Perception

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Perception

  1. 1. ORGANIZATIONAL BEHAVIOR <ul><li>KELOMPOK I </li></ul><ul><li>DIAN AYU </li></ul><ul><li>DIAN ANDIKA </li></ul><ul><li>RANGGA RADITHA </li></ul><ul><li>EDITH LAVINDRI </li></ul><ul><li>ERLANGGA </li></ul><ul><li>RIKO TRIANA </li></ul><ul><li>ANDIKA FIRDAUS </li></ul>
  2. 2. YELLOW BLUE ORANGE BLACK RED GREEN PURPLE YELLOW RED ORANGE GREEN BLACK BLUE RED PURPLE
  3. 3. <ul><li>A process by which individuals organize and interpret their sensory impressions in order to give meaning to their environment. </li></ul>
  4. 4. <ul><li>Factors that Influence Perception </li></ul><ul><li>Factor in the Situation </li></ul><ul><li>Time </li></ul><ul><li>Work setting </li></ul><ul><li>Social setting </li></ul>PERCEPTION <ul><li>Factors in the perceiver </li></ul><ul><li>Attitudes </li></ul><ul><li>Motives </li></ul><ul><li>Interest </li></ul><ul><li>Experience </li></ul><ul><li>Expectations </li></ul><ul><li>Factors in the target </li></ul><ul><li>Novelty </li></ul><ul><li>Motivation </li></ul><ul><li>Sounds </li></ul><ul><li>Size </li></ul><ul><li>Background </li></ul><ul><li>Proximity </li></ul><ul><li>Similarity </li></ul>
  5. 5. <ul><li>Person Perception: Making Judgments About Others </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Attribution Theory : an attempt to determine whether an individual’s behavior is internally or externally caused. </li></ul></ul>
  6. 6. <ul><li>Attribution Theory </li></ul>Individual behavior Distinctiveness Consensus Consistency External Internal External Internal External Internal Observation Interpretation Attribution of course High Low High Low High Low
  7. 7. <ul><li>Frequently Used Shortcuts in Judging Theory </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Selective Perception </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Halo Effect </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Contrast Effect </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Stereotyping </li></ul></ul>
  8. 8. <ul><li>Specific Applications of Shortcuts in Organizations </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Employment Interview </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Performance Expectations </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Performance Evaluation </li></ul></ul>
  9. 9. <ul><li>The Link Between Perception and Individual Decision Making </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Decision Making: choices made from among two or more alternatives. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Decision making occurs as a reaction to a problem. </li></ul></ul>
  10. 10. <ul><li>Decision Making in Organizations </li></ul><ul><li>The Rational Model, Bounded Rationality, and Intuition </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Rational Decision Making : A decision-making model that describes how individuals should behave in order to maximize some outcome </li></ul></ul>
  11. 11. <ul><li>Steps In the Rational Decision-Making Model </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Define the Problem </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Identify the decision criteria </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Allocate weights to the criteria </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Develop the alternatives </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Evaluate the alternatives </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Select the best alternatives </li></ul></ul>
  12. 12. <ul><li>Bounded Rationality: A process of making decisions by constructing simplified models that extract the essential features from problems without capturing all their complexity . </li></ul><ul><li>Intuitive Decision Making : An unconscious process created out of distilled experience . </li></ul>
  13. 13. <ul><li>Common Biases and Errors in Decision Making </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Overconfidence bias </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Anchoring bias </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Confirmation bias </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Availability bias </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Escalation of Commitment </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Randomness Error </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Winner’s Curse </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Hindsight Bias </li></ul></ul>
  14. 14. <ul><li>Influences on Decision Making: Individual Differences and Organizational Constraints </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Individual Differences </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Personality </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Gender </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Organizational Constraints </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Performance Evaluation </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Reward Systems </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Formal Regulations </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>System-Imposed Time Constraints </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Historical Precedents </li></ul></ul>
  15. 15. <ul><li>Three Ethical Decision Criteria </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Utilitarianism </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Rights </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Justice </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Improving Creativity in Decision Making </li></ul><ul><li>“ Creativity, the ability to produce novel and useful ideas”. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Creative Potential </li></ul></ul>
  16. 16. <ul><li>The Three Component of Creativity </li></ul>“ The proposition that individual creativity requires expertise, creative thinking skills and intrinsic task motivation”
  17. 17. <ul><li>Global Implications </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Attributions </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Decision Making </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Ethics </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Summary and Implications for Managers </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Perception </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Individual Decision Making </li></ul></ul>

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