World History Ch. 17 Section 1 Notes


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World History Ch. 17 Section 1 Notes

  1. 1. Section 1New Asian Empire
  2. 2. Section 1New Asian Empire Preview • Starting Points Map: Asian Empires • Main Idea / Reading Focus • The Ottoman Empire • Faces of History: Suleyman • Map: The Ottoman Empire • The Safavid Empire • Map: The Safavid Empire The Ottoman and Safavid Empires
  3. 3. Section 1New Asian Empire Click the icon to play Listen to History audio. Click the icon below to connect to the Interactive Maps.
  4. 4. Section 1New Asian Empire Reading Focus • How did the Ottomans build a powerful empire, and what were their cultural achievements? • How was the Safavid Empire founded and enlarged, and what cultural elements did it combine? Main Idea 1. The Ottoman and Safavid empires flourished under powerful rulers who expanded the territory and cultural influence of their empires. The Ottoman and Safavid Empires
  5. 5. Section 1New Asian Empire Their power grew quickly, and by the mid-1300s the Ottomans controlled much of Anatolia. Mongol conquests of the 1200s ripped apart the Seljuk Turk empire. Small, independent Turkish states formed in the region. In the late 1200s, a great chieftain arose from one of the states and went on to found the powerful Ottoman Empire. • Early 1300s, Anatolia bordered by declining Christian Byzantine Empire to west, Muslim empires to east; to north, Russia • Turks of Anatolia mainly Muslim, nomadic, militaristic society Growth of the Empire The Ottoman Empire • Nomadic people, ghazis, ―warriors for the Islam faith‖ • Ghazi leader Osman I had built strong state in Anatolia by 1300 • Osman, descendants came to be known as Ottomans to Westerners Ottomans
  6. 6. Section 1New Asian Empire • Military key to Ottoman success • Ottomans enslaved Christian boys from conquered areas • Boys converted to Islam, trained as elite soldiers, Janissaries; loyal only to sultan • Practice called blood tax by many Christians • Ottomans also adopted gunpowder weapons • Now possible to take cities defended by heavy walls Military Might • Osman‘s son, Orhan I, became second Ottoman ruler; declared himself sultan, Arabic for ―ruler‖ • Under Orhan, later sultans, Ottoman forces swept into Balkans, attacked Byzantine Empire • 1361, took Adrianople, second most important Byzantine city; renamed Edirne, made it capital • By early 1400s, Ottomans controlled much of Balkan Peninsula Expanding Empire Sultans
  7. 7. Section 1New Asian Empire Invasion and Decline • Despite strong military, Ottomans experienced setback • Central Asian conqueror Timur attacked – Because of leg injury, known as Timur the Lame; in Europe, Tamerlane – In 1402 army crushed Ottoman forces at Battle of Ankara • Timur soon withdrew – Ottoman empire left in shambles – Ruler dead – Bloody power struggle followed, weakened empire
  8. 8. Section 1New Asian Empire Expansion period • Following period of decline, spectacular phase of expansion began • Mid-1400s, reign of Mehmed II, strong military leader • Mehmed II determined to take Constantinople, Byzantine capital Mehmed the Conqueror • 1453, Ottomans led major land, sea assault against Constantinople • Used massive cannons to batter city‘s walls; city fell after two month siege • Byzantine Empire no longer existed; Mehmed became known as ―the Conqueror;‖ claimed center of eastern Christianity for Islam Bosporus Strait • Ottomans had captured lands around Constantinople, but not city itself • Constantinople controlled Bosporus Strait, trade route between Asia, Europe • Control of waterway provided great wealth, divided Ottoman Empire Fall of Constantinople
  9. 9. Section 1New Asian Empire Rebuilding the City • Mehmed had palaces, mosques built • Turned Hagia Sophia, Orthodox Christian cathedral, into mosque • Moved people from across empire to repopulate city • Soon city again major trade center with people of many cultures Pillaging the City • Mehmed made Constantinople his capital, named Istanbul • Allowed soldiers to pillage city for three days • Many residents killed or enslaved • Then rebuilt Constantinople into Muslim city
  10. 10. Section 1New Asian Empire • Expansion continued • Met new threat in Persia—the Safavid Empire • In 1514 Ottoman forces crushed Safavids at Battle of Chaldiran • Next swept through Syrian, into Egypt in North Africa • Soon after captured Mecca, Medina, holy cities of Islam • Empire reached height under Suleyman I, known in West as Suleyman ―the Magnificent‖ Expansion and Threats • During Suleyman‘s forty-six year reign, Ottoman forces pushed through Hungary up to Vienna • Navy gained control of eastern Mediterranean, North African coast • Impressive domestic achievements • Reformed tax system, overhauled government bureaucracy, improved court system, legal code Suleyman the Lawgiver Height of the Empire
  11. 11. Section 1New Asian Empire
  12. 12. Section 1New Asian Empire 2. Rule of Sultans • Ottoman sultan ruled over vast, diverse empire; had immense power, issued all laws, made all major decisions • Numerous officials advised sultan—considered his slaves; had to be loyal to sultan, practice Islam, follow Ottoman customs Religious Freedom • Non-Muslims had to pay heavy taxes, endure restrictions; did not have to serve in military—Muslims had to join military, but did not pay taxes • Religious freedom allowed; some groups required to form millets, or religious communities; each millet followed own laws, chose own leaders Classes • Privileged ruling class one of two classes—second class, everyone else • Included people of many cultures, languages, religions • Ottomans governed diverse subjects with tolerance Society and Culture
  13. 13. Section 1New Asian Empire Great Buildings • Mixing of peoples created rich Ottoman culture, reached peak under Suleyman • Magnificent mosques, palaces, many with Byzantine influence Empire’s Decline • After Suleyman‘s reign, empire declined • One cause was method of dealing with heirs • New sultans killed brothers to eliminate rivals until 1600s Mosque of Suleyman • Sinan, master designer of Mosque of Suleyman, Istanbul • Graceful solution of problem of combining round dome, rectangular building Inexperienced Sultans • Heirs locked in royal palace; released to become sultan but had no experience • Despite periodic reform efforts, series of weak sultans resulted • Empire lasted to early 1900s Rich Culture
  14. 14. Section 1New Asian Empire
  15. 15. Section 1New Asian Empire Analyze Why is Suleyman‘s reign considered the height of the Ottoman Empire? Answer(s): because Suleyman expanded the empire, built bridges and mosques, and reformed the administration and laws of the empire
  16. 16. Section 1New Asian Empire 3. East of the Ottomans, Persian Muslims called the Safavids began building an empire around 1500. The Safavids soon came into conflict with the Ottomans and other Muslims. The conflict related to Islam‘s split into rival Sunni and Shia sects. The Safavids were Shia; most other Muslims were Sunnis. • 14-year old Esma‘il, founder of Safavid Empire • Father died fighting Sunni Muslims • 1501, took up sword, joined by father‘s supporters, led army in Persian conquests Growth of the Empire • Gained control of what is now Iran, part of Iraq • Took Persian title of shah, ―king‖ of Safavid Empire • Made Shiism official religion • Advisers concerned Official Religion • Sunnis majority in empire • Blending of Shia religion, Persian tradition gave Safavid state unique identity • Laid foundation for national culture of present day Iran Persian Tradition The Safavid Empire
  17. 17. Section 1New Asian Empire • Shiism sharply distinguished Safavid state from Sunni neighbors, notably Ottomans to west, Uzbeks to northeast • Esma‘il dreamed of converting all Sunnis to Shiism • Battled Uzbeks with some success; suffered crushing defeat by Ottomans in Battle of Chaldiran, 1514 • Safavid army no match for Ottomans‘ superior gunpowder weapons • 1524, Esma‘il died; later shahs struggled to keep empire together • 1588, greatest Safavid leader, ‘Abbas became shah • Reformed government, strengthened military, acquired modern gunpowder weapons ‘Abbas • Copied Ottoman model, had slave youths captured in Russia trained to be soldiers • Under ‗Abbas, Safavids defeated Uzbeks, gained back land lost to Ottomans Ottoman Model Esma’il and Shiism
  18. 18. Section 1New Asian Empire Golden Age • ‗Abbas‘ achievements produced golden age in Safavid culture • Brought in Chinese potters to improve quality of glazed tile, ceramics • Safavids created public spaces with graceful arches, lush gardens • Colorful tiles, domes decorated mosques • During 1600s capital of Esfahan one of world‘s magnificent cities Major Muslim Civilization • Culture helped economy; ‗Abbas encouraged traditional products • Hand-woven Persian carpets became important industry, export • Trade goods brought wealth, helped establish Safavid Empire as major Muslim civilization • Safavid Empire lasted until 1722 Culture and Economy
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  20. 20. Section 1New Asian Empire Compare and Contrast How were the achievements of Esma‘il and ‗Abbas similar, and how were they different? Answer(s): Both leaders focused on military. 'Abbas had more success in battle because he acquired gunpowder weapons.