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topics for revision OCR B Geography

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topics for revision OCR B Geography

  1. 1. Economic Development What is development?Topic Red Amber GreenI know why GDP is used a measure of developmentI know that GDP Purchasing Power Parity (PPP) is a morerepresentative indicator of wealthI know that other factors (as well as GDP) should beconsidered when assessing developmentI know that HDI incorporates GDP along with life expectancyand educational attainmentI know that the Brandt line is a useful starting point forconsidering levels of developmentI know that the concepts of a north-south divide is outdatedI know that countries move through different stages ofdevelopmentI know that there is a wide gap between the least developedcountries and the most developedCase study:I know about a specific development where conflicts existbetween economic development and environmental damage How can development be affected by aid?Topic Red Amber GreenI know that aid can take many different formsI know that a range of different organisations offer aidI know that to be successful, aid projects must be sustainableEconomic costs, the impact on the environment and the impacton people are all important factors to consider when shapingsustainable aid projectsI know that the Brandt line is a useful starting point forconsidering levels of developmentThe most effective aid projects involve those receiving the aidin terms of planning and implementationCase study:I know about an aid project in a LEDC:How the aid project addresses a specific problem. This mightbe a consequence of a disaster or as part of a developmentprogrammeThe case study should include detail on which organisationsare providing the aid and how the aid project is undertakenThe case study should include detail on how sustainable theproject will be
  2. 2. How employment is structured and what influences locationTopic Red Amber GreenI know a definition of each of the 4 broad sectors of industryI know that countries at different levels of development havedifferent employment structuresI know examples of the employment structure of a range ofcountries from LDCs through to MEDCsI know the difference between jobs in the formal and informalsectorI know that employment structures change over timeI know that high technology has created a new sector ofindustry. This tends to be found in MEDCsI know that a range of factors influence the location ofeconomic activityI know at least one example of each industry type and why itlocates where it doesCase study:I know about an industry in an LEDCI know about an industry in an MEDC What are multinationals and what impact do they have?Topic Red Amber GreenI know what a multinational company isI know the part these companies play in globalisationI know selected examples of multinational companiesI know areas of the world where MNCs locate outside of theirhome countryI know a range of positive impacts that MNCs bring when theylocate in a new countryI know a range of negative impacts that MNCs bring when theylocate in a new countryI know that multinational companies have their home base andheadquarters in MEDCsCase studyI know about an MNC in an international context
  3. 3. Rivers and Coasts RiversTopic Red Amber GreenI know all the stores and flows in the hydrological cycleI understand how water flows through the land to riversin the drainage basin systemI know the main processes of weathering, erosion,transportation and deposition and how these are foundin riversI understand how the features along the river areformedCase study:I know the name of a river valley and the landformswithin it FloodingTopic Red Amber GreenI understand the different causes of flooding: physicaland humanI know how the effects of flooding can be different inplaces with different characteristicsI know how rivers can be managed to reduce the risk offlooding sustainably and that some strategies are moresustainable than othersCase study:I know the causes and effects of flooding in an MEDCI know that causes and effects of flooding in an LEDC CoastsTopic Red Amber GreenI know the main processes found at the coastline:weathering, erosion, transport and depositionI know that geology influences the types of landformsfound at the coastI know how cliffs, headlands, caves, arches, stacks,beaches and spits are formedCase study:I know about one area of coast and what landforms arefound there
  4. 4. Protecting the coastlineTopic Red Amber GreenI know why coastal areas are vulnerable to erosionI understand why coastlines need protectionI know how coastal areas are managed using hardengineering techniquesI understand how coastal areas can be managed in asustainable wayCase study:I know about an area of coastline that is managed,including: Reasons for protection Measures taken Effects (physical and human) Conflicts
  5. 5. Natural Hazards OverviewTopic Red Amber GreenI know how to define a natural hazardI know that different types of natural hazard havespecific global distributionsI know that the movement of tectonic plates causeearthquakes and volcanoesI know that climatic conditions lead to tropical stormsand severe drought The causes and effects of volcanic eruptionsTopic Red Amber GreenI know that volcanic eruptions can vary in intensity andtypeI know details about specific volcanoes in LEDCs andMEDCsI know that LEDCs are less well prepared for eruptions.They often rely on aid when they occurI know that MEDCs are well prepared for eruptions, butthe damage can still be severeI know a variety of ways in which people can prepare forvolcanic eruptionsI know that eruptions have economic, social andenvironmental impactsI know what short-term impacts areI know that a long-term recovery programme is oftennecessaryCase study:I know about a volcanic event in an LEDCI know about a volcanic event in an MEDC The causes and effects of earthquakesTopic Red Amber GreenI know that earthquakes can vary in intensity andmagnitudeI know details about specific earthquakes in LEDCs andMEDCsI know that LEDCs are less well prepared forearthquakes. They often rely on aid when they occurI know that MEDCs are well prepared for earthquakes,but the damage can still be severeI know a variety of ways in which people can prepare forearthquakesI know how countries respond to the immediate effectsof an earthquakeI know how important it is to plan a long-term recovery
  6. 6. programmeI know why people continue to live in areas prone toearthquakesCase study:I know about an earthquake event in an LEDCI know about an earthquake event in an MEDC The causes and effects of droughtTopic Red Amber GreenI know that drought can be short-lived, but that it canalso last for extended periodsI know that the severity of the effects of drought isdependent on where it occursI know the causes of droughtI know that LEDCs struggle to cope with severe drought,but that some measures can be taken to reduce theimpactI know that MEDCs are experiencing drought on a moreregular basis, and that they are beginning to introducemeasures to reduce the effectsCase study:I know about a drought in an LEDCI know about a drought in an MEDC The causes and effects of tropical stormsTopic Red Amber GreenI know the physical factors that allow a tropical storm todevelopI know that they are seasonal and that the vary instrengthI know that they are called different things in differentparts of the worldI know that the impact of tropical storms is dependent inwhere they strikeI know that MEDCs have well developed warningsystems and sophisticated emergency responsesystemsI know that LEDCs have less developed warningsystems and their response systems are more limitedCase study:I know about a tropical storm in an LEDCI know about a tropical storm in an MEDC

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