Introduction of Organizational Behavior

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Introduction of Organizational Behavior

  1. 1. Chapter 1 What Is Organizational Behaviour?Chapter 1, Nancy Langton and Stephen P. Robbins, Fundamentals of Organizational Behaviour, Third Canadian Edition 1-1Copyright © 2007 Pearson Education Canada
  2. 2. Chapter 1 Outline • Defining Organizational Behaviour • OB: Making Sense of Behaviour in Organizations • How Will Knowing OB Make a Difference? • Today’s Challenges in the Canadian WorkplaceChapter 1, Nancy Langton and Stephen P. Robbins, Fundamentals of Organizational Behaviour, Third Canadian Edition 1-2Copyright © 2007 Pearson Education Canada
  3. 3. What Is Organizational Behaviour? 1. What is organizational behaviour? 2. Isn’t organizational behaviour common sense? Or just like psychology? 3. How does knowing about organizational behaviour make work and life more understandable? 4. What challenges do managers and employees face in the workplace of the twenty-first century?Chapter 1, Nancy Langton and Stephen P. Robbins, Fundamentals of Organizational Behaviour, Third Canadian Edition 1-3Copyright © 2007 Pearson Education Canada
  4. 4. Organizational Behaviour • A field of study that investigates the impact of individuals, groups, and structure on behaviour within organizations; the aim is to apply such knowledge toward improving organizational effectiveness.Chapter 1, Nancy Langton and Stephen P. Robbins, Fundamentals of Organizational Behaviour, Third Canadian Edition 1-4Copyright © 2007 Pearson Education Canada
  5. 5. Why Do We Study OB? • To learn about yourself and others • To understand how the many organizations you encounter work. • To become familiar with team work • To help you think about the people issues faced by managers and entrepreneursChapter 1, Nancy Langton and Stephen P. Robbins, Fundamentals of Organizational Behaviour, Third Canadian Edition 1-5Copyright © 2007 Pearson Education Canada
  6. 6. What Is an Organization? • A consciously coordinated social unit: – composed of a group of people – functioning on a relatively continuous basis – to achieve a common goal or set of goals.Chapter 1, Nancy Langton and Stephen P. Robbins, Fundamentals of Organizational Behaviour, Third Canadian Edition 1-6Copyright © 2007 Pearson Education Canada
  7. 7. The Building Blocks of OB • Psychology • Sociology • Social Psychology • Anthropology • Political ScienceChapter 1, Nancy Langton and Stephen P. Robbins, Fundamentals of Organizational Behaviour, Third Canadian Edition 1-7Copyright © 2007 Pearson Education Canada
  8. 8. Exhibit 1-1 Toward an OB DisciplineChapter 1, Nancy Langton and Stephen P. Robbins, Fundamentals of Organizational Behaviour, Third Canadian Edition 1-8Copyright © 2007 Pearson Education Canada
  9. 9. The Rigour of OB • OB Looks at Consistencies – What is common about behaviour, and helps predictability? • OB Looks Beyond Common Sense – Systematic study, based on scientific evidence • OB Has Few Absolutes • OB Takes a Contingency Approach – Considers behaviour in contextChapter 1, Nancy Langton and Stephen P. Robbins, Fundamentals of Organizational Behaviour, Third Canadian Edition 1-9Copyright © 2007 Pearson Education Canada
  10. 10. Exhibit 1-2 Research Methods in OB Source: J. R. Schermerhorn, J.G. Hunt, and R. N. Osborn, Organizational Behaviour, 9th Edition, 2005, p. 4. Copyright © 2005 John Wiley & Sons, Inc. Reprinted with the permission of John Wiley & Sons, Inc.Chapter 1, Nancy Langton and Stephen P. Robbins, Fundamentals of Organizational Behaviour, Third Canadian Edition 1-10Copyright © 2007 Pearson Education Canada
  11. 11. How Will Knowing OB Make a Difference? • For Managers – Knowing organizational behaviour can help you manage well and makes for better corporations. – Managing people well leads to greater organizational commitment. – Finally, managing well may improve organizational citizenship.Chapter 1, Nancy Langton and Stephen P. Robbins, Fundamentals of Organizational Behaviour, Third Canadian Edition 1-11Copyright © 2007 Pearson Education Canada
  12. 12. How Will Knowing OB Make a Difference? • For Individuals – What if I’m not going to work in a large organization? • The theories generally apply to organizations of any size. – What if I don’t want to be a manager? • To some extent, the roles of managers and employees are becoming blurred in many organizations. • While self-employed individuals often do not act as managers, they certainly interact with other individuals and organizations as part of their work.Chapter 1, Nancy Langton and Stephen P. Robbins, Fundamentals of Organizational Behaviour, Third Canadian Edition 1-12Copyright © 2007 Pearson Education Canada
  13. 13. Bottom Line: OB Is For Everyone • Organizational behaviour is not just for managers. – The roles of managers and employees are becoming blurred in many organizations. – Managers are increasingly asking employees to share in their decision-making processes rather than simply follow orders. • OB applies equally well to all situations in which you interact with others: on the basketball court, at the grocery store, in school, or in church.Chapter 1, Nancy Langton and Stephen P. Robbins, Fundamentals of Organizational Behaviour, Third Canadian Edition 1-13Copyright © 2007 Pearson Education Canada
  14. 14. Exhibit 1-4 Basic OB Model Organization systems level Group level Individual levelChapter 1, Nancy Langton and Stephen P. Robbins, Fundamentals of Organizational Behaviour, Third Canadian Edition 1-14Copyright © 2007 Pearson Education Canada
  15. 15. Today’s Challenges in the Canadian Workplace • Challenges at the Individual Level – Individual Differences – Job Satisfaction – Motivation – Empowerment – Behaving EthicallyChapter 1, Nancy Langton and Stephen P. Robbins, Fundamentals of Organizational Behaviour, Third Canadian Edition 1-15Copyright © 2007 Pearson Education Canada
  16. 16. Today’s Challenges in the Canadian Workplace • Challenges at the Group Level – Working With Others – Workforce DiversityChapter 1, Nancy Langton and Stephen P. Robbins, Fundamentals of Organizational Behaviour, Third Canadian Edition 1-16Copyright © 2007 Pearson Education Canada
  17. 17. Today’s Challenges in the Canadian Workplace • Challenges at the Organizational Level – Productivity – Developing Effective Employees – Putting People First – Global Competition – Managing and Working in a Multicultural WorldChapter 1, Nancy Langton and Stephen P. Robbins, Fundamentals of Organizational Behaviour, Third Canadian Edition 1-17Copyright © 2007 Pearson Education Canada
  18. 18. Today’s Challenges in the Canadian Workplace • Challenges at the Organizational Level – Productivity • A performance measure including effectiveness and efficiency. – Effectiveness • The achievement of goals. – Efficiency • The ratio of effective work output to the input required to produce the work.Chapter 1, Nancy Langton and Stephen P. Robbins, Fundamentals of Organizational Behaviour, Third Canadian Edition 1-18Copyright © 2007 Pearson Education Canada
  19. 19. Developing Effective Employees Organizational Citizenship Behaviour (OCB) – Discretionary behaviour that is not part of an employee’s formal job requirements, but that nevertheless promotes the effective functioning of the organization.Chapter 1, Nancy Langton and Stephen P. Robbins, Fundamentals of Organizational Behaviour, Third Canadian Edition 1-19Copyright © 2007 Pearson Education Canada
  20. 20. Putting People First • Putting people first generates a committed workforce and positively affects the bottom line. • People will work harder when they feel they have ―more control and say in their work.‖Chapter 1, Nancy Langton and Stephen P. Robbins, Fundamentals of Organizational Behaviour, Third Canadian Edition 1-20Copyright © 2007 Pearson Education Canada
  21. 21. How to Put People First • Provide employment security. • Hire well. • Create self-managed teams. • Pay well. • Provide extensive training. • Reduce status differences. • Share information about organizational performance.Chapter 1, Nancy Langton and Stephen P. Robbins, Fundamentals of Organizational Behaviour, Third Canadian Edition 1-21Copyright © 2007 Pearson Education Canada
  22. 22. Global Competition • In recent years, Canadian businesses have faced tough competition from the United States, Europe, Japan, and even China, as well as from other companies within our borders. • To survive, they have had to reduce costs, increase productivity, and improve quality.Chapter 1, Nancy Langton and Stephen P. Robbins, Fundamentals of Organizational Behaviour, Third Canadian Edition 1-22Copyright © 2007 Pearson Education Canada
  23. 23. Managing and Working in a Multicultural World • Managers and employees must become capable of working with people from different cultures: – Multinational corporations are developing operations worldwide. – Companies are developing joint ventures with foreign partners. – Workers are pursuing job opportunities across national borders.Chapter 1, Nancy Langton and Stephen P. Robbins, Fundamentals of Organizational Behaviour, Third Canadian Edition 1-23Copyright © 2007 Pearson Education Canada
  24. 24. Summary and Implications 1. What is organizational behaviour? – OB is a field of study that investigates the impact that individuals, groups, and structure have on behaviour within an organization. 2. Isn’t organizational behaviour common sense? Or just like psychology? – OB is built on contributions from a number of behavioural disciplines, including psychology, sociology, social psychology, anthropology, and political science. It goes beyond ―common sense.‖Chapter 1, Nancy Langton and Stephen P. Robbins, Fundamentals of Organizational Behaviour, Third Canadian Edition 1-24Copyright © 2007 Pearson Education Canada
  25. 25. Summary and Implications 3. How does knowing about organizational behaviour make work and life more understandable? – OB helps people manage well, and managing well can lead to greater organizational commitment by employees. 4. What challenges do managers and employees face in today’s workplace? – Each level of analysis—the individual, the group, and the organization—presents challenges.Chapter 1, Nancy Langton and Stephen P. Robbins, Fundamentals of Organizational Behaviour, Third Canadian Edition 1-25Copyright © 2007 Pearson Education Canada
  26. 26. OB at WorkChapter 1, Nancy Langton and Stephen P. Robbins, Fundamentals of Organizational Behaviour, Third Canadian Edition 1-26Copyright © 2007 Pearson Education Canada
  27. 27. For Review 1. Define organizational behaviour. 2. What is an organization? Is the family unit an organization? Explain. 3. ―Behaviour is generally predictable, so there is no need to formally study OB.‖ Do you agree or disagree with this statement? Why? 4. What does it mean to say that OB takes a contingency approach in its analysis of behaviour? 5. What are the three levels of analysis in our OB model? Are they related? If so, how? 6. What are some of the challenges and opportunities that managers face in today’s workplace? 7. Why is job satisfaction an important consideration for OB? 8. What are effectiveness and efficiency, and how are they related to OB?Chapter 1, Nancy Langton and Stephen P. Robbins, Fundamentals of Organizational Behaviour, Third Canadian Edition 1-27Copyright © 2007 Pearson Education Canada
  28. 28. For Critical Thinking 1. ―OB is for everyone.‖ Build an argument to support this statement. 2. Why do you think the subject of OB might be criticized as being ―only common sense,‖ when we would rarely hear such a criticism of a course in physics or statistics? Do you think this criticism of OB is fair? 3. On a scale of 1 to 10 measuring the sophistication of a scientific discipline in predicting phenomena, mathematical physics would probably be a 10. Where do you think OB would fall on the scale? Why? 4. Can empowerment lead to greater job satisfaction?Chapter 1, Nancy Langton and Stephen P. Robbins, Fundamentals of Organizational Behaviour, Third Canadian Edition 1-28Copyright © 2007 Pearson Education Canada
  29. 29. Learning About Yourself Exercise 1. Taking initiative 13. Understanding yourself and others 2. Goal setting 14. Interpersonal communication 3. Delegating effectively 15. Developing subordinates 4. Personal productivity and 16. Team building motivation 17. Participative decision making 5. Motivating others 18. Conflict management 6. Time and stress management 19. Living with change 7. Planning 20. Creative thinking 8. Organizing 21. Managing change 9. Controlling 22. Building and maintaining a power 10. Receiving and organizing base information 23. Negotiating agreement and 11. Evaluating routine information commitment 12. Responding to routine information 24. Negotiating and selling ideasChapter 1, Nancy Langton and Stephen P. Robbins, Fundamentals of Organizational Behaviour, Third Canadian Edition 1-29Copyright © 2007 Pearson Education Canada
  30. 30. Learning About Yourself Scoring Key • Director: 1, 2, 3 Mentor: 13, 14, 15 • Producer: 4, 5, 6 Facilitator: 16, 17, 18 • Coordinator: 7, 8, 9 Innovator: 19, 20, 21 • Monitor: 10, 11, 12 Broker: 22, 23, 24 Source: Created based on material from R. E. Quinn, S. R. Faerman, M. P. Thompson, and M. R. McGrath, Becoming A Master Manager: A Competency Framework (New York: John Wiley & Sons, Inc. 1990), Chapter 1.Chapter 1, Nancy Langton and Stephen P. Robbins, Fundamentals of Organizational Behaviour, Third Canadian Edition 1-30Copyright © 2007 Pearson Education Canada
  31. 31. Breakout Group Exercises Form small groups to discuss the following topics: 1. Consider a group situation in which you have worked. To what extent did the group rely on the technical skills of the group members vs. their interpersonal skills? Which skills seemed most important in helping the group function well? 2. Identify some examples of ―worst jobs.‖ What conditions of these jobs made them unpleasant? To what extent were these conditions related to behaviours of individuals? 3. Develop a list of ―organizational puzzles,‖ that is, behaviour you’ve observed in organizations that seemed to make little sense. As the term progresses, see if you can begin to explain these puzzles, using your knowledge of OB.Chapter 1, Nancy Langton and Stephen P. Robbins, Fundamentals of Organizational Behaviour, Third Canadian Edition 1-31Copyright © 2007 Pearson Education Canada
  32. 32. Working With Others Exercise This exercise asks you to consider the skills outlined in the ―Competing Values Framework‖ to develop an understanding of managerial expertise. Steps 1–4 can be completed in 15–20 minutes. 1. Using the skills listed in ―Learning About Yourself,‖ identify the 4 skills that you think all managers should have. 2. Identify the 4 skills that you think are least important for managers to have. 3. In groups of 5–7, reach a consensus on the most-needed and least- needed skills identified in Steps 1 and 2. 4. Using Exhibit 1-6, determine whether your ―ideal‖ managers would have trouble managing in some dimensions of organizational demands.Chapter 1, Nancy Langton and Stephen P. Robbins, Fundamentals of Organizational Behaviour, Third Canadian Edition 1-32Copyright © 2007 Pearson Education Canada
  33. 33. Exhibit 1-5 Competing Values Framework Flexibility Internal Focus External Focus Source: Adapted from K. Cameron and R. E. Quinn, Diagnosing and Changing Organizational Culture: Based on the Competing Values Framework (Reading, MA: Addison Wesley Longman, 1999). ControlChapter 1, Nancy Langton and Stephen P. Robbins, Fundamentals of Organizational Behaviour, Third Canadian Edition 1-33Copyright © 2007 Pearson Education Canada
  34. 34. Competing Values Framework • Internal-External Dimension – Inwardly, toward employee needs and concerns and/or production processes and internal systems or – Outwardly, toward such factors as the marketplace, government regulations, and the changing social, environmental, and technological conditions of the future • Flexibility-Control Dimension – Flexible and dynamic, allowing more teamwork and participation; seeking new opportunities for products and services or – Controlling or stable, maintaining the status quo and exhibiting less changeChapter 1, Nancy Langton and Stephen P. Robbins, Fundamentals of Organizational Behaviour, Third Canadian Edition 1-34Copyright © 2007 Pearson Education Canada
  35. 35. Exhibit 1-6 Skills for Mastery in the New Workplace Flexibility 1. Understanding yourself and others 2. Interpersonal 1. Living with change communication 2. Creative thinking 3. Developing 3. Managing change subordinates 1. Team building 1. Building and maintaining 2. Participative Mentor Innovator a power base decision making 2. Negotiating agreement 3. Conflict and commitment management 3. Negotiating and Facilitator Broker selling ideas Internal External 1. Receiving and Monitor Producer 1. Personal productivity organizing information and motivation 2. Evaluating 2. Motivating others routine information 3. Time and stress 3. Responding to Coordinator Director management routine information 1. Planning 1. Taking initiative 2. Organizing 2. Goal setting 3. Controlling 3. Delegating effectively Control Source: R.E. Quinn. Beyond Rational Management. San Francisco: Jossey-Bass Inc., 1988, p. 86.Chapter 1, Nancy Langton and Stephen P. Robbins, Fundamentals of Organizational Behaviour, Third Canadian Edition 1-35Copyright © 2007 Pearson Education Canada
  36. 36. Supplemental Material Slides for activities I do in my own classroomChapter 1, Nancy Langton and Stephen P. Robbins, Fundamentals of Organizational Behaviour, Third Canadian Edition 1-36Copyright © 2007 Pearson Education Canada
  37. 37. Exercise • In groups of 6 – Introduce yourselves. – Pick an interviewer. – Decide on questions or topics you want interviewer to ask me. • The interview – Introduce interviewer to me and the class. – Ask one question from your list (we will go around the groups with one question at a time).Chapter 1, Nancy Langton and Stephen P. Robbins, Fundamentals of Organizational Behaviour, Third Canadian Edition 1-37Copyright © 2007 Pearson Education Canada

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