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DISASTER READINESS AND
RISK REDUCTION
Senior High School S/Y 2017 - 2018
Course Outline
 Disaster and Disaster Risk
 Exposure and Vulnerability
 Basic Concept of Hazard
 Earthquake Hazard
 Volcanic Hazards
 Other Related Geological Hazard
 Hydrometeorological Hazard
 Fire Hazard
 Disaster Risk Reduction and Management
 What to expect from the State and the Citizen
Chapter 1
DISASTER AND DISASTER RISK
Disaster
 A sudden, calamitous event, bringing
great damage loss, destruction and
devastation to life and property.
 A serious disruption of the functioning
of society, causing widespread
human, material, or environment
losses, which exceed the ability of the
affected people to cope, using their
human resources.
How and When an Event Becomes a
Disaster?
 An event, either human –made or
natural, becomes a disaster when it is
sudden or progressive, causing
widespread human, material or
environmental losses.
Typhoon Yolanda
 Strength
290km/hour
 The storm surge
it brought was
sudden and
unexpected
 Its devastating
effect to human,
material, and
environment.
 More than 7000
people perished
 The entire city of
Tacloban was
flattened
Wow wowie Stampede
 The show became so
popular that thousand
of fans flock to ULTRA
to watch the noon time
show. That turned out
to disastrous tragedy
when there was a
human – induced
disturbance among
the watching crowd
that cause a
stampede. Many
spectators were hurt
and some even died
which led to the
dissolution of said TV
program.
Typhoon Ondoy
 Typhoon Ondoy turned
into a disaster because
of the amount of
precipitation brought by
its torrential rains that
lasted for several days
causing floods and flash
floods in Metro Manila.
 Thousands of houses
were submerge in flood
water. Hundreds of
shelters along river
banks and steros were
washed out. Power and
water supplies were cut
off for several weeks.
Hundreds of lives
perished
Disaster Risk
 The probability that a community’s
structure or geographic area is to be
damaged or disrupted by the impact of a
particular hazard, on account of its nature,
construction and proximity to a hazardous
area.
 It signifies the possibility of adverse effects
in the future. It is derived from the
interaction of social and environmental
process, from the combination of physical
hazards and the vulnerability of exposed
Nature of Disasters
 Natural Disasters –
These originate from the
different ‘forces’ of
nature . Natural
disasters such as
earthquakes, volcanic
eruptions, typhoons,
and cyclones affect
many countries in Asia
particularly the
Philippines
 Human – made – These disaster occur due to
people’s actions against human, material and
environment. These include transport and
industrial accidents, such as air and train
crashes, chemical spills, and building collapses.
Terrorism is also categorized as human – made
disaster.
Types of Disaster
Natural Disaster
 Agricultural disease and pests
 Storm surge
 Drought and water shortage
 Earthquakes
 Hurricanes and tropical storm
 Landslide and debris flow
 Thunder storm and lightning
 Tornadoes
 Tsunamis
 Wildfires
 Sinkholes
 Emergency disease
 Extreme heat
 Floods and flash floods
 La Niña
Exposed to Natural Hazard
Areas/ Location Exposed to:
Coastal areas Storm surge, tsunami, tidal waves
Reclaimed Areas Flooding , sinkhole
Near Fault lines Earthquake
On foot of denuded mountains Mudslide/landslide
Near volcanoes Volcanic eruptions
River banks and esteros Flooding, flash floods
Open field Thunderstorm, hailstorm, blizzard
Exposed to Man – made Hazard
Areas/ Location Exposed to:
Near Oil Depots Oil spill, pollution
Near Mining Projects Toxic waste
Near Chemical Plants Chemical fumes, chemical waste
Near Nuclear Plants Nuclear waste
Near factories Factory waste, Pollution
Unsafe building structures Fire
Public Places in Mega Cities Terrorism
Human – Made and technological Types of
Disasters
 Hazardous material
 Power service and disruption and blackout
 Nuclear power plant and nuclear blast
 Radiological emergencies
 Chemical threat and biological weapons
 Cyber attacks
 Explosion
 Civil unrest
RISK FACTORS UNDERLYING
DISASTERS
Risk Factors Underlying Disasters
 Severity of Exposure –
The amount of exposure to the disaster
is highly related to risk of future mental
problems. At highest risk are those that
go through the disaster themselves.
Next are those in close contact with
victims. At lower risk of lasting impact
are those who only had indirect
exposure, such as news of the severe
damage.
 Gender and Family
Disaster recovery is more stressful when
children are present in the home. Women
with spouses also experience more distress
during recovery. Having a family member in
the home who is extremely distressed is
related to more stress for everyone. Marital
stress has been found to increase after
disasters. Also, conflicts between family
members or lack of support in the home
make it harder to recover from disasters.
 Age
Adults who are in the range of 40 – 60 are
likely to be more distressed after disasters.
The thinking is that if one is in that age
range, he / she has more demands from job
and family. Research on how children react
to natural disasters is still limited at this point
in tie. In general, children show more severe
distress after disasters than adults do.
Higher stress in the parents is related to
worse recovery in children.
 Other factors specific to the survivor
Several factors related to a survivor’s background and
resources are important for recovery from disasters.
Recovery is worse if survivors:
 Were not functioning well before the disaster
 Have had no experience dealing with disasters
 Must deal with other stressor after the disaster
 Have poor self – esteem
 Think they are uncared by others
 Think they have little control over what happens to them
 Lack the capacity to manage stress
Other factors have also been found to predict
worse outcomes:
 Bereavement (death of someone close)
 Injury to self or another family member
 Life threat
 Panic, horror, or feelings like that during the disaster
 Being separated from family (especially among youth)
 Great loss of property
 Displacement ( being force to leave home)
 Developing Countries
There is a strong body of evidence that
these risk factors can be made worse if
the disaster occurs in a developing
country. Disasters in developing
countries, like Philippines, have more
severe mental health impact than
disasters in developed countries. This
is true even with less serious disasters.
 Low or Negative social support
The support of others can be both a
risk and a resilience factor. Social
support can weaken after disasters.
This may be due to stress and the need
for members of the support network to
get on with their own lives.
EFFECTS OF NATURAL
DISASTERS ON HUMAN LIFE
Displaced Populations
 When Mt. Pinatubo
erupted in 1991,
thousands of families in
Zambales and Pampanga
were displaced. Their
communities were
ravaged by lahar flow that
turned these communities
into “wilderness”
Health Risk
 Severe flooding
can result in
stagnant water
that allows
breeding of
waterborne
bacteria and
malaria carrying
mosquitoes.
Dengue fever is
another serious
health problem
caused by
mosquitoes.
Food Scarcity
 After natural
disasters, food often
becomes scarce.
Thousands of people
around the world go
hungry as a result of
destroyed crops and
loss of agricultural
supplies, whether it
happens suddenly in
a storm or gradually
in a drought.
Emotional Aftershocks
 Natural disasters can be
particularly traumatic for
young children.
Confronted with scenes
of destruction and the
deaths of friends and
loved ones, many
children develop post –
traumatic stress disorder
(PTSD), a serious
psychological condition
resulting from extreme
trauma.
Disaster from Different
Perspective
Disaster is analyzed from different perspective as follows:
Physical Perspective

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Disaster readiness and risk reduction

  • 1. DISASTER READINESS AND RISK REDUCTION Senior High School S/Y 2017 - 2018
  • 2. Course Outline  Disaster and Disaster Risk  Exposure and Vulnerability  Basic Concept of Hazard  Earthquake Hazard  Volcanic Hazards  Other Related Geological Hazard  Hydrometeorological Hazard  Fire Hazard  Disaster Risk Reduction and Management  What to expect from the State and the Citizen
  • 3. Chapter 1 DISASTER AND DISASTER RISK
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  • 13. Disaster  A sudden, calamitous event, bringing great damage loss, destruction and devastation to life and property.  A serious disruption of the functioning of society, causing widespread human, material, or environment losses, which exceed the ability of the affected people to cope, using their human resources.
  • 14. How and When an Event Becomes a Disaster?  An event, either human –made or natural, becomes a disaster when it is sudden or progressive, causing widespread human, material or environmental losses.
  • 15. Typhoon Yolanda  Strength 290km/hour  The storm surge it brought was sudden and unexpected  Its devastating effect to human, material, and environment.  More than 7000 people perished  The entire city of Tacloban was flattened
  • 16. Wow wowie Stampede  The show became so popular that thousand of fans flock to ULTRA to watch the noon time show. That turned out to disastrous tragedy when there was a human – induced disturbance among the watching crowd that cause a stampede. Many spectators were hurt and some even died which led to the dissolution of said TV program.
  • 17. Typhoon Ondoy  Typhoon Ondoy turned into a disaster because of the amount of precipitation brought by its torrential rains that lasted for several days causing floods and flash floods in Metro Manila.  Thousands of houses were submerge in flood water. Hundreds of shelters along river banks and steros were washed out. Power and water supplies were cut off for several weeks. Hundreds of lives perished
  • 18. Disaster Risk  The probability that a community’s structure or geographic area is to be damaged or disrupted by the impact of a particular hazard, on account of its nature, construction and proximity to a hazardous area.  It signifies the possibility of adverse effects in the future. It is derived from the interaction of social and environmental process, from the combination of physical hazards and the vulnerability of exposed
  • 19. Nature of Disasters  Natural Disasters – These originate from the different ‘forces’ of nature . Natural disasters such as earthquakes, volcanic eruptions, typhoons, and cyclones affect many countries in Asia particularly the Philippines
  • 20.  Human – made – These disaster occur due to people’s actions against human, material and environment. These include transport and industrial accidents, such as air and train crashes, chemical spills, and building collapses. Terrorism is also categorized as human – made disaster.
  • 21. Types of Disaster Natural Disaster  Agricultural disease and pests  Storm surge  Drought and water shortage  Earthquakes  Hurricanes and tropical storm  Landslide and debris flow  Thunder storm and lightning  Tornadoes  Tsunamis  Wildfires  Sinkholes  Emergency disease  Extreme heat  Floods and flash floods  La Niña
  • 22. Exposed to Natural Hazard Areas/ Location Exposed to: Coastal areas Storm surge, tsunami, tidal waves Reclaimed Areas Flooding , sinkhole Near Fault lines Earthquake On foot of denuded mountains Mudslide/landslide Near volcanoes Volcanic eruptions River banks and esteros Flooding, flash floods Open field Thunderstorm, hailstorm, blizzard
  • 23. Exposed to Man – made Hazard Areas/ Location Exposed to: Near Oil Depots Oil spill, pollution Near Mining Projects Toxic waste Near Chemical Plants Chemical fumes, chemical waste Near Nuclear Plants Nuclear waste Near factories Factory waste, Pollution Unsafe building structures Fire Public Places in Mega Cities Terrorism
  • 24. Human – Made and technological Types of Disasters  Hazardous material  Power service and disruption and blackout  Nuclear power plant and nuclear blast  Radiological emergencies  Chemical threat and biological weapons  Cyber attacks  Explosion  Civil unrest
  • 26. Risk Factors Underlying Disasters  Severity of Exposure – The amount of exposure to the disaster is highly related to risk of future mental problems. At highest risk are those that go through the disaster themselves. Next are those in close contact with victims. At lower risk of lasting impact are those who only had indirect exposure, such as news of the severe damage.
  • 27.  Gender and Family Disaster recovery is more stressful when children are present in the home. Women with spouses also experience more distress during recovery. Having a family member in the home who is extremely distressed is related to more stress for everyone. Marital stress has been found to increase after disasters. Also, conflicts between family members or lack of support in the home make it harder to recover from disasters.
  • 28.  Age Adults who are in the range of 40 – 60 are likely to be more distressed after disasters. The thinking is that if one is in that age range, he / she has more demands from job and family. Research on how children react to natural disasters is still limited at this point in tie. In general, children show more severe distress after disasters than adults do. Higher stress in the parents is related to worse recovery in children.
  • 29.  Other factors specific to the survivor Several factors related to a survivor’s background and resources are important for recovery from disasters. Recovery is worse if survivors:  Were not functioning well before the disaster  Have had no experience dealing with disasters  Must deal with other stressor after the disaster  Have poor self – esteem  Think they are uncared by others  Think they have little control over what happens to them  Lack the capacity to manage stress
  • 30. Other factors have also been found to predict worse outcomes:  Bereavement (death of someone close)  Injury to self or another family member  Life threat  Panic, horror, or feelings like that during the disaster  Being separated from family (especially among youth)  Great loss of property  Displacement ( being force to leave home)
  • 31.  Developing Countries There is a strong body of evidence that these risk factors can be made worse if the disaster occurs in a developing country. Disasters in developing countries, like Philippines, have more severe mental health impact than disasters in developed countries. This is true even with less serious disasters.
  • 32.  Low or Negative social support The support of others can be both a risk and a resilience factor. Social support can weaken after disasters. This may be due to stress and the need for members of the support network to get on with their own lives.
  • 34. Displaced Populations  When Mt. Pinatubo erupted in 1991, thousands of families in Zambales and Pampanga were displaced. Their communities were ravaged by lahar flow that turned these communities into “wilderness”
  • 35. Health Risk  Severe flooding can result in stagnant water that allows breeding of waterborne bacteria and malaria carrying mosquitoes. Dengue fever is another serious health problem caused by mosquitoes.
  • 36. Food Scarcity  After natural disasters, food often becomes scarce. Thousands of people around the world go hungry as a result of destroyed crops and loss of agricultural supplies, whether it happens suddenly in a storm or gradually in a drought.
  • 37. Emotional Aftershocks  Natural disasters can be particularly traumatic for young children. Confronted with scenes of destruction and the deaths of friends and loved ones, many children develop post – traumatic stress disorder (PTSD), a serious psychological condition resulting from extreme trauma.
  • 38. Disaster from Different Perspective Disaster is analyzed from different perspective as follows: