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conflict and negotiation

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ORGANISATION BEHAVIOR CHAPTER14 CNOFLICT AND NEGOTIATION

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  • Hello, I'm looking to locate an original source for the claim on slide 20 that "disagreeable introverts are best" (at distributive bargaining). Can you provide me with the source? Many thanks.
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conflict and negotiation

  1. 1. Robbins, Judge, and VohraOrganizational Behavior14th Edition Conflict and Negotiation Conflict and Negotiation Kelli J. Schutte William Jewell CollegeCopyright © 2012 Dorling Kindersley (India) Pvt. LtdAuthorized adaptation from the United States edition of Organizational 14-1Behavior, 14e
  2. 2. Chapter Learning Objectives Chapter Learning Objectives After studying this chapter, you should be able to: – Define conflict. – Differentiate between the traditional, resolution focused, and interactionist views of conflict. – Outline the conflict process. – Define negotiation. – Contrast distributive and integrative bargaining. – Apply the five steps in the negotiation process. – Show how individual differences influence negotiations. – Assess the roles and functions of third-party negotiations. – Describe cultural differences in negotiations.Copyright © 2012 Dorling Kindersley (India) Pvt. LtdAuthorized adaptation from the United States edition of Organizational 14-2Behavior, 14e
  3. 3. Conflict Defined Conflict Defined A process that begins when one party perceives that another party has negatively affected, or is about to negatively affect, something that the first party cares about – That point in an ongoing activity when an interaction “crosses over” to become an interparty conflict Encompasses a wide range of conflicts that people experience in organizations – Incompatibility of goals – Differences over interpretations of facts – Disagreements based on behavioral expectationsCopyright © 2012 Dorling Kindersley (India) Pvt. LtdAuthorized adaptation from the United States edition of Organizational 14-3Behavior, 14e
  4. 4. Transitions in Conflict ThoughtTransitions in Conflict Thought THE TRADITIONAL VIEW OF CONFLICT THE INTERACTIONIST VIEW OF CONFLICT MANAGED CONFLICT VIEWCopyright © 2011 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Prentice Hall 14-4
  5. 5.  THE TRADITIONAL VIEW OF CONFLICTThe belief that all conflict is harmful and must be avoided Conflict was bad and to be avoided it was viewed negatively and discussed with such terms as VIOLENCE,DESTRUCTION and IRRATIONALITY to reinforce its negative connotationCopyright © 2011 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Prentice Hall 14-5
  6. 6.  THE INTERACTIONIST VIEW OF CONFLICT the belief that conflict is not only a positive force ina group but also an absolute necessity for a group to perform effictively It encourages conflict on the grounds that a harmonious peaceful,tranquil,and cooperative group is porne to becoming,apathetic,and unresposive to needs for change and innovation. functional conflict dysfunctional conflictCopyright © 2011 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Prentice Hall 14-6
  7. 7. Forms of Interactionist Conflict Forms of Interactionist ConflictCopyright © 2012 Dorling Kindersley (India) Pvt. LtdAuthorized adaptation from the United States edition of Organizational 14-7Behavior, 14e
  8. 8. Types of Interactionist Conflict Types of Interactionist Conflict  Task Conflict – Conflicts over content and goals of the work – Low-to-moderate levels of this type are FUNCTIONAL  Relationship Conflict – Conflict based on interpersonal relationships – Almost always DYSFUNCTIONAL  Process Conflict – Conflict over how work gets done – Low levels of this type are FUNCTIONALCopyright © 2012 Dorling Kindersley (India) Pvt. LtdAuthorized adaptation from the United States edition of Organizational 14-8Behavior, 14e
  9. 9. The Conflict Process The Conflict Process We will focus on each step in a moment… E X H I B I T 14-1 E X H I B I T 14-1Copyright © 2012 Dorling Kindersley (India) Pvt. LtdAuthorized adaptation from the United States edition of Organizational 14-9Behavior, 14e
  10. 10. Copyright © 2011 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Prentice Hall 14-10
  11. 11. Stage I: Potential Opposition or IncompatibilityStage I: Potential Opposition or Incompatibility Communication – Semantic difficulties, misunderstandings, over communication and “noise” Structure – Size and specialization of jobs – Jurisdictional clarity/ambiguity – Member/goal incompatibility – Leadership styles (close or participative) – Reward systems (win-lose) – Dependence/interdependence of groups Personal Variables – Differing individual value systems – Personality typesCopyright © 2012 Dorling Kindersley (India) Pvt. LtdAuthorized adaptation from the United States edition of Organizational 14-11Behavior, 14e
  12. 12. Stage II: Cognition and Personalization Stage II: Cognition and Personalization Important stage for two reasons: 1. Conflict is defined • Perceived Conflict – Awareness by one or more parties of the existence of conditions that create opportunities for conflict to arise 2. Emotions are expressed that have a strong impact on the eventual outcome • Felt Conflict – Emotional involvement in a conflict creating anxiety, tenseness, frustration, or hostilityCopyright © 2012 Dorling Kindersley (India) Pvt. LtdAuthorized adaptation from the United States edition of Organizational 14-12Behavior, 14e
  13. 13. Stage III: Intentions Stage III: Intentions Intentions – Decisions to act in a given way – Note: behavior does not always accurately reflect intent Dimensions of conflict-handling intentions: – Cooperativeness • Attempting to satisfy the other party’s concerns – Assertiveness • Attempting to satisfy one’s own concernsSource: K. Thomas, “Conflict and Negotiation Processes in Organizations,” in M.D. Dunnette and L.M. Hough (eds.), Handbook of Industrial andOrganizational Psychology, 2nd ed., vol. 3 (Palo Alto, CA: Consulting Psychologists Press, 1992), p. 668. Arrows added. Used with permission. E X H I B I T 14-2 E X H I B I T 14-2Copyright © 2012 Dorling Kindersley (India) Pvt. LtdAuthorized adaptation from the United States edition of Organizational 14-13Behavior, 14e
  14. 14. Stage IV: Behavior Stage IV: Behavior Conflict Management – The use of resolution and stimulation techniques to achieve the desired level of conflict Conflict-Intensity ContinuumSource: Based on S.P. Robbins, Managing Organizational Conflict: A Nontraditional Approach (Upper Saddle River, NJ: Prentice Hall, 1974), pp. 93–97; and F. Glasi, “The Process of Conflict Escalation and the Roles of Third Parties,” in G.B.J. Bomers and R. Peterson (eds.), Conflict Managementand Industrial Relations (Boston: Kluwer-Nijhoff, 1982), pp. 119–40. E X H I B I T 14-3 E X H I B I T 14-3Copyright © 2012 Dorling Kindersley (India) Pvt. LtdAuthorized adaptation from the United States edition of Organizational 14-14Behavior, 14e
  15. 15. Conflict Management Techniques Conflict Management Techniques  Conflict Resolution  Conflict Stimulation Techniques Techniques – Problem solving – Bringing in outsiders – Superordinate goals – Communication – Expansion of resources – Restructuring the – Avoidance organization – Smoothing – Appointing a devil’s – Compromise advocate – Authoritative command – Altering the human variable – Altering the structural variables Source: Based on S. P. Robbins, Managing Organizational Conflict: A Nontraditional Approach (Upper Saddle River, NJ: Prentice Hall, 1974), pp. 59–89 SEE E X H I B I T 14-4 SEE E X H I B I T 14-4Copyright © 2012 Dorling Kindersley (India) Pvt. LtdAuthorized adaptation from the United States edition of OrganizationalBehavior, 14e 14-15
  16. 16. Stage V: Outcomes Stage V: Outcomes Functional  Dysfunctional – Increased group – Development of discontent performance – Reduced group – Improved quality of effectiveness decisions – Retarded communication – Stimulation of creativity and innovation – Reduced group cohesiveness – Encouragement of interest and curiosity – Infighting among group members overcomes group – Provision of a medium for goals problem solving  Managing Functional – Creation of an environment for self-evaluation and Conflict change – Reward dissent and punish conflict avoidersCopyright © 2012 Dorling Kindersley (India) Pvt. LtdAuthorized adaptation from the United States edition of Organizational 14-16Behavior, 14e
  17. 17. Negotiation NegotiationNegotiation (Bargaining) – A process in which two or more parties exchange goods or services and attempt to agree on the exchange rate for them Two General Approaches: – Distributive Bargaining • Negotiation that seeks to divide up a fixed amount of resources; a win-lose situation – Integrative Bargaining • Negotiation that seeks one or more settlements that can create a win-win solutionCopyright © 2012 Dorling Kindersley (India) Pvt. LtdAuthorized adaptation from the United States edition of Organizational 14-17Behavior, 14e
  18. 18. Distributive versus Integrative Bargaining Distributive versus Integrative BargainingBargaining Characteristic Distributive Bargaining Integrative BargainingGoal Get all the pie you can Expand the pieMotivation Win-Lose Win-WinFocus Positions InterestsInformation Sharing Low HighDuration of Relationships Short-Term Long-TermSource: Based on R. J. Lewicki and J. A.Litterer, Negotiation (Homewood, IL: Irwin,1985), p. 280. Integrative Distributive SEE E X H I B I T 14-5 SEE E X H I B I T 14-5Copyright © 2012 Dorling Kindersley (India) Pvt. LtdAuthorized adaptation from the United States edition of Organizational 14-18Behavior, 14e
  19. 19. The Negotiation Process The Negotiation Process  BATNA – The Best Alternative To a Negotiated Agreement – The lowest acceptable value (outcome) to an individual for a negotiated agreement E X H I B I T 14-7 E X H I B I T 14-7Copyright © 2012 Dorling Kindersley (India) Pvt. LtdAuthorized adaptation from the United States edition of Organizational 14-19Behavior, 14e
  20. 20. Individual Differences in Negotiation Effectiveness Individual Differences in Negotiation Effectiveness Personality Traits – Extroverts and agreeable people are weaker at distributive negotiation; disagreeable introverts are best – Intelligence is a weak indicator of effectiveness Mood and Emotion – Ability to show anger helps in distributive bargaining – Positive moods and emotions help integrative bargaining Gender – Men and women negotiate the same way, but may experience different outcomesCopyright © 2012 Dorling Kindersley (India) Pvt. LtdAuthorized adaptation from the United States edition of Organizational 14-20Behavior, 14e
  21. 21. Third-Party Negotiations Third-Party Negotiations Four Basic Third-Party Roles – Mediator • A neutral third party who facilitates a negotiated solution by using reasoning, persuasion, and suggestions for alternatives – Arbitrator • A third party to a negotiation who has the authority to dictate an agreement. – Conciliator • A trusted third party who provides an informal communication link between the negotiator and the opponent – Consultant • An impartial third party, skilled in conflict management, who attempts to facilitate creative problem solving through communication and analysisCopyright © 2012 Dorling Kindersley (India) Pvt. LtdAuthorized adaptation from the United States edition of Organizational 14-21Behavior, 14e
  22. 22. Global Implications Global Implications Conflict and Culture – Indian and French managers view conflict differently – Indian managers are more likely to use accommodation and avoidance while French managers are likely to use competing tactics. Cultural Differences in Negotiations – Multiple cross-cultural studies on negotiation styles, for instance: • American negotiators are more likely than Japanese bargainers to make a first offer • North Americans use facts to persuade; Arabs use emotion; and Russians use asserted ideals • Brazilians say “no” more often than Americans or JapaneseCopyright © 2012 Dorling Kindersley (India) Pvt. LtdAuthorized adaptation from the United States edition of Organizational 14-22Behavior, 14e
  23. 23. Summary and Managerial Implications Summary and Managerial Implications Conflict can be constructive or destructive Reduce excessive conflict by using: – Competition – Collaboration – Avoidance – Accommodation – Compromise Integrative negotiation is a better long-term method E X H I B I T 14-8 E X H I B I T 14-8Copyright © 2012 Dorling Kindersley (India) Pvt. LtdAuthorized adaptation from the United States edition of Organizational 14-23Behavior, 14e
  24. 24. All rights reserved. No part of this publication may be reproduced, stored in a retrieval system, or transmitted, in any form or by any means, electronic, mechanical, photocopying, recording, or otherwise, without the prior written permission of the publisher. Printed in the United States of America. Copyright ©2011 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Prentice HallCopyright © 2012 Dorling Kindersley (India) Pvt. LtdAuthorized adaptation from the United States edition of Organizational 14-24Behavior, 14e

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