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Lect 1


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Introduction to Disaster Management, basic terms and concept, situation in World and Pakistan

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Lect 1

  1. 1. Shared By:<br />Muhammad Qadeer<br />Hazards and Disasters Management<br />
  2. 2. &quot;O my Lord! Open for me my chest (grant me self-confidence, contentment, and boldness).<br />&quot;And ease my task for me;<br />&quot;And make loose the knot (the defect) from my tongue, (i.e. remove the incorrectness from my speech)<br />That they may understand my speech.<br />
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  4. 4. DiscussionLecture Structure<br />Our world and our challenges<br />Disasters in Pakistan<br />Disaster Management; basic terms and concepts<br />Hazard, Risk, Disaster, Elements at Risk, Vulnerability, Capacity, Response, Relief, Rehabilitation, Reconstruction, Development, Mitigation, Preparedness and Prevention etc<br />Disaster Management Cycle<br />
  5. 5. Our world - our Challenges<br />Disasters are as old as human history<br />From 1994 to 1998, reported disasters average 428 per year<br />From 1999 to 2003, average raised to 707 events per year, it’s a 60% increase<br />The worse is that the biggest rise was in countries of low human development which suffered an increase of 142 percent<br />
  6. 6. Situation of Disasters in Pakistan<br />Like other South Asian countries, Pakistan continues to suffer from a plethora of natural and human induced hazards.<br />Commun Natural Disasters in Pakistan include floods, arthquakes, landslides, cyclones, and droughts<br />Manmade disasters include such as fires, civil unrest and terrorism, refugees and internally displaced people, health epidemics, transport accidents, industrial accidents and war<br />6,037 people were killed and 8,989,631 affected in the period between 1993-2002 <br />(World Disasters Report 2003, Geneva, International Federation of Red Cross and Red Crescent Societies).<br />
  7. 7. Situation of Disasters in Pakistan<br />Floods:Pakistan is one of the five South Asian countries with the highest annual average number of people physically exposed to floods. During 1991 to 2001 floods caused an estimated damage of over Pak Rs 78,000 million to property<br />Droughts: Severe drought periods in 2000 and 2002 led to 120 deaths and affected 2,200,000 people.<br />Earthquakes: From 1974 to 1990, approximately 5669 people were killed due to earthquakes in the Northern Areas (NA), NWFP and Balochistan. The most recent significant earthquake of February 2004, and Oct 05 in NWFP has resulted in the life loss of millions of people<br />Cyclons: The cyclone of 1999 in Thatta and Badin districts wiped out 73 settlements, and resulted in 168 lives lost, nearly 0.6 million people affected and killing of 11,000 cattle. It destroyed 1,800 small and big boats and partially damaged 642 boats, causing a loss of Rs 380 million. <br />
  8. 8. Major Natural Disasters in Pakistan<br />
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  11. 11. Basic Terms and Concepts<br />
  12. 12. Is FLOOD a disaster????<br />And an earthquake???<br />
  13. 13. Hazard<br />Its physical phenomenon or situation which has the potential to cause disruption or damage to people, their properties, their services or their environment<br />Hazards are the result of an interaction between human activities and the natural and technological processes that can generate extreme events. <br />For example, earthquake faults, active volcanoes, flood zones, and highly flammable brush fields are all hazards.<br />
  14. 14. Disaster<br />The serious disruption of the functioning of society, causing widespread human, material or environmental losses, which exceed the ability of the affected people to cope using their own resources.<br /><ul><li>An event, either man-made or natural, sudden or progressive, causing widespread human, material or environmental losses</li></li></ul><li>Emergency vs Disaster<br />Emergency—An emergency is a deviation from planned or expected behavior or a course of events that endangers or adversely affects people, property, or the environment.<br />Disaster—Disasters are characterized by the scope of an emergency. An emergency becomes a disaster when it exceeds the capability of the local resources to manage it.<br />Disasters often result in great damage, loss, or destruction<br />
  15. 15. Risk<br />The probability that a community’s structure or geographic area is to be damaged or disrupted by the impact of a particular hazard, on account of their nature, construction, and proximity to a hazardous area. <br />
  16. 16. Elements at Risk<br />Persons, buildings, crops or other such like societal components exposed to known hazard, which are likely to be adversely affected by the impact of the hazard.<br />
  17. 17. Vulnerability<br /><ul><li>Is a condition or sets of conditions that reduces people’s ability to prepare for, withstand or respond to a hazard</li></li></ul><li>Capacity<br />Are those positive condition or abilities which increase a community’s ability to deal with hazards. <br />
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  19. 19. Relief<br />Measures that are required in search and rescue of survivors, as well to meet the basic needs for shelter, water, food and health care.<br />
  20. 20. Recovery<br />The process undertaken by a disaster affected community to fully restore itself to pre-disaster level of functioning.<br />
  21. 21. Rehabilitation<br />Actions taken in the aftermath of a disaster to:<br />assist victims to repair their dwellings;<br />re-establish essential services; <br />revive key economic and social activities<br />
  22. 22. Reconstruction<br />Permanent measures to repair or replace damaged dwellings and infrastructure and to set the economy back on course.<br />
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  25. 25. Prevention<br />Measures taken to avert a disaster from occurring, if possible (to impede a hazard so that it does not have any harmful effects).<br />
  26. 26. Mitigation<br />Measures taken prior to the impact of a disaster to minimize its effects (sometimes referred to as structural and non-structural measures).<br />
  27. 27. Preparedness<br />Measures taken in anticipation of a disaster to ensure that appropriate and effective actions are taken in the aftermath.<br />
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  31. 31. Any Question???<br />Good Question!!!<br />Next Question??<br />