The safavid empire


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The safavid empire

  1. 1. The Safavid Empire The Safavid Empire Esther Asian
  2. 2. The Safavid Empire Three Islamic Empires dominate from southern Europe to Northern India from 1500-1800 • Ottoman Empire (Southern Europe, Middle East, North Africa) • Safavid Empire (Persia) • Mughal Empire (Northern India) Esther Asian
  3. 3. The Safavid Empire Shah Ismail • Founded the Safavid empire when he was 14 years old. • reigned from 1501 to 1524 AD Esther Asian
  4. 4. The Safavid Empire three elements of the Safavid empire • The charismatic leadership of the mushid • The military support provided by the nine Turcoman tribes known as – Qizilbash ( Red Heads) • The support of the Shii urban population Esther Asian
  5. 5. The Safavid Empire Rule of Religion • Shah Ismail and his successors governed through careful use and spread of propaganda and religious beliefs. • The first thing he did during his reign was to declare that the official religion of his realm would be Twelver Shiism • The twelfth imam had gone into hiding around 874 to escape persecution but the Twelver Shiites believed he was still alive and would one day return to take power and spread his true religion. • Safavid propaganda suggested that Ismail was himself the hidden imam, or even an incarnation of Allah. Shi’ites place great value in personal martyrdom and heroic sacrifice for their religion. Esther Asian
  6. 6. The Safavid Empire • Ismail called himself “shah,” or king, of the new Persian state.Ismail was a Shiite Muslim. The official religion of the Safavids. • Shia Muslims - the only direct relatives of Muhammad should be in the most important positions of leadership. Shah Ismail Esther Asian
  7. 7. The Safavid Empire •His successful exploit In Tabriz 1501, where he proclaim himself as Shah. •Conquered western Iran, Iraq, and eastern Anatolia •In Baghdad 1508 , mark the culminating process whereby Turcoman dynasty becomes “revolutionary”. Esther Asian
  8. 8. The Safavid Empire Muhammad Shaybani – the Ozbegz chieftain who persecuted the Shiis. •1510 – Safavid Vs Osbegz near Marv. Esther •Muhammad Sabayanidefeated & killed. Asian
  9. 9. The Safavid Empire Safavid Enemies Selim I • the Sunni Ottomans. • 1514 Selim I- an Ottoman sultan, prepared for a full –scale invasion of Safavid territory. Esther Asian
  10. 10. The Safavid Empire •He launched a persecution of Shiites massacring 40,000 Safavids. •Anatolia •Azerbaijan •Tabriz – Ismail’s capital •Caldiran •The Ottomans lacked the resources to destroy the Safavid state entirely. •Ismail continue to rule until 1524 & conflict still continues. Esther Asian
  11. 11. The Safavid Empire Chaos In the Empire • Tahmasp I – 10 years old successor of Shah Ismail after he died in 1524. • Qizilbash revolt- Ottoman takes advantage and made a surprise attack and the Ozbegz in the east. • Ottoman captured Baghdad remained under 100 years. • Treaty of Amasya 1555 - after 20 years of war, the two empire signed a treaty. • Ismail II 1576 – mad leader. Attempted to return Safavid to Sunnism, executed many members of his family, and supporters for unclear reasons. He was murdered. • Muhammad I – nearly blind , disposed by his son Abbas in 1587. Esther Asian
  12. 12. The Safavid Empire • Shah Abbas the Great, who ruled from 1588 to 1629, Safavids highest point of glory • He moved the capital to Isfahan, the jewel of the Safavid Empire, and it is still that for modern-day Iran. • He encouraged trade with other lands. Silk weaving flourished, but carpet weaving flourished more – Persian rugs are still prized today. •Increased the use of gunpowder weapons Esther Asian
  13. 13. The Safavid Empire European assistance against the Ottomans and • Sought the Portuguese in the Persian gulf • He harassed the Ottomans mercilessly in a series of wars from 1603 to the end of his reign. • His campaigns brought most of Northwestern Iran, the Caucasus, and Mesopotamia under Safavid rule. • He reclaimed Tabriz 1605,Baghdad1623 and died on 1629. Esther Asian
  14. 14. The Safavid Empire • • • Safavid Decline the military forces became less effective. the Safavid Shahs became corrupt. Power passed to the Shi'a ulama (a religious council of wise men) which eventually deposed the Shahs and proclaimed the world's first Islamic Republic in the eighteenth century. The ulama developed a theory that only a Mujtahid (one very learned in the Shari'ah) and one who has had a blameless life, could rule. In 1726 an Afghan group destroyed the ruling dynasty. After the conquest, a division of powers was agreed upon between the Afghan Shahs and the Shi'a ulama. The Afghan Shahs controlled the state and foreign policy, and they could levy taxes and make secular laws. The ulama retained control of religious practice and enforced the Shari'ah in personal and family matters. Esther Asian
  15. 15. The Safavid Empire Iran After the Safavid Empire • • • • Bandit chiefs and feudal lords plundered it at will, further weakening the Empire. The rise of the Pahlavis (1925 -79) The discovery of oil early in the twentieth century, and the British and American interest that came with it. The wealth from oil enabled the Shah Pahlavis, to head a wealthy and corrupt court. The ulama tolerated the non-religious Shahs until the 1970s. They finally overthrew the monarchy in 1979. This led to power being exercised through the highest officials of the ulama, the Ayatollahs. Ali Hosseini Khamenei is the Supreme Leader of Iran and a Shia Marja'. He had also served as the President of Iran from 1981 to 1989. In 2012, Forbes selected him 21st in the list of 'World's Most Powerful People'. Esther Asian
  16. 16. The Safavid Empire Bibliography • afavids.php • studies/first/1718/2000/gblock/safavid/ ml • story/safavidempire_3.shtml • Comparative History of Civilization in Asia by: Edward L. Farmer & co. Esther Asian