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The timeline of Caliphate in History

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Caliphate basically means, a state of entire Muslim nation, which is recognized by the Islam. It doesn’t mean only for Muslim, but also non-Muslims can also have citizenship of the Caliphate. It is the symbol of spiritual, political, economical and military unity.

There was many other empire claimed to be the Caliphate, but this three empire was well recognized by the entire Muslim nation, though they didn’t control over entire Muslim nation all along.

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The timeline of Caliphate in History

  1. 1. What is the Caliphate? Caliphate basically means, a state of entire Muslim nation, which is recognized by the Islam. It doesn’t mean only for Muslim, but also non-Muslims can also have citizenship of the Caliphate. It is the symbol of spiritual, political, economical and military unity. There was many other empire claimed to be the Caliphate, but this three empire was well recognized by the entire Muslim nation, though they didn’t control over entire Muslim nation all along.
  2. 2. The Umayyad Caliphate This caliphate started when the grandson of the Prophet, Hassan Ibn Abi Talib (661), handed over his position of caliph to the brother-in-law of the Prophet, Muawiyyah Ibn Abi Sufian (661-80) of Umayyad clan in 661 AC, and its remain until 750 AC, when they were over thrown from power by the Abbasid. The third Caliph of the Muslims, the son-in-law of the Prophet, Uthman Ibn Affan (644-56)
  3. 3. Expansion of the Umayyad  The Umayyads ruled until 750 CE providing the next 14 caliphs  Once the Umayyads had control they began to conquer new lands  The empire spanned parts of three continents: Africa, Asia, and Europe in less than 100 yrs.  Its Caliphate covered 15 million km2 (5.79 million square miles)  62 million people, almost 30% of the world's population at that time, making it the fifth largest empire in history in both area and proportion of the world's population
  4. 4. Expansion of the Umayyad  By 710 they controlled North Africa from the Nile to the Iberian Peninsula  By 711 they moved North across the Mediterranean Sea and into the Iberian Peninsula or al-Andalus of Europe, modern day’s Spain & Protugal in the west  In the year 712, they conquered both the Sindh and the Punjab regions along the Indus river, modern day’s Pakistan in the east
  5. 5. Map of the Umayyad Caliphate
  6. 6. Umayyad Government  In order to control the vast territory the Umayyad patterened their government on the bureaucracy used in the lands they won from the Byzantine Empire  The bureaucracy allowed the Umayyad to control the entire empire from the capital, Damascus  The caliphs appointed Emirs, or governors, to rule the outlying provinces  Allowed their people to bring their problems to them and consulted advisers about their policies  Had a postal service  Developed Arab coinage called the Dinar (gold) or Diraham (silver)
  7. 7. Decline of Umayyad  By 750 the combined forces under the Abbasid took the Caliphate from them in Damascus  Only Spain was controlled by the Umayyad as an Emirate till 750-929  The Umayyad again claimed a Caliphate in Spain in 929, that known Caliphate of Cordoba  After the fall of Caliphate of Cordoba in 1031, Spain ruled by many independent rulers  By 1492 the Muslims were completely
  8. 8. The Abbasid Caliphate  Abbasids relocated capital of caliphate from Damascus to Baghdad  Move to Baghdad beginning of end of Arab domination of Muslim world  Abbasids adopted Persian style of government  Caliph hidden behind screen in throne room, could not be seen, Rulers cut off from people
  9. 9. Map of the Abbasid Caliphate
  10. 10.  They only included western Africa and Anatolia under the Muslim rule  After 850 Abbasid Caliphate became weak and many Dynasty emerged within the Caliphate  The Fatimid Dynasty based on Egypt took whole North Africa and claimed to be the Caliphate in 909  The Umayyad in Spain also claimed a Caliphate in 929, but it didn’t expend out of Spain  Also in Eastern part of Caliphate, Seljuk Dynasty Timeline of the Abbasid
  11. 11.  Caliphate became a shadow Caliphate and the role of Caliph was just in name  Power was in the hand of governor, and groups of military leaders  1055, Turkish Seljuks rose to power, took control of Baghdad and supported by Abbasid caliph  1099, Jerusalem invaded by the European Crusaders Timeline of the Abbasid
  12. 12.  Salah Deen Ayubi a governor of Abbasid Caliphate retook Egypt in 1171 from Fatimid  Salah Deen Ayubi reconquered Jerusalem from Crusaders in 1187  1258, Mongols destroyed Baghdad, killed Abbasid caliph  Mamluks army from Egypt defeated Mongols in 1260 in the Battle of Ain Jalut in the south- eastern Galilee, in the Jezreel Valley, (Israel- Palestain) Timeline of the Abbasid
  13. 13. Decline of the Abbasid  Mamluks restored the Caliphate, but didn’t claim  They elected a caliph from the Abbasid and kept him to them in their capital Cairo  Until 1517, the Abbasid caliphs were in Cairo under Mamluks  Then the Ottoman took the Caliph from the Mamluks to their capital and later claimed to be the Caliphate
  14. 14. The Ottoman Caliphate  In 1299 Ottoman Empire started in Anatolia  It replaced the Byzantine Empire (former Eastern Roman Empire) as the major power in the Eastern Mediterranean  It claimed the Caliphate, when Sultan Selim I (1517-20) captured the Abbasid Caliph from the Mamluk in 1517
  15. 15. Ottoman Expansion  In 1352 the Ottoman sultans able to cross over into Europe  1453, the Ottoman conquered Constantinople (Istanbul) under Sultan Muhammad al-Fatih from the Byzantine empire, thus ending the Roman Empire  1517, Ottomans had control of Egypt & extended control to most of North African coast
  16. 16. Map of the Ottoman Caliphate
  17. 17. Timeline of the Ottoman  Peak of power during rule of Suleiman (1520-66) (“The Magnificent”)  The Ottoman Empire under the banner of Caliphate continued till 19th century  At 18th century they started losing ground to the Europeans in north and west  France and British Empire invaded the North Africa and Russian Empire invaded Crimea and some part of Bolkan (Eastern
  18. 18.  At world war I, the Ottoman allied with the German  The Emir of Makka & Madina under the Ottoman Caliphate secretly allied with the Great Britain  1917, British army took Jerusalem and other teritory was invaded by the allied forces  1922, the Ottoman Caliphate was officially Decline of the Ottoman

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