       of the Filipino workforce with world-class
       competence and positive work values. (TESDA)
Elements Organizational Behavior
Models of of Organizational Behavior System




          Identifies the business it is in, the market
          niches it tries to serve, the types of customer
          it is likely to have, and the reasons for its
          existence.
          It even includes a brief listing of the
          competitive advantages, or strengths, that the
          firm believes it has.
          It is more descriptive and less future-
          oriented than vision.
          Need to be converted to goal to become
          operational and useful.
Elements Organizational Behavior
Models of of Organizational Behavior System




     Mission of TESDA
         TESDA      provides    direction,    policies,
         programs and standards towards quality
         technical education and skill development.

     Mission of BSU
         To develop competitive professionals who
         are committed to build a sustainable life for
         all through quality instruction, research,
         extension and production.
Elements Organizational Behavior
Models of of Organizational Behavior System




   Mission ABS-CBN
         To fulfill our pivotal role in shaping the
         Filipino people's consciousness through
         information and entertainment programs that
         adhere to world class standards.
         To diversify and expand into new business
         ventures which include animation, post-
         production, theater operations, theme parks,
         international movie joint ventures, audio
         production, licensing and merchandising, and
         other information and entertainment-related
Elements Organizational Behavior
Models of of Organizational Behavior System




    Mission of Green Bank, Inc.

         To provide fast customer-driven products
         and services that exceeds client expectation
         efficiently and effectively;

         To care for the highly motivated staff by
         constantly seeking better competencies for
         them through strategic alliances and
         through a competitive compensation and
         benefits package.
Elements Organizational Behavior
Models of of Organizational Behavior System




          Goals are relatively concrete formulations of
          achievements the organization is aiming for
          within set periods of time, such as one to five
          years.
          Goal setting is a complex process, for top
          management’s goals need to be merged with
          those of employees, who bring their
          psychological, social, and economic needs
          with them to an organization.
Elements Organizational Behavior
Models of of Organizational Behavior System




         To establish good business relationships with
         our clients by the end of 2010.
         To keep client complaints down to no more
         than 5 complaints per month.
         To build a professional and effective team that
         will support & deliver Service Level
         Agreements with clients.
         To ensure a 95% uptime service quality level is
         maintained for the computing environment for
         the entire year of 2006, while staying within
         budget.                              MANAGING EMPLOYEE PERFORMANCE
Models of Organizational Behavior




            Theory X                  Theory Y
    • The typical person • Work is natural as play or
      dislikes work and will rest.
      avoid it if possible. • People are not inherently
    • The typical person lazy. They have become
      lacks responsibility, that way as result of
      has little ambition, experience.
      and seeks security • People will exercise self-
      above all.              direction and self-control
                              in    the    service    of
                              objectives to which they
                              are committed.
Models of Organizational Behavior




                 Theory X                   Theory Y

     • Most     people must         • People have potential.
         be          coerced,         Under             proper
         controlled,     and          conditions they learn to
         threaten        with         accept      and     seek
         punishment to get            responsibility.    They
         them to work.                have        imagination,
                                      ingenuity, and creativity
                                      that can be applied to
                                      work.
Models of Organizational Behavior




             Theory X                        Theory Y
     • Managerial                   • Managerial role is to
       role is to                     develop the potential in
       coerce and                     employees      and   help
       control                        them      release     that
       employees.                     potential          toward
                                      common objective.
Models of Organizational Behavior




                Models such as Theory X and Theory Y
                are  also   called   paradigms,     or
                frameworks of possible explanation for
                managers.

                Managers     begin      with    certain
                assumptions about people and leads to
                certain interpretations, implications,
                and even predictions of events.
Models of Organizational Behavior




         They influence managerial perceptions of the
         world around them.
         They define one’s boundaries and proved
         prescriptions for how to behave.
         They encourage resistance to change, since they
         have often worked in the past.
         They may either consciously or unconsciously
         affects ones behavior.
         When new paradigms appear, they provide
         alternative ways of viewing the world and solving
         problems.                              By: Joel Barker
Models of Organizational Behavior




                         1. Autocratic

                         2. Custodial

                         3. Supportive

                         4. Collegial

                         5. System
Models of Organizational Behavior




                   Autocratic        Custodial    Supportive    Collegial      System
                                                                             Trust,
Basis of                            Economic
                  Power                           Leadership   Partnership   community,
model                               resources
                                                                             meaning
Managerial                                                                   Caring,
                  Authority         Money         Support      Teamwork
orientation                                                                  compassion
Employee                  Security and Job                     Responsible Psychological
                  Obedience
orientation               benefits     performance             behavior    ownership
Employee                  Dependence
              Dependence                                       Self-         Self-
psychological             on           Participation
              on boss                                          discipline    motivation
result                    organization
Employee                               Status and              Self-
              Subsistence Security                                           Wide range
needs met                              recognition             actualization
                                                                             Passion and
                                                                             commitment
Performance                         Passive       Awakened     Moderate
            Minimum                                                          to
result                              cooperation   drives       enthusiasm
                                                                             organizational
                                                                             goals
Models of Organizational Behavior




         The basis of this model
         is   power     with   a
         managerial orientation
         of authority.

         Those who are in
         command must have
         the power to demand
         “you do this – or else”

                                    http://www.nwlink.com/~donclark/leader/leadob.html
Models of Organizational Behavior




         The employees in turn are
         oriented towards obedience and
         dependence on the boss.

         The employee need that is met
         is subsistence.

         The performance            result             is
         minimal.
                                       http://www.nwlink.com/~donclark/leader/leadob.html
Models of Organizational Behavior




          Its principal weakness is its high human cost
          especially as caused by micromanagement.

          Micromanagement – a natural pattern of
          autocratic managers – is the immersion of a
          manager into controlling the details of daily
          operations.
          Employees typically detest a micromanager,
          with the result being low morale, paralyzed
          decision making due to fear of being
          second-guessed and high turn-over.
Models of Organizational Behavior




    Useful:

         Acceptable approach to guide managerial
         behavior when there were no well-known
         alternatives.

         Useful under some extreme conditions
         such as organizational crises.
Models of Organizational Behavior




        The basis of this model is economic
        resources with a managerial orientation of
        money.

         The employees in
         turn are oriented
         towards    security
         and benefits and
         dependence on the
         organization.
                                    http://www.nwlink.com/~donclark/leader/leadob.html
Models of Organizational Behavior




            The employee need that is
            met is security.
            Employee     feel   with
            reasonable contentment.
            Most employees are not
            producing anywhere near
            their capacities.
            The performance result
            is passive cooperation.
                                    http://www.nwlink.com/~donclark/leader/leadob.html
Models of Organizational Behavior




         The basis of
         this model is
         leadership with
         a    managerial
         orientation  of
         support.

         The employees in turn are oriented
         towards      job performance   and
         participation.
                                    http://www.nwlink.com/~donclark/leader/leadob.html
Models of Organizational Behavior




          Psychological result is a feeling of
          participation and task involvement in the
          organization.

          Employees may say “we” instead of
          “they”

          Employees    are    strongly motivated
          because their status and recognition
          needs are better met, thus they have
          awakened drive for work.
                                    http://www.nwlink.com/~donclark/leader/leadob.html
Models of Organizational Behavior




          The basis of this model is partnership
          with  a   managerial   orientation  of
          teamwork.
          The result is that the employees feel
          needed and useful.




    http://www.nwlink.com/~donclark/leader/leadob.html
Models of Organizational Behavior




            The employees in turn
            are oriented towards
            responsible behavior
            and self-discipline.

            The employee need
            that is met is self-
            actualization.

    http://www.nwlink.com/~donclark/leader/leadob.html
Models of Organizational Behavior




          Employees       normally feel
          some degree of fulfillment,
          worthwhile contribution, and
          self-actualization.

          This self-actualization will
          lead to moderate enthusiasm
          in performance.


    http://www.nwlink.com/~donclark/leader/leadob.html
Models of Organizational Behavior




        Employees want a work context that is
        ethical, infused with integrity and trust and
        provide an opportunity to experience a
        growing sense of community among co-
        workers.

        There is spirituality at work - the desire for
        employees to know their deepest selves
        better, to grow personally, to make a
        meaningful contribution to society, and to
        demonstrate integrity in every action taken.
Models of Organizational Behavior




        Managers must increasingly demonstrate a
        sense of caring and compassion, being
        sensitive to the needs of the diverse
        workforce.

        This model reflects the values underlying
        positive organizational behavior, where
        managers focus their attention on helping
        employees develop feelings of hope,
        optimism,      self-confidence,  empathy,
        trustworthiness, esteem, courage, and
        resiliency.
Models of Organizational Behavior




         Managers at all levels needs to display two
         key ingredients:

            1. Authenticity – the demonstrated ability
               to open themselves up to others by
               being transparent, while “walking the
               talk” of the underlying values.

            2. Social intelligence.
                      intelligence
Models of Organizational Behavior




       Five Dimensions of Social Intelligence
       1. Empathy        –    appreciation    for    and
          connectedness with others.
       2. Presence – projecting self-worth in one’s
          bearing.
       3. Situational radar – ability to read social
          situations and respond appropriately.
       4. Clarity – using language effectively to explain
          and persuade.
       5. Authenticity- being “real” and transparent,
          while projecting honesty.
                                                 Karl Albrecht
Models of Organizational Behavior




        Managers try to convey to each workers,

                   “You are an important part of our
                    whole system. We sincerely care
                    about each of you. We want to join
                    together to achieve a better product
                    or service, local community, and
                    society at large. We will make every
                    effort to make products that are
                    environmentally friendly”.
Models of Organizational Behavior




    Facilitators Roles for          Managers   in   the
    System Model of OB
      • Support employee commitment to short-
        and long-term goals.
      • Coach individuals and groups in
        appropriate skills and behaviors.
      • Model and foster self-esteem.
      • Show genuine concern and empathy for
        people.
      • Offer timely and acceptable feedback.
Models of Organizational Behavior




    Facilitators Roles for Managers in the
    System Model of OB (continue)
     • Influence people to learn continuously
       and share that learning with others.
     • Help individuals identify and confront
       issues in ethical ways.
     • Stimulate insights through interviews,
       questions, and suggestions.
     • Encourage people to feel comfortable
       with change and uncertainty.
     • Build cohesive, productive work teams
Models of Organizational Behavior




          Employees embrace the
          goal    of    organizational
          effectiveness           and
          recognize the mutuality of
          company-employee
          obligation.
          It creates a sense of
          psychological ownership
          for the organization and its
          product services.
Models of Organizational Behavior




                             Employees go beyond the self-
                             discipline and reach a state of
                             self-motivation.
              The highest-order needs
              (e.g.    social,      status,
              esteem, autonomy, and
              self-actualization) are met.
              Engender        employees’
              passion and commitment
              to organizational goals.
Models of Organizational Behavior




                 Evolving Usage

                 Relation of Models to Human
                 Needs

                 Increasing Use of Some Models

                 Contingent Use of All Models

                 Managerial Flexibility
Models of Organizational Behavior




           Evolving Usage

         Manager/Organization use      the   models
         tends to evolve over time.

         There is no one permanently “best’ model.

         Primary challenge to management is to
         identify the model it is actually using and
         then assess its current effectiveness.
Models of Organizational Behavior




            Relation of Models to Human Needs

                The five models are closely related to
                human needs.

                Each model is build upon          the
                accomplishments of the other.
Models of Organizational Behavior




              Increasing Use of Some Models

             The trend toward the supportive,
             collegial and system models will
             probably continue.

             Only these newer models can offer the
             satisfaction of the employees needs for
             esteem,      autonomy      and    self-
             actualization.
Models of Organizational Behavior




              Contingent Use of All Models

            Though one model may be most used at
            any given time, some appropriate uses
            will remain for other models.

            The five models will continue to be
            used, but the more advanced models
            will have growing use as progress is
            made and employee expectations rise.
Models of Organizational Behavior




             Managerial Flexibility

            Managers need to identify their current
            behavioral model and must keep it
            flexible and current.

            Managers need to read, to reflect, to
            interact with others, and to be receptive
            to challenges to their thinking from their
            colleagues and employees.
Models of Organizational Behavior




       Score between 81 – 100 points, you appear to have a
       solid capability for demonstrating facilitative skills.
       Score between 60 – 80 points, you should take a close
       look at the items with lower self-assessment scores
       and explore ways to improve those items.
       Score under 60 points, you should be aware that a
       weaker skill level regarding several items could be
       detrimental to your future success as a manager.
Models of Organizational Behavior

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Models Of Organizational Behavior

  • 1. Bukidnon State University Graduate External Studies Surigao City Study Center PA 203 – Human Behavior in Organization and General Development
  • 2. Models of Organizational Behavior To understand: The Elements of an Organizational Behavior System The Role of Management’s Philosophy and Paradigms Alternative Models of Organizational behavior and Their Effects Trends in the Use of These Models
  • 3. Elements Organizational Behavior Models of of Organizational Behavior System Management’s Philosophy ● Values ● Vision ● Mission ● Goals Formal Social Organizational Culture Organization Environment Leadership ● Communication ● Informal Group Dynamics Organization Quality of Work Life (QWL) Motivation Outcomes: • Performance • Employee satisfaction • Personal growth and development
  • 4. Elements Organizational Behavior Models of of Organizational Behavior System The philosophy (model) of organizational behavior held by management consists and integrated set of assumptions and beliefs about the way things are, the purpose for these activities, and the way they should be. These philosophies are sometimes explicit, and occasionally implicit, in the minds of manager. Five major organizational behavior philosophies includes autocratic, custodial, supportive, collegial and system.
  • 5. Elements Organizational Behavior Models of of Organizational Behavior System We are committed to quality, cost- effectiveness, and technical excellence. People should treat each other with consideration, trust, and respect. Each person is valuable, is unique, and makes a contribution. All employees should be unfailingly committed to excellent performance.
  • 6. Elements Organizational Behavior Models of of Organizational Behavior System • Teamwork can, and should, produce far more that the sum of individual efforts. Team members must be reliable and committed to the team. • Innovation is essential. • Open communications are important for attaining success. • Decision should be reached participatively.
  • 7. Elements Organizational Behavior Models of of Organizational Behavior System Fact premise are acquired through direct and indirect lifelong learning and are very useful in guiding our behavior. Value premise represent our views of the desirability of certain goals and activities. Value premises are variable beliefs we hold and are therefore under our control.
  • 8. Elements Organizational Behavior Models of of Organizational Behavior System The rules by which we make decisions about right and wrong, should and shouldn't, good and bad. They also tell us which are more or less important, which is useful when we have to trade off meeting one value over another. http://changingminds.org/explanations/values/values_morals_ethics.htm
  • 9. Elements Organizational Behavior Models of of Organizational Behavior System Values Statement We believe in demonstrated competence, institutional integrity, personal commitment and deep sense of nationalism. (TESDA) http://www.tesda.gov.ph/page.asp?rootID=2&sID=17&pID=10
  • 10. Elements Organizational Behavior Models of of Organizational Behavior System Our Values INTEGRITY: We are morally upright, honest and sincere in our private and public lives. PROFESSIONALISM: We consistently implement the law, provide timely and accurate information to investors, and render efficient and competent service to the public. ACCOUNTABILITY: We abide by prescribed ethical and work standards in government service. INDEPENDENCE: We act without fear or favor, and render sound judgment in the performance of our duties and responsibilities. INITIATIVE: We are strategic and forward-looking in the fulfillment of our developmental and regulatory functions. (Philippine Securities and Exchange Commission) http://www.sec.gov.ph/
  • 11. Elements Organizational Behavior Models of of Organizational Behavior System Value Statements The Commission, bound by its advocacy of genuine and ideal public service, remains committed in the propagation of the highest standards of integrity and organizational efficiency. As public servants whose cause is to serve the people … We recognize the value of gender-responsiveness on sustaining human development. We encourage the genesis of new ideas that lead to policies and growth-enhancing work environments. We espouse the philosophy of genuine selfless public service as the true mark of performance and excellence. WE OFFER OURSELVES TO THE CAUSE OF SERVING THE PEOPLE, THEY DESERVE NO LESS. (Philippine Civil Service Commission) http://www.csc.gov.ph/cscweb/value.html
  • 12. Elements Organizational Behavior Models of of Organizational Behavior System It represents a challenging portrait of the organization and its members can be – a possible, and desirable future. Leaders need to create exciting projections about the organization should go and what major changes lie ahead. Once the vision is established, persistent and enthusiastic communication is required to sell it throughout the ranks of employees so they will embrace it with commitment.
  • 13. Elements Organizational Behavior Models of of Organizational Behavior System A premier institution of higher learning in teacher education, sciences and humanities.(BSU) ABS-CBN is the total information and entertainment company; a leading player and center of creativity in Asia, and a major player in the global market. (ABS-CBN) To be the Premier Countryside Financial Institution. (Green Bank, Inc.) TESDA is the leading partner in the development of the Filipino workforce with world-class competence and positive work values. (TESDA)
  • 14. Elements Organizational Behavior Models of of Organizational Behavior System Identifies the business it is in, the market niches it tries to serve, the types of customer it is likely to have, and the reasons for its existence. It even includes a brief listing of the competitive advantages, or strengths, that the firm believes it has. It is more descriptive and less future- oriented than vision. Need to be converted to goal to become operational and useful.
  • 15. Elements Organizational Behavior Models of of Organizational Behavior System Mission of TESDA TESDA provides direction, policies, programs and standards towards quality technical education and skill development. Mission of BSU To develop competitive professionals who are committed to build a sustainable life for all through quality instruction, research, extension and production.
  • 16. Elements Organizational Behavior Models of of Organizational Behavior System Mission ABS-CBN To fulfill our pivotal role in shaping the Filipino people's consciousness through information and entertainment programs that adhere to world class standards. To diversify and expand into new business ventures which include animation, post- production, theater operations, theme parks, international movie joint ventures, audio production, licensing and merchandising, and other information and entertainment-related
  • 17. Elements Organizational Behavior Models of of Organizational Behavior System Mission of Green Bank, Inc. To provide fast customer-driven products and services that exceeds client expectation efficiently and effectively; To care for the highly motivated staff by constantly seeking better competencies for them through strategic alliances and through a competitive compensation and benefits package.
  • 18. Elements Organizational Behavior Models of of Organizational Behavior System Goals are relatively concrete formulations of achievements the organization is aiming for within set periods of time, such as one to five years. Goal setting is a complex process, for top management’s goals need to be merged with those of employees, who bring their psychological, social, and economic needs with them to an organization.
  • 19. Elements Organizational Behavior Models of of Organizational Behavior System To establish good business relationships with our clients by the end of 2010. To keep client complaints down to no more than 5 complaints per month. To build a professional and effective team that will support & deliver Service Level Agreements with clients. To ensure a 95% uptime service quality level is maintained for the computing environment for the entire year of 2006, while staying within budget. MANAGING EMPLOYEE PERFORMANCE
  • 20. Models of Organizational Behavior Theory X Theory Y • The typical person • Work is natural as play or dislikes work and will rest. avoid it if possible. • People are not inherently • The typical person lazy. They have become lacks responsibility, that way as result of has little ambition, experience. and seeks security • People will exercise self- above all. direction and self-control in the service of objectives to which they are committed.
  • 21. Models of Organizational Behavior Theory X Theory Y • Most people must • People have potential. be coerced, Under proper controlled, and conditions they learn to threaten with accept and seek punishment to get responsibility. They them to work. have imagination, ingenuity, and creativity that can be applied to work.
  • 22. Models of Organizational Behavior Theory X Theory Y • Managerial • Managerial role is to role is to develop the potential in coerce and employees and help control them release that employees. potential toward common objective.
  • 23. Models of Organizational Behavior Models such as Theory X and Theory Y are also called paradigms, or frameworks of possible explanation for managers. Managers begin with certain assumptions about people and leads to certain interpretations, implications, and even predictions of events.
  • 24. Models of Organizational Behavior They influence managerial perceptions of the world around them. They define one’s boundaries and proved prescriptions for how to behave. They encourage resistance to change, since they have often worked in the past. They may either consciously or unconsciously affects ones behavior. When new paradigms appear, they provide alternative ways of viewing the world and solving problems. By: Joel Barker
  • 25. Models of Organizational Behavior 1. Autocratic 2. Custodial 3. Supportive 4. Collegial 5. System
  • 26. Models of Organizational Behavior Autocratic Custodial Supportive Collegial System Trust, Basis of Economic Power Leadership Partnership community, model resources meaning Managerial Caring, Authority Money Support Teamwork orientation compassion Employee Security and Job Responsible Psychological Obedience orientation benefits performance behavior ownership Employee Dependence Dependence Self- Self- psychological on Participation on boss discipline motivation result organization Employee Status and Self- Subsistence Security Wide range needs met recognition actualization Passion and commitment Performance Passive Awakened Moderate Minimum to result cooperation drives enthusiasm organizational goals
  • 27. Models of Organizational Behavior The basis of this model is power with a managerial orientation of authority. Those who are in command must have the power to demand “you do this – or else” http://www.nwlink.com/~donclark/leader/leadob.html
  • 28. Models of Organizational Behavior The employees in turn are oriented towards obedience and dependence on the boss. The employee need that is met is subsistence. The performance result is minimal. http://www.nwlink.com/~donclark/leader/leadob.html
  • 29. Models of Organizational Behavior Its principal weakness is its high human cost especially as caused by micromanagement. Micromanagement – a natural pattern of autocratic managers – is the immersion of a manager into controlling the details of daily operations. Employees typically detest a micromanager, with the result being low morale, paralyzed decision making due to fear of being second-guessed and high turn-over.
  • 30. Models of Organizational Behavior Useful: Acceptable approach to guide managerial behavior when there were no well-known alternatives. Useful under some extreme conditions such as organizational crises.
  • 31. Models of Organizational Behavior The basis of this model is economic resources with a managerial orientation of money. The employees in turn are oriented towards security and benefits and dependence on the organization. http://www.nwlink.com/~donclark/leader/leadob.html
  • 32. Models of Organizational Behavior The employee need that is met is security. Employee feel with reasonable contentment. Most employees are not producing anywhere near their capacities. The performance result is passive cooperation. http://www.nwlink.com/~donclark/leader/leadob.html
  • 33. Models of Organizational Behavior The basis of this model is leadership with a managerial orientation of support. The employees in turn are oriented towards job performance and participation. http://www.nwlink.com/~donclark/leader/leadob.html
  • 34. Models of Organizational Behavior Psychological result is a feeling of participation and task involvement in the organization. Employees may say “we” instead of “they” Employees are strongly motivated because their status and recognition needs are better met, thus they have awakened drive for work. http://www.nwlink.com/~donclark/leader/leadob.html
  • 35. Models of Organizational Behavior The basis of this model is partnership with a managerial orientation of teamwork. The result is that the employees feel needed and useful. http://www.nwlink.com/~donclark/leader/leadob.html
  • 36. Models of Organizational Behavior The employees in turn are oriented towards responsible behavior and self-discipline. The employee need that is met is self- actualization. http://www.nwlink.com/~donclark/leader/leadob.html
  • 37. Models of Organizational Behavior Employees normally feel some degree of fulfillment, worthwhile contribution, and self-actualization. This self-actualization will lead to moderate enthusiasm in performance. http://www.nwlink.com/~donclark/leader/leadob.html
  • 38. Models of Organizational Behavior Employees want a work context that is ethical, infused with integrity and trust and provide an opportunity to experience a growing sense of community among co- workers. There is spirituality at work - the desire for employees to know their deepest selves better, to grow personally, to make a meaningful contribution to society, and to demonstrate integrity in every action taken.
  • 39. Models of Organizational Behavior Managers must increasingly demonstrate a sense of caring and compassion, being sensitive to the needs of the diverse workforce. This model reflects the values underlying positive organizational behavior, where managers focus their attention on helping employees develop feelings of hope, optimism, self-confidence, empathy, trustworthiness, esteem, courage, and resiliency.
  • 40. Models of Organizational Behavior Managers at all levels needs to display two key ingredients: 1. Authenticity – the demonstrated ability to open themselves up to others by being transparent, while “walking the talk” of the underlying values. 2. Social intelligence. intelligence
  • 41. Models of Organizational Behavior Five Dimensions of Social Intelligence 1. Empathy – appreciation for and connectedness with others. 2. Presence – projecting self-worth in one’s bearing. 3. Situational radar – ability to read social situations and respond appropriately. 4. Clarity – using language effectively to explain and persuade. 5. Authenticity- being “real” and transparent, while projecting honesty. Karl Albrecht
  • 42. Models of Organizational Behavior Managers try to convey to each workers, “You are an important part of our whole system. We sincerely care about each of you. We want to join together to achieve a better product or service, local community, and society at large. We will make every effort to make products that are environmentally friendly”.
  • 43. Models of Organizational Behavior Facilitators Roles for Managers in the System Model of OB • Support employee commitment to short- and long-term goals. • Coach individuals and groups in appropriate skills and behaviors. • Model and foster self-esteem. • Show genuine concern and empathy for people. • Offer timely and acceptable feedback.
  • 44. Models of Organizational Behavior Facilitators Roles for Managers in the System Model of OB (continue) • Influence people to learn continuously and share that learning with others. • Help individuals identify and confront issues in ethical ways. • Stimulate insights through interviews, questions, and suggestions. • Encourage people to feel comfortable with change and uncertainty. • Build cohesive, productive work teams
  • 45. Models of Organizational Behavior Employees embrace the goal of organizational effectiveness and recognize the mutuality of company-employee obligation. It creates a sense of psychological ownership for the organization and its product services.
  • 46. Models of Organizational Behavior Employees go beyond the self- discipline and reach a state of self-motivation. The highest-order needs (e.g. social, status, esteem, autonomy, and self-actualization) are met. Engender employees’ passion and commitment to organizational goals.
  • 47. Models of Organizational Behavior Evolving Usage Relation of Models to Human Needs Increasing Use of Some Models Contingent Use of All Models Managerial Flexibility
  • 48. Models of Organizational Behavior Evolving Usage Manager/Organization use the models tends to evolve over time. There is no one permanently “best’ model. Primary challenge to management is to identify the model it is actually using and then assess its current effectiveness.
  • 49. Models of Organizational Behavior Relation of Models to Human Needs The five models are closely related to human needs. Each model is build upon the accomplishments of the other.
  • 50. Models of Organizational Behavior Increasing Use of Some Models The trend toward the supportive, collegial and system models will probably continue. Only these newer models can offer the satisfaction of the employees needs for esteem, autonomy and self- actualization.
  • 51. Models of Organizational Behavior Contingent Use of All Models Though one model may be most used at any given time, some appropriate uses will remain for other models. The five models will continue to be used, but the more advanced models will have growing use as progress is made and employee expectations rise.
  • 52. Models of Organizational Behavior Managerial Flexibility Managers need to identify their current behavioral model and must keep it flexible and current. Managers need to read, to reflect, to interact with others, and to be receptive to challenges to their thinking from their colleagues and employees.
  • 53. Models of Organizational Behavior Score between 81 – 100 points, you appear to have a solid capability for demonstrating facilitative skills. Score between 60 – 80 points, you should take a close look at the items with lower self-assessment scores and explore ways to improve those items. Score under 60 points, you should be aware that a weaker skill level regarding several items could be detrimental to your future success as a manager.