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Revision flash cards for GCSE Geography OCR B

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Revision flash cards for GCSE Geography OCR B

  1. 1. Name two processes of river erosion and explain. Name two processes of river transport and explain. What landforms can you find in the upper course of a river? What landforms can you find in the middle course of a river? What landforms can you find in the lower course of a river? Explain the formation of a waterfall. Rivers Rivers Rivers Rivers Rivers Rivers
  2. 2. Name two processes of river erosion and explain. Abrasion: rocks carried by the river wear down the river bed. Solution: soluble particles are dissolved into the river Name two processes of river transport and explain. Traction: heaviest particles are rolled along the river bed Saltation: sand-sized particles may be bounced along the rive bed in a leap- frog motion What landforms can you find in the upper course of a river? ‘V’ shaped valleys, gorges, waterfalls and interlocking spurs What landforms can you find in the middle course of a river? Meanders and Ox-bow lakes can be found. What landforms can you find in the lower course of a river? Mudflats, Deltas, Floodplains and Estuaries can be found in the lower course. Explain the formation of a waterfall. Water flows over a layer of hard rock onto a layer of soft rock. This then begins to erode by hydraulic action. An overhang begins to occur and the hard rock eventually collapses due to gravity. Abrasion can now erode more and repeat the process. Rivers Rivers Rivers Rivers Rivers Rivers
  3. 3. What are the physical causes of flooding? What are the human causes of flooding? What is soft engineering? What is hard engineering? What is a dam? Name two ways in which rivers can be managed. Rivers Rivers Rivers Rivers Rivers Rivers
  4. 4. What are the physical causes of flooding? Rainfall, Antecedent Rainfall (saturated ground), Soli/Rock type, Relief, Weather What are the human causes of flooding? Deforestation, Soil Erosion, Farming, Building What is soft engineering? Techniques that are ecologically sensitive and provide options for flooding What is hard engineering? Direct human impact on the river to manage flooding. What is a dam? Physical structure that holds back water along the course of a river, which can release water in a controlled way Name two ways in which rivers can be managed. Damn construction, River engineering, Afforestation, Managed flooding Rivers Rivers Rivers Rivers Rivers Rivers
  5. 5. What is a storm surge? Climactic Hazards How can tropical storms be predicted? Climactic Hazards What are the advantages of predicting a storm? Climactic Hazards What are some secondary impacts How do building techniques reduce the impact of tropical storms? Climactic Hazards What can governments do to reduce the impact of a tropical storm? Climactic Hazards What are the primary effects of tropical storm? Climactic Hazards
  6. 6. What is a storm surge? Large rises in sea level caused by low pressure and high winds of a storm. Climactic Hazards How can tropical storms be predicted? Scientists use data from equipment such as radar, satellites and aircraft to track storms. Computer models are used to calculate a predicted path for the storm. Climactic Hazards What are the advantages of predicting a storm? Gives people time to evacuate, reducing injuries and death. Also gives time to protect homes and business by boarding up windows Climactic Hazards What are some secondary impacts How do building techniques reduce the impact of tropical storms? Using reinforced concrete, fixing roofs securely, put buildings on stilts so they are safe from floodwater, flood defences such as sea walls and levees Climactic Hazards What can governments do to reduce the impact of a tropical storm? Educate people about how to prepare e.g. told how to make a survival kit, including water, food and medication. Told how to evacuate Climactic Hazards What are the primary effects of tropical storm? Buildings and bridges destroyed, flooding, people injured or killed, roads, railways, ports and airports damaged, electricity and telephone cables damaged, crops and livestock lost, erosion Climactic Hazards
  7. 7. Why is it difficult to define a drought? Climactic Hazards Describe 2 causes of droughts. Climactic Hazards What are ways you can reduce the impacts of drought in an MEDC? Climactic Hazards What are some secondary impacts of droughts? Climactic Hazards Why in the Sahel Region did the drought turn into a full blown famine, yet in the UK we have simply introduced a hose pipe ban? Climactic Hazards What type of climatic zones are prone to drought? Climactic Hazards
  8. 8. Why is it difficult to define a drought? Because the length of a drought can differ globally. E.g. A drought in the UK can signify 16 months without average rainfall, but in the Sahel region in Africa it could signify a decade! Climactic Hazards Describe 2 causes of droughts. Changes in atmospheric circulation means there might not be as much rain. High pressure system which prevents a depression moving into the area. Climactic Hazards What are ways you can reduce the impacts of drought in an MEDC? Don’t water the lawn, don’t wash the car, don’t fill a new pool, don’t wash hard surfaces. Climactic Hazards What are some secondary impacts of droughts? People and animals die from dehydration/famine. Farms close causing unemployment. Wildfires. Climactic Hazards Why in the Sahel Region did the drought turn into a full blown famine, yet in the UK we have simply introduced a hose pipe ban? Different levels of development, access to alternative water and food sources, length of drought. Climactic Hazards What type of climatic zones are prone to drought? Areas of high and very high aridity. Generally found near the equator or between 30o N and S. Climactic Hazards
  9. 9. What is the difference between the Richter and Mercali Scale? How do tectonic plates move? Tectonic Hazards What is the difference between the focus and the epicentre What is the different between plate movement for constructive and destructive plate boundaries? What are the primary effects of an earhquake? How can the impacts of an earthquake be reduced? Tectonic Hazards Tectonic Hazards Tectonic Hazards Tectonic Hazards Tectonic Hazards
  10. 10. What is the difference between the Richter and Mercali Scale? Richter measures the magnitude of an earthquake. Mercali measures the amount of destruction How do tectonic plates move? Convection currents in the mantle Tectonic Hazards What is the difference between the focus and the epicentre? The focus is the origin of the earthquake within the Earth’s crust. The epicentre is located directly above the focus on the Earth’s surface. What is the different between plate movement for constructive and destructive plate boundaries? Constructive move apart Destructive move together and the oceanic is sub ducted. What are the primary effects of an earthquake? Landslides/tsunamis triggered. Roads, buildings and bridge collapse. Electricity and telephone poles destroyed. How can the impacts of an earthquake be reduced? Creating stronger buildings, education, planning and aid. Tectonic Hazards Tectonic Hazards Tectonic Hazards Tectonic Hazards Tectonic Hazards
  11. 11. Why do people live near volcanoes? Tectonic Hazards What is a lahar? What is the different types of volcanoes between a constructive and destructive plate boundary? What are pyroclastic flows? What are the secondary effects of volcanoes? What are the four layers of the Earth? Tectonic Hazards Tectonic Hazards Tectonic Hazards Tectonic Hazards Tectonic Hazards
  12. 12. Why do people live near volcanoes? Mineral rich soil for farming, tourism, geothermal energy used in electricity production, extracting minerals from volcano. Tectonic Hazards What is a lahar? A combination of mud, rock. Pyroclastic material and water that can travel tens of metres a second. What is the different types of volcanoes between a constructive and destructive plate boundary? Constructive – usually shield, gentle eruption, ash ad lava Destructive – composite, explosive, lava and ash What are pyroclastic flows? Avalanches of hot volcanic debris What are the secondary effects of volcanoes? Homes destroyed, thick mud deposits from lahars, death and injury, can be high £ cost. What are the four layers of the Earth? Crust, Mantle, Outer Core, Inner Core Tectonic Hazards Tectonic Hazards Tectonic Hazards Tectonic Hazards Tectonic Hazards
  13. 13. What are destructive waves? What are constructive waves? What is weathering? Explain how different geology can affect the coast. Describe a reason for protecting the coastline. Describe what longshore drift is. Coasts Coasts Coasts Coasts Coasts Coasts
  14. 14. What are destructive waves? Associated with storm conditions. Backwash is stronger than swash, so material is removed. What are constructive waves? Associated with high pressure systems. Swash is stronger than backwash, so material is deposited. What is weathering? Weathering is the break down of material in-situ. Explain how different geology can affect the coast. Variation of hard and soft rock. Hard rock can form headlands. Soft rock can be eroded to form bays Describe a reason for protecting the coastline. Social – nice place for people Economic – prevent flooding Environmental – protect natural habitat. Describe what longshore drift is. A zig-zag motion of material that moves down shore in the direction of the prevailing wind. Coasts Coasts Coasts Coasts Coasts Coasts
  15. 15. Describe how cliff retreat occurs. Name and describe two types of erosion. Name 3 coastal features What are 3 types of weathering? Describe 2 types of hard engineering. Describe 2 types of soft engineering Coasts Coasts Coasts Coasts Coasts Coasts
  16. 16. Name and describe two types of erosion. Hydraulic Action – force of water that causes air to go into cracks. Attrition – pebbles hit each other and become smaller and rounder Describe how cliff retreat occurs. Waves at the high tide mark attack the base of the cliff hydraulic action and abrasion wear away at the bottom of the cliff creating a wave cut notch. This eventually becomes large enough where the overhang collapses and the process repeats Name 3 coastal features Cave, stack, stump, arch, wave-cut platform, wave-cut notch What are 3 types of weathering? Physical Biological Chemical Describe 2 types of hard engineering. Groynes trap sediment that would be carried by longshore drift Sea wall – made out of concrete or stone at the base of cliff which reflects wave energy. Describe 2 types of soft engineering Beach nourishment uses sediment to replace the lost sediment from longshore drift. Managed retreat – allowing the coastline to erode naturally Coasts Coasts Coasts Coasts Coasts Coasts
  17. 17. What is the population distribution? What is the population density? What are factors that decrease birth rate? What does the Demographic Transition Model show and how many stages are there? How do birth rate, death rate and life expectancy vary between a LEDC and an MEDC? What causes an aging population? Population Population Population Population Population Population
  18. 18. What is the population distribution? How people are spread out over the globe. What is the population density? The average number of people per square kilometre. What are factors that decrease birth rate? Better health care, family planning, women choosing a career first, couples having children later. What does the Demographic Transition Model show and how many stages are there? The model shows change in population over time and there are 4 stages. How do birth rate, death rate and life expectancy vary between a LEDC and an MEDC? An LEDC has a higher birth and death rate but a lower life expectancy. What causes an aging population? Decrease in birth rate and better medical services that result in a greater life expectancy Population Population Population Population Population Population
  19. 19. What are the consequences of urbanisation? What are the human features that can cause people to move What are the physical features that cause people to move? What are the causes of counter urbanisation? How can urbanisation be managed? What stage of the Demographic Transition Model shows the most rapid increase in population? Population Population Population Population Population Population
  20. 20. What are the human features that cause people to move? Better jobs, better houses, better living conditions What are the physical features that cause people to move? Disease, famine, poor living conditions, What are the consequences of urbanisation? Increase in number of Jobs in service sector; Increase in car ownership causes congestion and pollution; Clean water, sanitation, health centres and power not available. Insufficient schools; Retail jobs lost to out of town locations; Poor quality housing in Inner city What are the causes of counter urbanisation? High crime rates; Pollution; Clean air; More of a community spirit; Poor services; Cheaper living; Peaceful Environment; Retirement; Traffic congestion How can urbanisation be managed? Rubbish recycling schemes; Improve public transport (Trams); Redevelopment Regenerate city centres for Retail; Use of Brownfield sites; Gentrification; congestion charges; park and ride schemes What stage of the Demographic Transition Model shows the most rapid increase in population? Stage 2 as the death rate rapidly decreases Population Population Population Population Population Population
  21. 21. What are the four zones of the Burgess Model? What is the sphere of influence? What is the difference between low and high order goods? Describe the threshold population. Where are the higher order goods bought from now compared in the 60/70s? . Why has the retail changed over time? Settlement Settlement Settlement Settlement Settlement Settlement
  22. 22. What are the four zones of the Burgess Model? CBD, Inner City, Inner Suburbs, Outer Suburbs What is the sphere of influence? The area that people come from to buy things. Shops that sell large, high order goods have bigger spheres of influence than convenience goods (low order goods) What is the difference between low and high order goods? Low order goods are bought more frequently and often cheaper Describe the threshold population. The minimum population needed to support a shop. Higher order good shops have a higher threshold. Where are the higher order goods bought from now compared in the 60/70s? Higher order goods used to be purchased in the CBD, but are now purchased in out of town shopping centres. Why has the retail changed over time? Transportation has been improved People have more expendable money There is more desire for buying goods. Settlement Settlement Settlement Settlement Settlement Settlement
  23. 23. In MEDCs many people move to rural areas, which is called counter- urbanisation. What are 2 negative impacts? In MEDCs many people move to rural areas, which is called counter- urbanisation. What are 2 positive impacts? What are 4 problems for squatters? Where are you more likely to find high order goods stores – places with a higher or lower population? Why? What are some examples of places that sell lower ordered goods? What are some examples of places that sell higher ordered goods? Settlement Settlement Settlement Settlement Settlement Settlement
  24. 24. In MEDCs many people move to rural areas, which is called counter-urbanisation. What are 2 negative impacts? Commuters do not use local shops, so they close. Increase in house prices, so locals cannot afford to buy. In MEDCs many people move to rural areas, which is called counter-urbanisation. What are 2 positive impacts? There are families with children who attend local school preventing it from closing. Farmer sells land to developer making a large profit. What are 4 problems for squatters? Cramped living conditions, poor sanitation, unemployment, high levels of crime, no access to social security of welfare. Risk of fire/landslide/flood/disease. Where are you more likely to find high order goods stores – places with a higher or lower population? Why? Higher, because the greater population means that there is a greater chance of people buying the goods; due to higher proportion of dispensable income. What are some examples of places that sell lower ordered goods? Bakery, butcher, grocer, supermarket, newsagent, sweet shop What are some examples of places that sell higher ordered goods? Furniture shops, jewellers, stores selling large electrical goods such as washing machines, televisions and freezers, car dealers, travel agents selling holidays. Settlement Settlement Settlement Settlement Settlement Settlement
  25. 25. How does the primary industry affect the environment? Economic Development What is globalisation? Economic Development What is a foreign direct investment? Economic Development What factors affect the location of an industry? Economic Development What is the different between primary and secondary industry? Economic Development Identify some ways what the development gap can be reduced Economic Development
  26. 26. How does the primary industry affect the environment? Can disrupt local habitats and ecosystems. Destroys land. Removal of non- renewable resources. Economic Development What is globalisation? Globalisation is the process by which the world is becoming increasingly interconnected as a result of massively increased trade and cultural exchange. Economic Development What is a foreign direct investment? A controlling ownership in a business enterprise in one country by an entity based in another country. Economic Development What factors affect the location of an industry? Site, situation, climate, raw materials, component suppliers, universities, water and power supplies, energy, accessibility of transport and communications Economic Development What is the different between primary and secondary industry? Primary industry Extracting resources from the ground, land and sea. Secondary industry is manufacturing these resources. Economic Development Identify some ways what the development gap can be reduced Multination investment Development of tourism Development projects Intermediate projects Fair trade Reducing debt Economic Development
  27. 27. Explain one problem of aid to LEDCs Explain how the improvement of literacy can improve the quality of life. Economic Development Explain 2 disadvantages of long term aid. Economic Development How would the percentage of people that can read and write change as a country develops? Economic Development How would the percentage of people having access to the internet change as a country develops? Economic Development Explain one benefit of aid to LEDCs Economic Development Economic Development
  28. 28. Explain how the improvement of literacy can improve the quality of life. Get a job/better job/ more skilled job. Earn money/higher pay. Spend money on food/education/family/cloth es. Self belief/pride/self esteem. Economic Development Explain 2 disadvantages of long term aid. Doesn’t always reach the people it needs to due to infrastructure/corruption. Aid may be tied to the donor country; so they have to buy goods/services from the donor country. Creates a dependency on aid; so government lose incentive for long term plan Economic Development How would the percentage of people that can read and write change as a country develops? Literacy would increase because there are more schools/teachers/money spent on education Economic Development How would the percentage of people having access to the internet change as a country develops? The percentage would increase because there are more computers/internet cafes and people can afford them more easily. Economic Development Explain one benefit of aid to LEDCs Provides money for investment into agriculture/water supply/helps improve diet Buys machinery which provides more opportunities for jobs. Economic Development Explain one problem of aid to LEDCs Aid may be directed at a capital intensive project, which may not help local people. Aid in the form of loans creates debt If misspent benefits are short and aid may not be sustainable. Economic Development

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