The Ottoman Empire


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The Ottoman Empire

  1. 1. The Ottoman Empire
  2. 2. Rise of the Ottoman empire <ul><li>By the 1400’s, the once mighty Byzantine Empire had been in decline for nearly two centuries </li></ul><ul><li>They faced a growing threat from the Ottomans, a nomadic group that had migrated from central Asia to Asia Minor </li></ul><ul><li>In 1453, the Ottomans surrounded the capital of Constantinople </li></ul><ul><li>During a two month siege, Ottoman cannons pounded Constantinople's city walls allowing attackers to break through and capture the city </li></ul><ul><li>The Ottomans changed the name of the city to Istanbul and made the ancient Christian city the capital of their Muslim empire </li></ul>
  3. 3. Ottoman Siege of Constantinople
  4. 4. Geographic Expansion <ul><li>With well armed forces and effective military strategies, the Ottoman empire grew quickly </li></ul><ul><li>After 1453, the Ottomans expanded into the Middle East, Egypt, the Balkans, and Russia </li></ul><ul><li>By the 1500’s, the Ottomans had created the largest empire in the Middle East and Europe </li></ul>
  5. 5. Ottoman Expansion
  6. 6. Reasons for Ottoman Success <ul><li>Ottoman success was largely due to military technology, such as cannons </li></ul><ul><li>In addition to cannons, the Ottoman army equipped soldiers with muskets </li></ul><ul><li>This improved battlefield success and eliminated the need for cavalry </li></ul>
  7. 7. Clockwise from top left: Constantinople City walls, Ottoman Janissaries, Byzantine flag, Ottoman Cannon
  8. 8. Europeans Search for New Trade Routes <ul><li>As the Ottoman empire expanded, European trade routes were disrupted </li></ul><ul><li>For example, Ottoman control of the eastern Mediterranean interfered with Europe's trade with East Asia </li></ul><ul><li>The Portuguese sent sailors out across the oceans to search for new trade routes </li></ul>
  9. 9. Ottoman Territory
  10. 10. Suleiman’s Golden Age <ul><li>Called Suleiman the Magnificent by westerners, he ruled the Ottoman Empire from 1520 to 1566 </li></ul><ul><li>He was a Sultan, a name Turks give to their rulers </li></ul><ul><li>The years of his rule are considered the Golden Age of Ottoman History </li></ul><ul><li>Suleiman strengthened the government and improved the system of justice throughout the empire </li></ul><ul><li>Law was based on the Islamic system of law, Sharia </li></ul><ul><li>Suleiman held absolute power, but consulted his advisors and council before making important decisions </li></ul>
  11. 11. Suleiman the Magnificent
  12. 12. Ottoman Society <ul><li>The Ottomans ruled a large area that included many diverse people and religions </li></ul><ul><li>The empire consisted of four social classes: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Men of the Pen – highly educated: scientists, lawyers, judges, doctors </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Men of the Sword – military personnel </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Men of Negotiation – merchants, artisans, and tax collectors </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Men of Husbandry – farmers and herders </li></ul></ul>
  13. 13. Ottoman Society Continued <ul><li>The top two classes were made up entirely of Muslims </li></ul><ul><li>Millets – non-Muslim organize religious communities that were allowed to practice their religion freely as long as they paid a tax and obeyed Ottoman law </li></ul><ul><li>Janissaries – Boys from non-Muslim families were sometimes required to turn their sons over to the government for military service. The best soldiers became Janissaries, members of an elite force in the Ottoman army </li></ul>
  14. 14. Decline of the Ottoman Empire <ul><li>Problems developed within the Ottoman empire including poor leadership an corruption </li></ul><ul><li>The rising power of European nations also led to it’s decline </li></ul><ul><li>The Ottomans were cut off from global trade routes, limiting cultural diffusion and new ideas </li></ul><ul><li>By the 1700’s, European technology surpassed that of the Ottomans </li></ul><ul><li>European nations began to industrialize while the Ottomans remained an agricultural society </li></ul>