GCSE Geography Revision PackKey Themes Exam12th June 2013NAME:TEACHER:
Reaching the summit of GCSE GeographyFlimited understanding everyday language basic conclusions simple physical and human processes simple relationships between people and the environmentsimple reasons and evidence limited number of techniques and technologies limited evidenceAWide range of scales.Accurate geographicalvocabulary.Wide range of geographicalconcepts.Understand complexrelationships.Identify and evaluatecurrent issues.Informedgeographicaldecisions.Understand a future that issustainable.Wide range of relevantskills.Investigate independently.Collect a range of evidencefrom a wide range ofsources.Analyse and criticallyevaluate information.Reflect on the limitations ofevidence.Identify bias.Substantiated andappropriate conclusions.Identify relevant questions.CPeople and place acrossdifferent scales.Use geographicalvocabulary.Knowledge of someconcepts in a variety ofcontexts.Understand relationshipsbetweenpeople and place.Make decisions that aresupportedbyreasons, includingsustainable approaches.Select and use a variety ofskills.Identify questions andissues.Collect and recordappropriate evidence fromdifferent sources.Analyse and interpretevidence.Recognise some limitationsof evidenceMake plausible conclusions.Choose a target toaim for & writedown
Key terms : match up1. Attrition2. Abrasion3. Hydraulic Action4. Corrosion5. Meander6. Oxbow lake7. Undercutting8. Rotational cliff slumping9. Longshore drift10. Hydrological cyclea. The process of material being moved alongthe beach by waves in direction of prevailingwindb. A bend in the riverc. When chemicals in water acts like an acid todissolve sedimentd. When a headland collapses due to the basebeing weakenede. When a meander is cut off to form a lakef. The act of particles & water smoothingsediment as if like sandpaperg. The cycle of water around our planet insolid, liquid and gas formh. When water and air are forced intoweaknesses in rock and split rocks aparti. When waves or rivers create notches andweaknesses at the base of rocksj. When particles in water are smashed intoother rocks to chip away or break apart
River landforms : need to know• V-shape valleys• Waterfalls• Gorges• Meanders• Ox-bow lakes• Floodplains• Mouth• Erosion : attrition, hydraulicaction, abrasion, corrosion (same as for coasts)
V-Shape ValleysVertical erosion in the upper course of the river.The river is steep and gravity pulls it downhill so it erodes deeply in to thesoil. The rocks on the valley sides slide down to make a V shape.Interlocking SpursLike a zip.The river erodes deeply in the upper course (verticalerosion) but does not have the energy to erode the harderspurs of rock so it flows around them.MEANDERS•Water in a river has slower and faster areas so you get differentialerosion & deposition•Water is fastest on the outside edge of the bend so erodes more, it isslower on the inside and so deposits materia•Therefore you get curves and bendsOxbow lakesAre cut-off meanders.When meanders get too tight the water really slows down and too muchdeposition occurs. Then when a storm happens a new fast channel iseroded straight past, cutting off the old bend which gets left behind as alake.
FLOODPLAINSThe area of land either side of the river in the lower course that getsflooded.Very fertile land because of rich soils that get deposited after floods.Mouth: the end of a river where itflows into a lake or the seaDELTA:A deposition landform.When the river reaches the sea water slows down rapidly anddeposits its material. The load builds up and the river gets brokenup into lots of smaller tributaries.
• Copy and complete:– The hard, surface rock is eroded more slowly and so is left unsupported as the underlying_____ rock is more quickly by the river. In time this rock ledge willcollapse due to . This material will be swirled around by the river, widening andthe plunge pool at the foot of the waterfall. Eventually as more rock collapses, thewill retreat inland leaving a steep gorge.waterfall deepening gravityeroded resistant softer
Meanders ExplanationWhen rivers flow over flatter land, they develop largebends called . As a rivergoes around a most of the water ispushed towards the outside causing increased. The river is now erodinginto its banks rather than downwards into its bed, aprocess called erosion. On the inside ofa bend there is much less water. Therefore the river isshallow and slow-flowing. It cannot carry as muchand so sand a shingle will be.deposited meanders erosionbend sideways lateral materialOx-Bow Lake ExplanationAs the river gets closer to its mouth it develops larger _________ .Water in the river flows fastest on the ________ of the bend, and soerodes more deeply forming a steep river _______. Deposition occurs______ the meander where water is slower. Over time, the meandergets tighter and the loop becomes narrower at the bend. During peakflow, like during a _______, the river runs so fast that water cuts rightacross the meander to form a new straight channel. Water now flowsfastest in the middle of the _______ so ________ occurs on both banks.Eventually, the old meander bend becomes _________ off withsediment to leave the crescent-shaped ox-bow lake isolated. It may dryup in time.cliff storm meanders outside blockeddeposition channel inside
The Flood / Storm Hydrograph•Hydrographs are used to show the relationship betweenprecipitation and discharge (the amount of waterpassing in the river channel).•Hydrographs are used to predict whether a river is likelyto flood.•Discharge is measured in Cumecs (cubic metres ofwater per second).•Lag Time is the delay between peakprecipitation and peak river discharge.•Short Lag Times means water enters theriver system very quickly following rainfall•Long Lag Times means water takes a longertime to enter the river system following rainfallThis could be for anurbanlocation, quicksurface runoff andless infiltrationThis could be for arural location, slowsurface runoff andmore infiltration
Heavy rainfall = more water entering the rivercatchment more quicklyRiver engineering = building bridges / dams /channels changes how the river flows, and cancause blockagesPloughing = ploughing up + down channels infields creates artificial channels that allows waterto flow fasterSteep slopes = increases surface runoff beforeinfiltration and speeds up the riverAntecedent rainfall = previous rainfall meansground is saturated so less infiltration + moresurface runoffUrbanisation = impermeable surfaces so moresurface runoffDeforestation = reduces interception so moresurface runoff, also means soil flows into riverwhich clogs it upHot dry weather = hard baked soil reducesinfiltration and increases surface runoffSnow melt = more water input to the system Impermeable rocks = less infiltration/groundwater flow and more surface runoffPhysical & human causes of river floodingBasically, anything that reduces infiltrationand increases surfacerunoff
River flooding & managementRiver Derwent MEDC floods• In the North York Moors, River Derwent flows through the Peak District• Upper course has steep hills + valleys• 19th+20th November 2009• A 1:1000 year flood• 1300 homes flooded• Cockermouth village = flood water above 8ft• River Derwent burst its banks• 315mm rain fell in 24hrs• 4 bridges collapsed• £100million damages• 1 police officer died• http://bbc.in/4JLYeS• http://bbc.in/6QC91M
Flooding, River Derwent in North YorkshireBetween 28 Feb and 11 Marthere had been over 500mmof rainRoads and home were floodedup to 1 and a half metersThe main towns are Pickering,Norton, Malton, Pockington,Helmsley and Stanford BridgeMelting snow on the NorthYork Moors contributed tosurface runoffNew buildings on the floodplain increased impermeabilityand reduced infiltrationDeforestation means the watergets to the groundstraightaway, instead of beingintercepted.In Malton, rubbish blocked thechannel so the water backedup, making the flood worsethan it could have beenSteep slopes near the sourceof the River Derwent meansincreased runoffThe River Derwent burst itbanksIt was the worse flooding theresidents had seen in 70 yearsPickering was flooded first, andtown further down the riverflooded a few days later.Sewage from flooded drainsmixed with the flood waters tomake a health hazardThe rail link between York andScarbourgh was cut and thereplacement bus could not getto the town of MiltonThe main roads A169 andA166 had to be closed.The population is about100,0004 bridges destroyed1 police officer killedColour code to show causes, location detail & effects
Research a Flood case study in an MEDC – UK floodsLong term effects Long term effects Effects on people Effects on the environment1. 1. 1. 1.2. 2. 2. 2.3. 3. 3. 3.Causes:1.2.Effects – remember to quote specific detail and locationsFlood Location(shade) Human responses: give specific detail1.2.3.
River management: Hard + Soft EngineeringHard Engineering Soft EngineeringDams WashlandsEmbankments Land-usezoningFlood Walls AfforestationStraightening anddeepening the riverWarningsystemsStorage areas
Coast The maximum distance over which waves can travel is known as the…Fetch One of the erosion processes that involves large waves hurtling beachmaterial at a cliff is called……..Corrasion The landform created along stretches of less resistant coastlines (i.e.areas made of clay) are known as…….Bays The name given to waves with a weak swash but strong backwash is……Destructive The process that involves beach material being dropped is moretechnically known as….Deposition What is the name given to the predominant force affecting the coastallandscape of the UK…….Prevailing Winds The process that carries material up and down the beach is knownas…….Longshore Drift What is the name of the process that carries / returns wave energy backdown the beachBackswash The erosion process that breaks up large boulders into small particles bybumping them against each other is known as…..Attrition The areas of land left protruding into the sea as they are more resistantto wave erosion are called…..Headlands The force of waves compressing air into cracks in a cliff is an erosionprocess called…Hydraulic Action Coastlines can dissolved by salts and acids in seawater. This is alsoknown as….Corrosion The narrow contact zone between land and sea is more commonly calledthe…Match the keyword with its meaning
Waves & longshore driftThere are two main types of waves:• Constructive vs Destructive• Constructive waves build up the beach, whereas destructive waves removematerial and reduce the beachLongshore drift ; theprocess of materialbeing moved alongcoast by waves indirection of prevailingwind
The geology of the coast affects howmuch it is eroded.More resistant rocks (e.g. chalk) erodemore slowly than less resistant rocks (e.g.clay, limestone)This gives us BAYSAnd HEADLANDSCoastlines are made of alternating layers of harder(more resistant) and softer (less resistant) rocks.This geology influences what landforms are created.
O.S. Map of Ballard point, a headlandon the Jurassic Coast.What type of rock do you think theheadland might be made from? …...………..............................................What effect does this have?.............…………………………………………What type of rock do you think theheadland might be made from? …...………..............................................What effect does this have?.............…………………………………………What type of rock do you think thebay might be made from? …………..........................................................What effect does this have?.............…………………………………………
• So how do cliffs and wave-cut platforms form?- The erosion of a cliff is greatest at its base where large waves break - hydraulic action, abrasion and attritionconstantly undercut the foot of the cliff- This forms a dent called a wave-cut notch- The cliff face is also affected by abrasion as rock fragments are hurled against the cliff by the breaking waves.- The undercutting continues and eventually the overhanging cliff becomes so heavy it collapses downwards -this process continues over time and the cliff gradually retreats inland and becomes steeper.- As the cliff retreats, a gently-sloping rocky platform is left at the base, this is known as a wave-cut platformwhich is exposed at low tide.
Lulworthcove• Lulworth Cove, on the Jurassic coast in Dorset, has a geology which is a mixof different rocks which have been tilted upwards over the years to becomenearly vertical.• Millions of years ago, a river rain through the rocks to the sea. This allowedsea water to erode the rocks. First the limestone was eroded, then the seareached the softer rocks of clay and sands and very quick erosionhappened.• Eventually, the sea eroded back in to the land until it reached the resistantchalk. Here the erosion slowed down. This made the perfect horseshoe-shaped bay you can see.• Eventually this cove will erode further back and join another cove, to formone massive bay.
Caves, Arches, Stacks and StumpsCliffs are created where the coastline is made of more resistant materials, howevereven along such coastlines there are places of weakness such as faults or joints.Erosion processes (corrosion, hydraulicaction, and corrasion) by the waves willwiden any weaknesses to form a caveinitially.If this happens at a headlandthis cave might be widened toform a natural archWaves will continue to erodethis natural arch until its roofbecomes too heavy to besupported and it collapses.When this roof collapses it willleave part of the former cliffisolated as a stackIn time, continued erosion willresult in this stack collapsingto form a stump
Beaches, spits, bars & tombolos Coasts are not just eroded, they are also built up by deposition –this is when eroded material is dropped off and builds up over time This creates beaches Deposition happens when waves are constructive (so the swash isbigger than backwash so material gets moved up on to the beach). Material is moved by the sea and can travel miles Beaches, spits, bars and tombolos are created by deposition andtransportation Beaches develop when the supply of sediment exceeds anysediment lost through backwash and longshore drift. They can besteep shingle or flatter sand. Where there is a change in the coastline e.g. a headland or anestuary mouth, longshore drift may continue to deposit sedimentsinto the sea forming a spit. E.g. Mudeford Spit at Hengistbury Head Local currents and changes in wind direction may curve the end ofthe spit landwards creating a hooked tip. This is a recurved spit. If a spit joins on to one part of the mainland to another it is called abar. Where a spit joins the mainland to an island a tombolo may becreated. The longest and best known tombolo in Britain is Chesilbeach.
Coastal erosion & management• Highcliffe, Dorset & Barton-on-Sea, Hampshire• Beach management is a political issue. The two councils do notagree about coastal management because each area has differentvalues.• The geology is very soft. The cliffs are layers of sand and clay – verysoft rocks, un-resistant to erosion.• What one council does to protect its coast, has a big impact on theother coastline – e.g. Groynes at Highcliffe trap sediment whichstarves beaches downcoast at Barton, meaning they are morevulnerable to erosion• In 1950, both areas were receding at 2metres per year due to cliffslumping. Highcliffe installed hard and soft engineering to protectvaluable properties and businesses (to ‘hold the line’) whereasBarton decided upon ‘managed retreat’ due to lower land value.
What has happened here? Why?What has happened here? Why? What is this? Why has it been built? How doesit work?Land use here:This is the border between Hampshire and Dorset. Whyis that important?:Land use here:Coastal Management along Highcliffe and Barton on SeaBarton on Sea, HampshireHighcliffe, Dorset
Method How does it work? Advantages DisadvantagesGroynesSea WallRevetmentsRock ArmourGabionsBeach replenishmentBeach reshapingManaged Retreat
Economic DevelopmentIndustry, industrial location, changeover time, employment patterns, trade,aid, effects on environment,development indicators
Key terms : match up• Standard of living• Quality of life• Life expectancy• HDI• LEDC• MEDC• Infant mortality• Literacy rate• % of people who can read + write• Less Economically DevelopedCountry• A statistic used to rank countriesby level of "human development”• More Economically DevelopedCountry• How long on average people live• How well-off a person or countryis, focusing purely on economic• How many babies die per 1000born per year• A measure of how happy andcontent people are with their lives
Why is thereadevelopmentgap?Physical- Landlocked countries- Lack of natural resources- Natural hazards- Lack of access to safe drinking water- Inhospitable climate: poor agriculture etc Economic Factors• Unfair Trade – Subsidies• Over reliance on farming• Growth of Multi nationalcompanies• Lack of technology /resources• Debt owed to othercountriesPolitical Factors• Instability e.g. civil war (landmines in Angola make landunusable)• Power of West over others• Corrupt government e.g.ZimbabweCultural Factors• Some indigenous tribes CHOOSEtraditional way of life• Some societies e.g. Tibet don’t seevalue in material goodsHistorical Factors• Former colonies wereleft in turmoil aftergiven independencee.g. India
CASE STUDYEXAMPLESPhysical Factors – Bangladesh flooding• Regularly occurs due to monsoon season• Destroys buildings, infrastructure andcommunications• Can damage destroy crops and animals• Contaminates drinking waterEconomic Factors –Zimbabwe debt• Massive internationaldebt – owes 145% of itstotal $GDP• No money to invest inindustry / infrastructurePolitical – Sudan’s Civil war- Arab vs non Arab communities- Fighting over grazing rights & land- Burnt farmlands, schools, hospitals- In 2004 approx 50’000 deathsmainly due to starvation, 200’000refugeesCultural Factors – Tibet society• Buddhist monk society• See no value in capitalism / money• Choose freedom from stress, simplelifestylesHistorical – India colony- Former British colony- Left in politicalconfusion, after beingdragged through war- Introduced newdiseases from UK
So, what is ‘aid’?• Aid is help that is given from one country to another in need –usually from MEDCs to help LEDCs/ LDCs (or to countriessuffering from a sudden disaster)• Short term vs long term (more sustainable)• official government aid / voluntary aid / bilateral aid (tied aid)• Non-Governmental Organisations (NGOs) = private group thatworks in other countries but is free from government control, E.g.Red Cross, Oxfam, Greenpeace• Good aid (sustainable) = targeted aid, sustainable because investsin projects like education, healthcare, services, training for jobsCASE STUDIES = Goat Aid, Tanzania or Water Aid, Mali
Changesover timeOutsourcing =saves money, worksent elsewhere tosave costs (e.g. callcentres)Technology =advances in ICTmeans morework from homeTransport = commuting &migrating easier becausethere are now fewerbarriers to travelRising costs = wagelevels / laws etc, meanscosts go up in MEDCs sowork moves elsewhere(e.g. manufacturing)Competition =fewer people areneeded tocomplete worknow, e.g. bankinguses ICTWhy do LEDCs and MEDCshave differentemployment patterns?Why do employmentpatterns change overtime?Why does industriallocation change overtime?
What might be the effectsof a decline in primary orsecondary industries onthat area?On theenvironment?On localsociety?On theeconomy?• What do different industriesneed access to?Primary? E.g. near resourcesSecondary? E.g. transport linksTertiary? E.g. near consumersLocationfactorsRawmaterialsGovernment policyAvailability ofmarketsCapital(money)Transport linksLabour(skilled /cheap)EnvironmentEnergysupplyPrimary case study = Kaweh Ijenvolcano, sulphur miningSecondary = Samsungmanufacturing, South KoreaTertiary = retail / services inPortsmouth, UKQuaternary = research anddevelopment Portsmouth IBM orCambridge science Parks, UK
GLOBALISATION =Global interconnectedness & interdependence.We are linked globally, sharing culture,technology, products, etc. Internationaldivision of labour.• Accused of exploiting NICs/ LEDCs• Has bottling / manufacturing plants in India, Venezuela,etc., where labour + land costs are low, health and safetyis minimal, etc.• E.g. over-extracting water in India (it takes 3litres ofwater to make 1litre of coke) – e.g. Kerala village loses100’000litres of water a day• In Rajahstan, India – Coca Cola took over the local watersupply leaving agriculture to suffer• The water table dropped 10m• Also used pesticides 30x above recommended levels• However, Coca Cola invested $1billion into the Indianinfrastructure, providing healthcare, roads, services• Coca Cola employs up to 125’000 people in IndiaMNC. Coca Cola case studyHow can industryaffect theenvironment?Positive and negativeimpacts?What would be theeffects of primaryindustry? Secondary?Tertiary?How can economicactivity besustainable?
Measures ofDevelopmentThe total of all moneyproduced per year by acountry’s workersThe percentage of peoplein the country employedin primary occupationsThe average number ofyears a person canexpect to liveNumber of patientsdivided by the number ofdoctorsThe amount of energywhich each person in thecountry uses per yearThe number of deathsper year per 1000 peopleThe wealth shared outequally among all thepeople of a countryNumber of adults whocan read and write inevery 100 peopleThe number of children peryear out of every 1000born alive that die beforethey reach the age of oneNumber of kilocalories(kcals) each person in thecountry takes in each dayThe number of births peryear per 1000 peoplePrimary Employment; Birth Rate; Infant Mortality; Life Expectancy; GDP; Death Rate;Energy Per Person; Food Intake; GDP per capita; Literacy Rate; People per doctorEconomic Social
Questions tothink about• Describe the pattern of development that is shown in theimage [3marks]• Suggest some factors that influence development in a country[3marks]• Why might birth rates be high in LEDCs? [2marks]• Why would an MEDC have lower death rates? [2marks]
GLOBALISATION =Global interconnectedness & interdependence.We are linked globally, sharing culture, technology,products, etc. International division of labour.• International trade links (e.g. the EU, etc.)• Development of Multinational Companies (MNCs) working in NICs• Government support• Free trade system• Improved technology• Easier transport links• Flexible migration of workers (e.g. Europe)Why is globalisation happening?
EmploymentChanges over timePrimary decrease Secondary decrease Tertiary increase• Improvements in technologyleads to more machines thatrequire fewer workers• Raw materials such as coaland iron ore become cheaperto import from foreigncompetitors than to extractthem.•Jobs in primary sector areseen as being ‘dirty’ and havefewer career prospects• Decline in secondary industryfrom the 1990s due to cheaperlabour availability in LEDCssuch as China.• Factories and new technologyis able to manufacture goodsmore efficiently using fewerpeople.• Huge increase in high-techindustries, electronics andresearch and development.• Urban populations increaseso need support and food to betransported and sold.• Aspirations increase – peoplewant more luxury
Aid• Aid is help that is given from one country to another in need – usually from MEDCs to helpLEDCs/ LDCs (or to countries suffering from a sudden disaster)• There are different types of aid that can be given: short & long term and a variety of differentservices / goods provided• Good aid is sustainable aid and combines long and short term aid projects while educatinglocal people and providing opportunities to improve infrastructure, government, education,healthcare and water supplies as well as human rights.CASE STUDIES TO KNOW:Water AidGoat Aid• E.g. Mali• Inhospitable climate (low precipitation, 65% country as desert, desertificationproblems, only 50% of population has access to safe drinking water)• WaterAid working here since 2000• Provide clean water + sanitation to the slums• Local community investment, education schemes, hygiene improvements• Successful at reducing waterborne disease+ deaths from diarrhoea by 65%• E.g. Tanzania• Unreliable rainfall, high populations• Project run by Oxfam. A pair or flock of goats is donated to a family. Can be used to breed, produce milk &cheese, for fur, etc,.• Sustainable if part of a cycle & bred because improves nutrition and therefore health, can sellmilk/cheese/meat/fur to make an income which can invest in education and training therefore betteremployment chances. Likely to lead to healthier and wealthier families.• Particularly good when given to girls (‘the girl effect’)• Risk of overgrazing and desertification if not managed properly
Typesof AidMultilateral AidShort Terme.g.Voluntary AidBilateral AidLong Terme.g.Define these termsand give anexampleAid can be sustainable when it:
In camps in Sudan, Oxfamprovides temporaryshelter and hygienictoilets.Providing more than450,000 refugees withaccess to clean, safewater and sanitationOxfam also providebasic necessitiessuch as food,blankets and jerrycans for carryingwater.Community volunteersare involved to educateothers about sanitationand personal hygieneWe send engineers,well drillers,administrators, andsupport staff neededare sent to areas inneed.UK supporters can raisefunds for ‘Goat Aid’ toprovide goats for familiesfor longer term solutions tofood crisesTraining is provided forlocal people. To helpindividuals to developsmall businesses tobecome self-sufficientand sustainable.Children are taught abouthygiene & basic healthcare.E.g.food and waterpreparation & storage, whywash their hands, etc,.
Describe the distribution of tectonichazards? …………………………………………………………………………………………………..………………………………………………………..………………………………………………………..Explain the link between thelocation of tectonic hazards andcontinental plates : ...........................………………………………………………………..………………………………………………………..………………………………………………………..
What happens when the plates meet?Type of Margin Description of Changes Earthquake / Volcanic activity ExamplesConvergent (oceanicand continental)Oceanic crust is denser thancontinental crust = subductionoccurs (sinks into the mantle)Sinking crust melts under friction& pressure…forms magma =creates volcanoesNazca plate, SouthAmericaConvergent (twocontinental)If both plates are continental, thenthey are both too light to reallysubduct. Collision occurs = formsmountain chainsHimalayasDivergent on Land A.K.A. ‘constructive’ boundaryAs plates diverge, this allowsmagma to the surface. Whencrusts diverge on land, it forms arift valley.Mid-Atlantic ridge inIcelandDivergent under theOceanWhen plates diverge under theocean, magma rises to the surfaceto create new land.As magma rises it cools, formingmountains / volcanoes / land.The Mid-Atlantic Ridge isthe biggest area ofdivergenceTransform Where plates slide past eachother. Creates a lot of earthquakesas friction builds up then one platejumps forward.San Andreas Fault,California
divergentconvergenttransformFault: A fracture in the Earth’s crust that showssigns of movementContinental drift: the movement of thecontinents over time through plate tectonicsSubduction Zone: the area of a destructiveplate boundary where one plate descendsbeneath anotherConvergent (aka destructive): where platescollide together, forcing one plate downwards toform either volcanoes or mountains or trenchesDivergent (aka constructive): where plates aremoving apart, allowing magma from the mantleto reach the earth’s surface + create new landTransform: where plates slide past each other,causing lots of earthquakesContinental Crust: lighter, permanent land thatforms our continentsOceanic Crust: denser crust under the oceans,constantly recycled
Causes of volcanic eruptionsVolcanoes form when magma reaches the Earth’s surface,causing eruptions of lava and ash.• They occur at destructive (collision/convergent) boundarieswhere plates collide, subduct and melt to release magma.They also occur at constructive (divergent) boundaries whereplates separate and allow magma to reach the surface.• Immediate effects of eruptions can be devastating, but thereare benefits in the long term (such as fertile soils, minerals,sulphur mining, etc,.• Many volcanoes occur underwater along the ocean floor.
Why would people choose to live nearvolcanoes? What advantages are there?How to predict volcanic eruptions?Gas measurements – sulphur dioxide &carbon dioxides increasesSeismic readings – earthquake increase& become shallowerSatellite imagery – measures ‘bulges’ asmagma moves up the volcanoTemperature /acidity of soil – increasedacidity & temp as magma rises
What were the main events of the Iceland eruptionbetween 19th March and 16th April 2010?14-16th April.Over the next four days, ashwas ejected up to 8 km highin the atmosphere and lavaflowed up to 3 km from themain vent.1.15am 14th April.Eyjafjallajökull burst open once moreand a fissure opened through 200m ofice covering the volcano. A huge cloudof tephra and ash started to come outof the volcanic vent.13thth AprilA series of shallowearthquakes were recorded12th April.A second volcanic fissureopened during an earthquakemeasuring 3.2 magnitudebeneath Eyjafjallajökull andmany smaller earthquakeswere recordedMany thought that theeruption was over.31st March. New basalt (therock created by cooling lava)covered around 1 squarekilometreThis eruption produced aspectacular ‘volcanic Disneyland’and tourists flocked to the site tosee amazing lava flows.20th March.At 11:30pm a volcanicfissure opened atFimmvörðuháls, a rockyarea between two glaciers19th March.Scientists monitoring thearea measured earthquakescaused by magma movinginto fissuresStart HereMap compiled by Páll Einarsson and Ásta Rut Hjartardóttir, The Geo-science Instituteof the University of Iceland
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/File:Fimmvorduhals_second_fissure_2010_04_02.JPGIceland is located on theMid-Atlantic RidgeThese divergent (aka constructive)plates are moving apartAs the plates pull apart magma canrise to the surface + form volcanoesand hotspots.Eruption occurred under a glacier. Icewater cooled the lava super quickLed to massive expansion of gas,steam and glass particle clouds risingto 30’000ftTony Cassidy
Airspace closed acrossmuch of Europe. At least17’000 flights a day werecancelled. 95’000 total.Stock marketshares in Air Travelagencies dropped4%.The disruption costairlines more than$200 million a day,$2billion total.Grounded air cargo flightsstopped delivery of items suchas food, flowers, medicines &mail.Increased use ofEurostar, trainservicesships and ferriesLess demand for air fuel =1.87million barrels of oilnot needed = loss ofmoney for oil industry =led to increase in petrolcostsLoss of someproducts (like fruit)at supermarketsIncreased spendingby people strandedaway – for hotels,food, etc.Health impacts – somerespiratory problems asash settles in IcelandIn Iceland – flash floods as 150m icemelted, damaged fields and homes (20farms evacuated), Route 1 road & bridgesdamaged, ash silted and blocked rivers,but increased tourismCouldpossiblytriggermajoreruption atKatlavolcanoIceland ‘ashpocalypse’
Earthquakes are measured in two ways:- The Richter scale measures the magnitude of an earthquake using an instrumentcalled a seismograph. It measures the strength of the shaking.- The Mercalli scale measures the damage caused by an earthquake. It rates each quakefrom I to XII, depending on how much damage was done• Earthquakes occur along faults, which are large cracks in theearth’s crust. Earthquakes can happen along any type ofplate boundary.• A result of a build up of stress / pressure inside the earth’scrust that is caused by the sudden jerking movements of thefault, and are almost impossible to predict.• Plate movement is not smooth, plates rub & cause friction &‘stick’. Pressure builds up until the plates snap & stress isreleased = earthquake• Can occur on any type of boundary (e.g. a consequence ofvolcanic activity or mountain building, or just be along atransform fault)• Measured on Richter scale by seismometers• Energy from the stress is released in seismic waves thatspread out from the focus (point inside the crust where thestress is released). The epicentre is the point on top of crustdirectly above the focus. The strongest waves are foundnear the centre of the earthquake. This means that the mostsevere damage caused by an earthquake will happen closeto the epicentre.
Haiti earthquake primary and secondary effects300,000 people injured Cholera outbreak due topoor sanitation250,000 dwellingsdestroyed or badlydamagedInternational airportunusableThe heat and humiditystarted to decay corpsesleft in the rubble, leadingto disease230,000 Dead People sleeping in thestreets as they feared theeffects of aftershocks ondamaged buildingsNo telephone system, nointernet or mobile phonesignalElectricity SuppliesDamagedMajor confusion – publicwere not sure what wasgoing onHospitals destroyed Mass graves dugMain prison destroyed so4,000 inmates escaped500,000 people still livingrough when rainy seasonbegan in MarchKey government buildingsdestroyedHaiti’s economy could notsustain its populationbefore the disaster, 1 in 5jobs were lost after theearthquakeInternational Migration intoneighbouring DominicanRepublicRoads blocked 3,000 temporary tentschools set upRelied on international aidfor recovery (e.g. charity,foreign governments)
Effects ofearthquakes?FiresBuildingsdestroyedDiseases fromstagnantwaterLandslidesTidalwavesliquefactionInjury anddeathConsider…How does the impact of ahazard differ between MEDCand LEDC?Why might the impacts on anLEDC be more severe than inan MEDC?What measures can be takento respond to a hazard?How might the level ofdevelopment of a countryaffect how it can respond toa hazard?
• Forms over warm ocean waters withtemperatures of at least 27 C• Form between the Tropics of Cancer andCapricorn• Water must be at least 60 m deep• Form in hottest times of the year (May-Nov in northern hemisphere, Nov - Aprin southern hemisphere)• Low pressure system (air pressure low)Tropical storms are intense,low pressure systems(depressions) known indifferent parts of the worldas hurricanes, cyclones,typhoons.
How hurricanes formHurricanes need a lot of heat to form and a sea surface temperature of at least 27°C, which is why they usuallyoccur over tropical seas. They also need to be between 5 and 20° north or south of the equator. It works like this:1. Warm and wet air rises and condenses to form towering clouds & heavy rainfall. It also creates a low pressurezone of air near the surface of the water.2. Rising warm air causes the air pressure to decrease at higher altitudes. Warm air is under a higher pressurethan cold air, so it moves towards the ‘space’ occupied by the colder, lower pressure, air to fill the gap. So thelow pressure ‘sucks in’ air from the warm surroundings, which then also rises. A continuous upflow of warmand wet air continues to create clouds and rain.3. Air that surrounds the low pressure zone at the centre flows in a spiral at very high speeds - at speeds ofaround 120 km/h (75 mph).4. The faster the winds blow, the lower the air pressure in the centre, and so the cycle continues. The hurricanegrows stronger and stronger feeding on warm air/water from below until they reach land.Seen from above, hurricanes are huge circular bodies of thick cloud around 450 km (300 miles) wide. The cloudbrings heavy rain, thunder and lightning.In the centre is the eye of the hurricane, about 45 km across (30 miles) across. Often there will be no clouds in theeye. Seen from below it will seem calmer, with a circle of blue sky above. The eye is formed because this is the onlypart of the hurricane where cold air is descending, so is calmer.As hurricanes move inshore, their power gradually reduces because their energy comes from sucking up moist seaair.
Prediction:Using weather equipmentand satellite imagery withcomputer models topredict the track(direction), intensity andtime of tropical stormsscientists can make aforecast. But it isimprecise, especiallyabout the intensity.Preparation:- Store emergency supplies at home (e.g. dried foods, water, torches, rations, radio,blankets, etc,.)- Have an escape route / safety bunker to hide in- Have an emergency plan (personal one & for towns / cities / emergency services)- Store sandbags for making buildings watertight to prevent flood damage- Raise flood barriers/ levees against the storm surge
MEDC vs LEDC tropical storm case studiesMEDC : Hurricane Katrina, USA• 29th August 2005• USA (formed as Category 5 inBahamas first, made landfall in USAas Category 3 hurricane)• Worst affected = Florida, Louisiana(especially New Orleans)• 175mph winds• 80% of New Orleans city evacuated• Breached levees (flood defences)with its 10m+ storm surge• 1200 drowned• 600 died from disease• 1million homeless• $90.9billion damages (costliestdisaster in US history)• $50million aid given by USgovernmentLEDC : Cyclone Nargis, Burma• It began as an intense tropical depression onApril 27th 2008 in the Bay of Bengal.• Meteorologists initially thought storm wouldtrack over Bangladesh, however, the stormchanged direction and headed towardsBurma• Made landfall over the Irrawaddy delta in thesouth on May 2nd.• Category 4 storm on the Simpson–Saffir scale• 215 km/hr winds• 600mm of rain fell• 146’000 people were killed, or reportedmissing• $10 million damage occurred• 75% of hospitals and clinics were badlydestroyed or damaged• Diarrhoea, dysentery and skin infectionsafflicted the survivors who were crammedinto monasteries, schools and other buildingsfor safety
Compare & contrast the impact and management of hazards betweenMEDC and LEDC case studies.VocabularyMEDC LEDC rural urban sustainablePhysical features Human features climateinfrastructure communications preparationpreparedness tectonic primary effect responsesecondary effect impact developmentConnectiveshowever likewise whereas even thoughon the other hand unlike contrasting toin addition to despite because so as tonevertheless although similarly such aspenersThe impact of hazards is likely to be more severe in………….because……In LEDCs such as Haiti the main impacts were……………………….Whereas in MEDC Iceland the impacts were……………………………..Management of hazards is different between countries, such as…………Impacts of hazards can be reduced by………………………………….Punctuation
Extra case study info…Suitable for those aiming for C+ toadd in extra information / other casestudy knowledge
Question Example Key ideas/contentCase Study – Flooding in an MEDCName a river in an MEDC which has been affected by flooding.Describe the effects of flooding. What is being done to reduce the impacts of flooding?CASE STUDY: River valley and landformsName of river valley you have studied:Describe one or more landforms which are found in this river valley.Explain how they have been formed. Use a labelled diagram or series of diagrams in youranswer. Include at least three different ideas, with detail.CASE STUDY: River floodingName a river where flooding is managed:Describe how the flooding is managed and explain how sustainable these methods are.Include at least three developed ideas.CASE STUDY: River landforms and processesName of river valley you have studied.Describe one landform which is found in this river valley and explain how it was formed. Youmay use a labelled diagram(s). Include at least three developed ideas.Case Study – Coastal managementName an area of coastline.Describe how the coastline is protected from erosion. To what extent are these protectionmethods sustainable?CASE STUDY: Coastal area and landformsName of coastal area you have studied:Describe one or more landforms which are found in this coastal area. Explain how they havebeen formed. Use a labelled diagram or series of diagrams in your answer.Include at least three different ideas, with detail.CASE STUDY: Coastline managementName an area of coastline where management has taken place.Describe how the coastline has been managed and explain how sustainable these methodsare. Include at least three developed ideas.CASE STUDY: a coastal area and its landformsName a coastal area you have studied.Describe one landform which is found in this coastal area and explain how it was formed.You may use a labelled diagram(s). Include at least three developed ideas.Example questions : Rivers & Coasts
Higher Paper – Economic development Example Key ideas/contentCase Study: An Aid project in an LEDC.Name and locate an aid projectDescribe the main features of the project. Explain how the project issustainable.CASE STUDY: Multi-national companiesName a multi-national company you have studied and a country where it islocated.Explain how the multi-national company affects local people and the overalleconomy of the country. Include at least three different ideas, with detail.Case Study: An aid project in an LEDC.Name the LEDC and aid projectDescribe the main features of the aid project and explain how sustainable theproject is. Include at least three developed ideas.Case Study: The effects of economic development.Name and locate an economic activityHow has the economic activity affected the natural environment? What hasbeen done to minimise damage to the environment?CASE STUDY: An economic activity in an LEDCName and locate an example of an economic activity you have studied in anLEDC.Explain why this economic activity is located in this LEDC. What factors mightinfluence decisions about whether the named economic activity remains at thislocation in the future? Include at least three different ideas, with detail.CASE STUDY: a multi-national companyName a multi-national company and one country where it operates.Explain how the multi-national company affects local people and the economyof that country. Include at least three different ideas, with detail.Example questions : Economic Development
Question Example Key ideas/contentCase Study – Climatic HazardsName a type of climatic hazard and the location where it took place.Explain the natural processes which caused this event and how humanactivities affected the impact of the natural hazard.CASE STUDY: Climatic hazard in an LEDCName and locate an example of a climatic hazard in an LEDC.Explain the natural processes causing the hazard and describe its impact onpeople in the area. Include at least three developed ideas.CASE STUDY: an example of a climatic hazard in an MEDCName the MEDC and state the type of climatic hazard.Explain the methods used to protect people and property from this climatichazard and explain how sustainable these methods are. Include at least threedeveloped ideas.Case Study – tectonic natural hazard.Identify a type of tectonic hazard.Describe methods used to respond to the hazard. How successful are theseresponse methods? Refer to specific event(s).CASE STUDY: Tectonic hazard event in an LEDCName and locate an example of a tectonic hazard event in an LEDC.Describe the effects of the hazard and explain how successful attempts havebeen to reduce the effects. Include at least three developed ideas.CASE STUDY: an example of a tectonic hazard event in an MEDCName the MEDC and stare the type of tectonic hazard event.Explain the natural processes which caused the tectonic hazard event anddescribe people were able to reduce the impact of the hazard. Include atleast three developed ideas.Example questions : Natural Hazards