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Suleiman I, The Magnificent

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Sent by Idris Tuna from Mustafa Zeki Demir Ortaokulu, Istambul. Part of eTwinning project - Meeting point in history: Szigetvár (translation from Turkish)

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Suleiman I, The Magnificent

  1. 1. Süleyman the magnificent was born in1494 Trabzon which is a north city in the shore of Black sea of Turkey. His father Selim I was the governor of Trabzon before he became a sultan. His mom’s name was Ayşe Hafsa Valide Sultan. He became a governor, in turn, in Bolu, Şebinkarahisar, Kefe. He had 4 wives whose names were Mahidevran Sultan, Fülane Hatun, Hürrem Sultan, Gülfem Hatun and16 children. During his 46 year rule, he set military campaign 13 times and captured 300 castles. Suleiman I who was born in 1494 and passed away in 1566 was known as the magnificent in the West and Kanuni (the Lawgiver) in the East. He was the 10th king on the Ottoman throne. He ruled the empire totally 46 years from 1520 to 1566. He was called “Kanuni” because of his justice.
  2. 2. He set out on his 13th and last Campaign to Szigetvár in the year 1566 even though he was ill. His sultanate was in 46th year and he was 73 years old during the Campaign. The city Szigetvár was surrounded by rivers and consisted of three parts. This made difficult to capture.Therefore he could not get immediate results. Close to the last days of the siege, Suleiman the Magnificent’s illness was deteriorated and he passed away in 1566 on the night of September 6-7 in the morning HIS DEATH
  3. 3. Sultan Suleiman the magnificent’ death and the reasons of its concealment: The day after the death of Suleiman, Szigetvár was captured, but the sultan’s death were never told anyone. If the enemy and Janissaries who were one kind of Ottoman military army and their first duty was to protect the sultan had learnt the sultan’s death, the situation would have become much worse. The enemy would have increased the likelihood of benefit from learning this situation and the Janissaries with sadness could have turned into an uncontrollable crowd and left the field of the battle. Sokullu Mehmet Pasha who was the prime minister was very clever and used all his political genius. Sultan's death was hidden from, including the viziers (some ministers). Only some people who were very closed him knew his death. Sokullu Mehmet Pasha sent a letter to Selim, one of his son and the first governor of Kutahya city to become a sultan. Meanwhile, the sultan's dead body was washed in his tent and his funeral prayer was performed with twelve people who knew his death. The Sultan's internal organs were removed and buried there (later a tomb was built for the sultan in Szigetvar). His dead body was embalmed and put in a coffin under the throne. Later viziers were informed of the situation. And the next day, the festival of the conquest was held. THE CONCEALMENT OF HIS DEATH
  4. 4. 1) Conquest of Belgrade: Belgrade was siezed by Mehmed II who was the grand father of Suleiman's father. But the siege was unfailed. Belgrade was captured by Suleiman the Magnificent in August 1521.
  5. 5. 2) Conquest of Rhodes: Suleiman the Magnificent sent a navy to capture Rhodes in 1522 and the island was seized by Ottomans. The knights of Rhodes left the island to Malta. Therefore Ottoman Empire increased its power in the Mediterranean and Aegean Sea.
  6. 6. 3) The Battle of Mohacs: Suleiman the magnificent prepared the army to Mohacs, Hungary because Hungary which was getting closer to the Habsburgs was a threat for the Ottomans. Also Hungary had rejected the Empire’s attempts to deal including its demands. Suleiman the Magnificent defeated the Hungarian army just in a two hour and took over the capital Budapest.
  7. 7. 4) The I. Siege of Vienna: In spring 1529, Suleiman mustered a great army in Ottoman Bulgaria, with the aim of securing control of Hungary and reducing the threat posed at his new borders by Ferdinand and the Holy Roman Empire Charles V. But he failed in front of the Castle of Vienna because of heavy winter and lack of powerful cannons. Nevertheless, this siege showed the Ottomans’ power and its enlargement in the Middle Europe. John Zapolya was the king of Hungary until his death in the name of the Ottoman Empire.
  8. 8. 5) A Campaign to Germany: Suleiman I, the Magnificent launched a campaign to German lands between 1532-1533. He wanted to capture some Hungarian lands controlled by Germans and break German’s power in the area. Some sources claims that Suleiman would also like to siege and take Vienna. Although he did not take Vienna, the campaign was successful for the Ottomans.
  9. 9. Suleiman I sent a navy to seize Corfu Island in the Aegean Sea in 1537. Although it could not be captured, some other islands as Patmos, Naksos were conquered by Barbaros Hayreddin Pasha who was a very famous admiral.
  10. 10. Osmanlı'ya vergi ödemeyen ve isyan eden Boğdan Voyvodası Petru Rareş üzerine yapılmış bir seferdir. Osmanlı ordusunun harekâtı karşısında Rares, Transilvanya içlerine doğru kaçmaktan başka bir çare bulamamıştı. Osmanlı ordusu ise Yas şehrini yakıp yıktığı gibi 16 Eylül 1538'de Voyvodanın merkezi olan Suçeva şehrini de alır. Bu seferin sonunda Osmanlılar, Prut ile Dinyester nehirleri arasında kalan yerleri ellerine geçirmişlerdi. Elde edilen bu yerler, bir sancak haline getirilmişti. Boğdan Seferi Süleyman'ın en kısa süren seferlerinden birisidir.
  11. 11. 10) The Siege of Esztergom Fortress: Sultan Suleyman went to Buda in 1543. Then, he reached to the fortress of Esztergom in Hungary. Thus, a fierce battle began between the Ottomans and Hungarian forces in the castle. When the forces in the fortress realized that they could not stand for a long time in the castle , sent a delegation for an agreement to Suleiman and delivered the castle to the Turks in August 10th, 1543.
  12. 12. Sultan Süleyman , Avusturya seferinde iken Safevi Şahı I. Tahmasb Tebriz, Nahçıvan ve Van'ı ele geçirdi. Ayrıca Şii hakimiyetini de güçlü bir şekilde tesis etmiş, hatta bölgeye "halife" adlı casuslar bile göndermişti. Tahmasb'ın kardeşi Elkas Mirza ise Safevi Devleti tahtına çıkmak istiyordu. İsyan etti, fakat başarılı olamayarak I. Süleyman'a sığındı. Bu gelişmelerden haberdar olan Tahmasb da ordusunu topladı. Tebriz'deki İran Şahı I. Tahmasb padişahın Hoy'a geldiğini öğrenince bütün şehri tahliye ettirir ve kendiside Kazvin'e kaçar. 27 Temmuz 1548 tarihinde padişah zorlanmadan Tebriz'i işgal eder. I. Süleyman şehirde 5 gün kaldıktan sonra Van'a geçer ve kaleyi kuşatır. 25 Ağustosta Van kalesi alınır. 29 Eylülde padişah Diyarbakır'a 25 Kasımda Halep'e geçip kışı orada geçirir. Sultan Süleyman 21 Aralık tarihinde İstanbul'a döner.
  13. 13. The Safavids that was a dynasty in Iran and Azerbaijan) attacked to the eastern of theOttomans again and besieged Erzurum which is an eastern city of Anatolia in Turkey in 1553. Suleiman launched his 12th military campaign to Azerbaijan (1553-1555). After the Ottoman Army had arrived at Kars; Yerevan, Nakhchivan and Karabakh had been burned by. Shah Tahmasp who was the king of Safavids. When Suleiman the Magnificent’s army returned to Amasya, Shah Tahmasp wanted peace by sending a letter to the Suleiman. According to Amasya Treaty in 1555, İran agreed that Tabriz, Baghdad and some parts of Georgia belonged to the Ottoman Empire. Empire and Safavid Empire oThis was the first written agreement in history between the Ottoman Empire and Safavid Empire (İran). Thanks to this agreement, Ottomans had eastern Anatolia and Indian trade route through Anatolia and Iraq.
  14. 14. 13) Szigetvár Siege: Suleiman launched his last campaign to Szigetvár because Austrian Archduke Maximilian I broke the Treaty of Istanbul, not to pay his taxes to the Ottomans and entered into Transylvania which belonged to the Ottoman Empire. Szigetvár became an Ottoman land after approximately one month siege. A day before Szigetvár being conquered, Suleiman the Magnificent died on September 6, 1566.
  15. 15. Hungary King II.Layoş (1521-1526) (1, 3. campaigns) The Holy Rome- Germen Emperor V. Charles (1529-1543) (4, 5, 9, 10. campaign)
  16. 16. The leader of the Knights Hospitaller at Rhodes L'Isle Adam (1522-1523) (2. campaign) Austria King I. Ferdinand (1529-1543) (4, 5, 9, 10. campaigns)
  17. 17. Safavid Shah I. Tahmasp (1534-1555) (6, 11, 12. campaign) The Republic of Venice Presedent Andrea Gritti (1537-1540) (7. campaign)
  18. 18. Bogdan Voivode Petru Rareş (1537-1541) (8. campaign) Austria King II. Maximilian (1564-1566) (13. campaign)
  19. 19. My pain for thee balm in my sight resembles Thy face's beam the clear moonlight resembles. Thy black hair spread across they cheeks, the roses O Liege, the garden's basil quite resembles. Beside thy lip oped wide its mouth, the rosebud; For shame it blushed, it blood outright resembles. Thy mouth, a casket fair of pearls and rubies, Thy teeth, pearls, thy lip coral bright resembles. Their diver I, each morning and each even; My weeping, Liege, the ocean's might resembles. Lest he seduce thee, this my dread and terror, That rival who Iblis in spite resembles.
  20. 20. My resident of solitude, my everything, my beloved, my shining moon My friend, my privacy, my everything, my shah of beautifuls, my sultan My life, my existance, my lifetime, my wine of youngness, my heaven My spring, my joy, my day, my beloved, my laughing rose. My delight, my wine, my tavern, my lamp, my light, my candle My orange and pomegranate and sour orange, my candle of night My plant, my sugar, my treasure, my delicate in world My saint, my Joseph, my everything, my Khan of my heart´s Egypt My İstanbul, My Karaman, my land of Rum My Bedehşan, my Kıpchak, my Bagdad, my Horosan I am a flatterer near your door, I always praise you Heart is full of sorrow, eye is full of tears, I am Muhibbi and I am happy.
  21. 21. Suleiman the Magnificent was also called (‘lawgiver’- Kanuni). However, this title was not because of new laws, the reason was that he regulated existing rules. Everyting was perfectly recorded by the Ottomans. It was a strong tradition the legal system. Suleiman, the Magnificent published ‘The Laws of Suleimans by classifying the laws and rules according to Islamic law which served as a kind of constitution. In the Suleiman Law books, criminal, tax, public and military-related laws, legal, administrative, financial, military matters were classified under headings. He was helped by eminent scholars when he was preparing his laws and rules. He aimed to protect citizens composed of different nationalities and communities.
  22. 22. TRANSLATED BY IDRIS TUNA (History Teacher)

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