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SLIPP SC TT PAC meeting with NHC June 2010


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Shuswap Lake Integrated Planning Process: meeting of the Steering Committee, Technical Teams, and Public Advisory Committee on Education, Compliance and Enforcement in June 2010 at Quaaout Lodge. Meeting features presentation by Northwest Hydraulic Consultants Ltd. on their report, Review of Greywater Management Strategies for Shuswap Lake.

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SLIPP SC TT PAC meeting with NHC June 2010

  1. 1. SLIPPShuswap LakeIntegrated PlanningProcess (SLIPP)Public Advisory Committee,Steering Committee and TechnicalTeam MeetingJune 16, 2010
  2. 2. Presentation OutlineWelcome and UpdateShuswap Lakes Greywater Reportpresented by Northwest Hydraulic ConsultantsPart 1: Greywater ReportPart 2: What is Greywater?Part 3: Greywater Dispersion ModelingPart 4: Greywater Report Recommendations -2-
  3. 3. PART 1: Shuswap Lakes Greywater ReportJune 16, 2010: Quaaout LodgeKen Ashley, Ph.D. and Barry Chilibeck, P. Eng, nhcKen Hall, Ph.D., UBCGreg Lawrence, Ph.D., P. Eng., UBCDon Mavinic, Ph.D., P. Eng., UBCTony Priestley, Ph.D., CSIRO, Australia
  4. 4. Part 1: Greywater Report Presentation Outline• SLIPP Vision, Goal and Strategies for water quality• Shuswap Lakes greywater report• Water quality in the Shuswap lakes• Greywater characterization - Dr. Ken Hall• Greywater treatment technology - Dr. Don Mavinic• Greywater dispersion modeling - Dr. Greg Lawrence• Greywater report conclusions and recommendations• Questions
  5. 5. SLIPP Vision:Vision Working together to sustain the health and prosperity of the Shu swap and Mara lakes Development that respects Water quality that supports Desirable recreationalGoals environmental, economic and experiences that are safe and public and environmental health social interests sustainable Strategies Strategies Strategies • Create a comprehensive foreshore • Develop an inter -agency water quality • Develop a recreation management and upland area site sensitivity map monitoring program plan for the Shuswap and Mara lakes for Shuswap and Mara lakes • Eliminate boat discharge on the lakes • Develop a recreation use monitoring • Form the Inter -Agency Technical program Committee to manage cross -agency development applications and lake issues • Improve the development application review process • Create a model for assessing cumulative impact Cross -Cutting Strategies • Create the Professional and • Establish a coordinated annual • Create the Shuswap Lake • Engage stakeholders in Scientific Advisory Group education, compliance and integrated response process education, compliance and enforcement planning process enforcement initiatives
  6. 6. SLIPP Goal: Water quality that supports public and environmental health• Good water quality is critical to public and environmentalwell being• As human density in Shuswap and Mara lakes increases, sotoo have demands on water for people, fish and wildlife• The ability of the lakes to provide high quality water isthreatened by discharges from numerous sources, andincreasing lake shore and upland development
  7. 7. The following positive changes will occur as a result ofachieving SLIPP water quality goals on the Shuswap lakes:• Protection and improvement of water quality by eliminating thedischarge of black and greywater• Improvement in public health by reducing transmission of water bornediseases and exposure to known and emerging wastewater contaminants• Increased public awareness and engagement in water quality and liquidwaste management issues• Increased coordination in the prohibition of black and greywaterdisposal• Provision of additional discharge facilities
  8. 8. Implementation steps for eliminating vessel discharges ProjectedImplementation Step CompletionConduct coordinated education, compliance and enforcement Ongoing,activities starting in Summer 2008Undertake compliance survey Summer 2008Research study on future demand for discharge facilities Summer 2008Voluntary compliance program for discharge seals Summer 2009Increase private provision of discharge facilities OngoingImplement capital infrastructure incentive program 2008/09 (tba)Research study on best practices for implementing discharge Spring 2010prohibitionsFull compliance with BC and Canadian discharge regulations 2010
  9. 9. Shuswap Lake Greywater ReportOur review of the private and commercial watercraft greywaterdischarge issue followed a logical path that asked three core questions:1. Are there any contaminants in greywater that could be deleterious topublic health and/or the environment? Dr. Ken Hall2. If greywater is a contaminant, is there a process for treating greywateron-board private and commercial watercraft in order to minimize risk topublic health and water quality? Dr. Don Mavinic3. If greywater can be deleterious to public health and water quality, andthere is no suitable commercially available technology at present for on-board treatment, what are the implications of releasing greywater into theenvironment? Dr. Greg Lawrence…………then reviewed by Dr. Tony Priestley, CSIRO, Australia
  10. 10. Water quality in the Shuswap lakes
  11. 11. Morphometric features of the Shuswap lakes Shuswap Little Adams Mara Lake Lake Shuswap LakeSurface area (ha) 30,960 1,813 13,760 1,942.6Drainage basin area (km2) 15,354 Incl. 4,144 9,065Drainage basin/surface area 49.7 n/a 30.1 466.6rationMaximum depth (m) 161.5 59.4 397 45.7Mean depth (m) 61.6 14.3 169 18.3Elevation (m) 347 347 407 347Volume (m3) 19.13 x 109 260.66 x 106 23.19 x 109 357.75 x 106Thermocline depth (m) 10 n/a 7.5 n/aResidence time (years) 2.1 0.03 10 0.13Shoreline length (km) 1,430 21.2 149.5 42.3 50o 56’ 51o 15’Location 00 00 N; 000 00 W 119o 17’ 119o 30’
  12. 12. Major arms and tributaries of Shuswap LakeShuswap Lake basin Major tributariesSalmon Arm Salmon River, Tappen Creek, White Creek, Canoe CreekSicamous Arm Shuswap River, Eagle RiverAnstey Arm Anstey River, Four Mile Creek, Queest Creek, Hunakwa CreekSeymour Arm Seymour Creek, Two Mile Creek, Five Mile Creek, Blueberry Creek, Celista CreekWest Arm Adams River, Scotch Creek, Ross Creek
  13. 13. Lake Trophic States Trophic state Attributes Aquatic life TSI Clear water Trout possible in deep < 30 Oligotrophic Low production lakes Oxygenated hypolimnion Moderately clear water30 – 50 Mesotrophic Warm water fishery Possible anoxia in summer Low transparency50 – 70 Eutrophic Anoxic hypolimnion in Warm water fishery summer Dense algae and macrophytes > 70 Hypereutrophic Noticeable odor Fish kills possible
  14. 14. Shuswap and Mara lakes deep water stations Lake Area Deep water trophic status Trend direction Anstey Arm Oligotrophic Increasing total nitrogen and total phosphorus Salmon Arm/Tappen Bay Mesotrophic to eutrophic Slightly increasing total nitrogen and total phosphorus Seymour Arm Oligotrophic Increasing total nitrogen and total phosphorus Sicamous Arm Oligotrophic Increasing total nitrogen and total phosphorus West Arm Oligotrophic Slightly increasing total nitrogen, total phosphorus constant or increasing slightly over time Mara Lake Oligotrophic Increasing total nitrogen and total phosphorus in some areas
  15. 15. 35 Total Phosphorus Main Arm Shuswap Lake 1970 to 2005 30 Eutrophic Armstrong Point epi 25 Armstrong Point hypo West of Sorrento epi West of Sorrento hypo 20 McBride Point epi McBride Point hypo 15 Salmonids 10Total Phosphorus (ug/L) Oligotrophic 5 0 Jan-70 Jan-72 Jan-74 Jan-76 Jan-78 Jan-80 Jan-82 Jan-84 Jan-86 Jan-88 Jan-90 Jan-92 Jan-94 Jan-96 Jan-98 Jan-00 Jan-02 Jan-04 Jan-06
  16. 16. 35 Total Phosphorus Salmon Arm Shuswap Lake 1986 to 2005 Eutrophic 30 Sandy Point epi Sandy Point hypo 25 Frasers Beach epi Frasers Beach hypo Canoe Wharf epi 20 Canoe Wharf hypo 15 Salmonids 10 OligotrophicTotal Phosphorus (ug/L) 5 0 Jan-80 Jan-82 Jan-84 Jan-86 Jan-88 Jan-90 Jan-92 Jan-94 Jan-96 Jan-98 Jan-00 Jan-02 Jan-04 Jan-06
  17. 17. In summary, most deep water stations in Shuswap Lake remainoligotrophic, with the exception of Salmon Arm/Tappen Bay, which hasbeen mesotrophic/eutrophic since at least the 1970s.However, the trend analysis indicates the concentration of limitingnutrients is increasing lake-wide, even in the deep water stations, whichhave previously been unaffected.This finding is disturbing given the large volume and rapid flushing ratein Shuswap Lake and Mara Lake, and indicative of the requirement toprotect the water quality of these important lakes
  18. 18. Shuswap Lake algal bloom – June, 2008
  19. 19. Mara Lake algal bloom – May, 2010
  20. 20. Lake Winnipeg…
  21. 21. PART 2:What is Greywater?Ken Hall, Professor Emeritus, UBC June 16, 2010
  22. 22. Contents of Greywater Presentation• What is greywater, sources?• Water use in households• Contaminants in greywater• Toxic contaminants• Environmental occurrence of contaminants• Greywater relative contributions• Trace metals in greywater• Organic contaminants in greywater• Shuswap houseboat greywater• Loadings to Shuswap Lake• Conclusions
  23. 23. What is Greywater?• The terms greywater and blackwater originate from the separation of the toilet waste (blackwater) from the rest of our wastewater discharges (greywater) Blackwater Greywater
  24. 24. Sources of Greywater & Contaminants• Kitchen sink Compostable household waste (kitchen garberator), fats, oils, salt, flavours, preservatives, nutrients, soil, food particles, biocide residues, detergents, soaps, other cleaning agents• Dishwasher Fats, oils, flavours, preservatives, detergents, soaps, salt, nutrients, food particles, oils and grease, cleaning agents.• Laundry/Washing machine Hair, soil & sediment, detergents, washing powders, soap, salt, softeners, bleach, dyes, cleaning agents, fabric whiteners, preservatives, oil and grease, personal care products, perfumes, fecal/urine contamination, clothing materials and fibers.• Hand basin Soap, shampoo, detergents, preservatives, hair dyes, toothpaste, other personal care products, hair, soil, sediment, organic matter, fecal/urine contamination, cleaning agents.• Shower Soap, shampoo, hair dyes, toothpaste, other personal care products, preservatives, soil, sediment, organic matter, fecal/urine contamination, cleaning agents.• Bathtub Soap, shampoo, hair dyes, other personal care products, preservatives, soil, sediment, organic matter, hair, fecal/urine contamination, cleaning agents.
  25. 25. Compounds in Household Chemicals & Personal Care Products• Compound Category Number of Compounds• Surfactants 53• Emulsifiers 26• Fragrances & Flavours 48• Preservatives 20• Softeners & Plasticizers 3• UV Filters 4• Solvents 10• Dyes 11• Miscellaneous 62
  26. 26. Water Use in HouseholdsWater Use Case 1 Case 2 Case 3Personal 35-37% 25% NDHygieneKitchen 17-25% 8% NDLaundry 13-15% 8% NDMixed ND ND 53-81%GreywaterToilet 20-27% 40% 19-47%FlushingOther 5-7% 7% ND
  27. 27. Contaminants in Greywater• Nutrients- Nitrogen and Phosphorus• Pathogens• Degradable Organic Matter (BOD)• Toxic Substances• (1) Trace Metals• (2) Organic Contaminants
  28. 28. Toxic Contaminants• Trace Metals – essential metals (copper, zinc) non- essential metals (cadmium, mercury, arsenic)• Organic Contaminants:• - POP (Persistant Organic Pollutants) PCBs, PBDEs (flame retardants), some pesticides.• -PCPs (Personal Care Products), fragrances, soaps, detergents, tooth paste, deodorants, antibiotics etc.• - EDCs (Endocrine Disrupting Compounds) steroid, birth control medication, hormone mimics.
  29. 29. Contaminantsfound in 139 U.S.streams.Surveyed for 95differentchemicals.50% of streamshad 7 or morechemicals
  30. 30. Data Sources on Greywater• Houseboats• Cruise Ships• Condos (with wastewater separation)
  31. 31. Greywater Contaminant Contributions to WastewatersContaminant Study 1 Study 2BOD 63% 51-80%Nitrogen 8% NDPhosphorus 37% NDLead 59% NDCadmium 38% NDMercury 15% NDSuspended ND 23-64%solids
  32. 32. Characteristics of Greywater from Houseboat Sources (mg/L)-1Quality Shower Laundry Kitchen DishwasherParameter SinkBOD 320 340 230 1000Suspended 60 180 140 260SolidsOil & 45 14 140 210GreasePhosphorus 16 82 21 71
  33. 33. Characteristics of Greywater from Houseboat Sources (mg/L)-2Quality Shower Laundry Kitchen Dishwasher DomesticParameter sink Wastewater (medium)BOD 320 340 230 1000 190Suspendedsolids 60 180 140 260 210Oil &Grease 45 14 140 210 90Phosphorus 16 82 21 71 7
  34. 34. Trace Metals in Cruise Ship Greywater (ug/L)- AveragesShip Copper Lead ZincLarge ship 103 4 179(n=15)Large ships 97 2 291(n=16)Small ships 146 3.7 442(n=8)Freshwater 2-4 1-7 30Guideline
  35. 35. Selected Organic Contaminants in Greywater (ug/L)Contaminant Use Mixed Ship Guideline Greywater GreywaterAcetone Solvent ND <3-400 noneBenzoic Preservative ND <0.5-740 noneAcidChloroform DBPs 250 0.1-170 1.8 (HH)DEHP Plasticizer 8.4-160 5.6-183 16 (FAL)Nonylphenol Detergent 0.4-6 ND 1.0 (FAL)Triclosan Antibacterial .56-5.9 ND none
  36. 36. ParabensEsters of parahydroxy benzoic acidUsed as preservatives in cosmetics andpharmaceutical products- deodorants,shampoos, moisturizers, shaving gels,toothpaste etc.In 215 products found in 99% of leave-onproducts & 77% of rinse-off products.High levels detected in breast tumors.Found up to 40 ug/L in Greywater
  37. 37. Greywater Quality on Shuswap HouseboatsCharacteristic Minimum Maximum S. Australia (mg/L) (mg/L) RegulationBOD 2090 4120 No Reg.Suspended 98 1300 <50SolidsNitrogen 6.4 111 <10Phosphorus 3.6 105 <1.0E. coli <1 100,000 <40Oil/Grease ND ND <25
  38. 38. Loadings of Contaminants to Shuswap Lake in Summer (June 14 - Sept 14)Contaminant BOD Nitrogen PhosphorusSourceSalmon 1212 6811 407ArmSTPHouseboats 4224 211 352(Greywater)Values expressed as kg/period when houseboats on water
  39. 39. Conclusions: 1• Greywater is an important source of a variety of environmental contaminants• Greywater can contribute contaminants at concentrations equal to or higher than black water.• Greywater is an important source of the traditional water contaminants including BOD, phosphorus, oil & grease, pathogen indicators.• Both trace metals & organic contaminants are present in greywater and may exceed regulations.
  40. 40. Conclusions: 2• Personal Care Products from kitchen and bathroom activities have been identified in household greywater- most of them have no discharge regulations.• Summer discharges of degradable organic matter (BOD) and phosphorus in greywater from houseboats in Shuswap Lake are comparable to Salmon Arm STP loadings & could have impacts in enclosed bays with poor circulation.
  41. 41. PART 3: Greywater Dispersion Modeling Dr. Greg Lawrence
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  44. 44. PREDICTED NEAR-FIELD FECALCOLIFORM COUNTS WITH SOURCE CONCENTRATION AND DISTANCE 100,000,000 10,000,000Fecal coliforms in lake (cfu/100 ml) 1,000,000 100,000 10,000 1,000 100 10 1 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 Distance from source (m)
  46. 46. PREDICTED FAR-FIELD FECAL COLIFORMS COUNTS 1200 1000 800FC/100 mL 600 400 200 0 -100 -80 -60 -40 -20 0 20 40 60 80 100 Distance along shoreline (m) 10 20 30 40 50 70 100
  47. 47. PART 4: Greywater report conclusions1. Are there any contaminants in greywater that could be deleterious to public health and/or the environment?The answer to this question was clear: greywater is often indistinguishable from blackwater; hence greywater releases pose a risk to public health and water quality.This report clearly demonstrates not only the great variability in quality of greywater, but also the significant amounts of pathogens, organic matter, nutrients and heavy metals contained in it.This information is in line with limited Australian data and confirms the potential for greywater discharge to pose significant risks to both public health and receiving water quality;
  48. 48. 2. Since greywater is a contaminant, is there a process for treating greywater on-board private and commercial watercraft in order to minimize risk to public health and water quality?A detailed review of the literature, plus consideration of the sanitary engineering requirements to design, manufacture and reliably operate such a mechanism, indicate there is no commercially available technology in Canada, or elsewhere, at this time that could provide suitable on-board treatment of greywater.The operational aspects of small scale on-board treatment systems is their ‘Achilles heel’. While Australian examples can be shown of well designed and well operated treatment systems which meet their performance goals, the logistical and regulatory efforts required to ensure effective long term operation of the many small scale treatment systems installed in a large variety of leisure and commercial craft are overwhelming.
  49. 49. 3. Since greywater can be deleterious to public health and water quality,and there is no suitable commercially available technology at present foron-board treatment, what are the implications of releasing greywater intothe environment?The answer to this question revealed a wide array of regulated and non-regulated contaminants would be released into the environment, some ofwhich would exceed of the Canada Shipping Act regulations forDesignated Waters and BC Water Quality Criteria for primary contactrecreation, in addition to a wide array of emerging contaminants whichwould often include suspected and known endocrine disruptors andpotentially carcinogenic compounds.
  50. 50. The logical conclusion is that greywater discharges from private andcommercial watercraft pose an unacceptable risk to public health andwater quality in Shuswap and Mara lakes.We found that similar conclusions have been reached in California andSouth Australia, and their responses are applicable to the Shuswap lakes,in addition to adhering to existing Canada Shipping Act Regulations forDesignated Waters and BC Water Quality Criteria for MicrobialIndicators.
  51. 51. We believe that effective, on-board treatment of greywater on ShuswapLake houseboats and other recreational craft, followed by directdischarge, may eventually be possible, but the issue of “practicality”cannot be ignored (based on the Australian experience, to date) – whenone considers ALL aspects of what may be required (including legalissues) to “make it work”, over what is essentially a 3-4 month boatingseason.
  52. 52. Greywater report recommendations1. Mandatory greywater storage and pump-out, is the most “realistic” option for the Shuswap Lake System, although, it, too, has it’s own issues and controversies. None-the-least of these is a “fail-safe” system installed on board, preventing (and making it a chargeable offence under the EMA and Canada Shipping Act) deliberate discharge into the local water body directly from any size greywater holding tank.
  53. 53. 2. A phase-in period is called for, requiring newer vessels to design“appropriate sized” holding tanks into the basic structure. Older vesselscould be “grandfathered” as they are phased out of usage during adefined period established by the Ministry Environment, Interior Health,Shuswap First Nations and the Regional Governments (i.e. TNRD andCSRD) via SLIPP.This would be concurrent with additional actions such as an increase inthe number of pump-out stations (strategically located around ShuswapLake), flow restriction devices on-board (e.g. low volume shower headsand toilets), new limited size fresh water holding tanks (per person ,daily limitations based), on-board grey water hookup to toilet facilitiesfor black water usage requirements, and others.
  54. 54. 3. During the phase-in period, a temporary system of “floating barge”,pump-out stations could be put in place in various bays and arms.This interim system, along with the expansion of the on-shore pump-outstations, could be financed by a local, environmental levy (or somethingakin to a Shuswap watershed levy) and a greywater user fee on thecommercial houseboat industry.
  55. 55. 4. For enforcement and compliance, on the water, “spot inspections” ofprivate and commercial watercraft, by Provincial, Federal and FirstNations authorities, would be a logical expectation, to ensure complianceuptake with this entire procedure.Taken in its entirety, this option may be the most “feasible” forpermanent adoption on the Shuswap Lake system, especially inconsideration of “stakeholder buy-in”.
  56. 56. 5. An intensive education program should become an important part ofmanaging contaminants from greywater.To effectively manage greywater, one core objective is to reduce thevolume of any one of these uses and to reduce the variability with whichthis volume enters a treatment system.
  57. 57. While onboard retention of greywater appears to be the safest option atthe present time, it does lead to the obvious problem of the need to storelarge volumes of heavy water with significant implications for vesseldesign and stability.Consequently, minimisation of greywater volume becomes of greatimportance.Removing automatic dish washers and laundry facilities from houseboatswould reduce the greywater volume significantly and would reduce someof the detergent components (phosphates, nonylphenols etc.) ingreywater that create some of the environmental concerns with dischargeto the aquatic environment.
  58. 58. SLIPP:Water quality that supports public and environmental health Questions?
  59. 59. Terms of Reference: NHC contract with Fraser Basin Council to conduct greywater management reviewProject Scope: An assessment of the potential impacts to Shuswap and Mara Lakes that may result from discharged greywater treated to the proposed South Australia EPA standard or a suitable alternative.It is anticipated that in order to more fully address this question, the following elements will be included in the analysis:1. An overview of the unique value of the Shuswap system, a review of the present circumstances including existing legislation and the potential impact to both drinking water and environmental water quality from raw grey water discharge.Compare the current practices and plans for sewage and greywater management on land and water;
  60. 60. 2. Review the proposed South Australia greywater standards for possibleapplication to BC inland waters in general and the Shuswap systemspecifically.Provide a professional opinion of whether these standards aresufficiently protective of public health or the environment, along withqualitative (e.g. relative risk) and quantitative (e.g. otherguidelines/standards) considerations for this opinion.3. Consider how the magnitude of potential water quality impactscompare to similar regulated discharges to surface water bodies and non-point source impacts from land based discharges.
  61. 61. 4. If the South Australia standards are not sufficiently protective,recommend discharge requirements that would be appropriate.Standards and requirements applied must consider the addedcomplexities of a moving point of discharge and the broad range ofpotential contaminants associated with domestic greywater.Recognizing that conventional standards for BOD, TSS, fecal coli. etc.are for parameters that are only indicators of sewage treatment,determine if there are other specific standards that should be applied.
  62. 62. 5. Evaluate the potential treatment technologies and whether or not theseare feasible for effective on- board treatment of greywater to bedischarged to Shuswap Lake.Evaluate whether on-board treatment systems are effective to treat allidentified hazards associated with domestic greywater discharges.These would include bacteriological and chemical contaminants andphysical characteristics.6. Assess how discharge practices such as the location (near beach oropen water) and conditions for discharge might affect the potentialimpacts, with recommendations for best practices to be considered forthe Shuswap system.