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Grey Water Reclamation

Responsible reuse of grey water in homes and other small communities.

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Grey Water Reclamation

  1. 1. Grey Water Reclamation For homes and intentional communities 5., ’ Pre-lreatment ' -V . - ‘, - Sorl-box L, ;,; :;rr": /:7/4 Lispersbon Irrigation
  2. 2. Greywater From Wikipedia. the free encyclopedia Greywater, sometimes also spelt as graywater, grey water or gray water and also known as sullage, is wastewater generated from processes such as washing dishes, laundry and bathing.
  3. 3. Greywater From Wikipedia. the free encyclopedia Greywater is different than fresh tapwater, which is also known as clearwater. fifi
  4. 4. Greywater From Vlfikipedia, the free encyclopedia Greywater is different than blackwater, which is wastewater from toilets.
  5. 5. By recycling greywater, you’re getting twice the mileage on your water. You’re saving clearvvater, and preventing usable greywater from being treated like nasty blackwater.
  6. 6. If you live in the city, you’ll be reducing the load on sewage treatment centers, saving time and money for everyone.
  7. 7. If you live in the country, you’d probably be reducing the load on a septic drain field, and reclaiming otherwise wasted water for irrigation purposes.
  8. 8. A brief history of greywater recycling (from the Internet) as/ I
  9. 9. Greywater History From “the Internet‘ Not much is known about the origins of recycling greywater in residences and small intentional communities.
  10. 10. Greywater History From “the Internet‘ But most Internet chatrooms agree that greywater reclamation was first practiced in feudal Japan.
  11. 11. Greywater History From “the Internet‘ Good mercenaries would often recycle bathwater by using it to water _ their bansai trees
  12. 12. Greywater History From “the Internet‘ & The Konji for “Ninja” t can also be interpreted . “one who recycles. ”
  13. 13. Greywater History From “the Internet‘ i: > ( (5,5-/
  14. 14. Greywater History From “the Internet‘ Good greywater practices were almost a religion in feudal Japan.
  15. 15. What have we learned from our Internet history lesson? Multiple Choice: A. NEVER TRUST ANYTHING EVER AGAIN B. N| NJA’S ARE AWESOME! C. VERIFY INTERNET SOURCES D. ALL OF THE ABOVE
  16. 16. The previous history lesson was fictional, but it serves to illustrate the point that there are many kinds of things out there online, some of which are bold-faced lies.
  17. 17. F/ fix I “ fit I 0 The world wide web features many expensive, prepackaged grey water systems with fantastic claims, which end up being better systems for the salesperson than the user.
  18. 18. I all 0 I I / Q, I llTI [I Some websites are selling outdated technology and mislabeling it as cutting edge. Most of these systems will never yield a net savings because they will suffer mechanical breakdown before becoming feasible.
  19. 19. llTl A El Most complex residential greywater systems are abandoned in under five years. People that started out with good intentions are left with regrets and broken equipment.
  20. 20. M I l N U I ifll I [I Appropriately designed grey water systems are not very sales- friendly products because they are way too site-specific, imaginative, variable, and inexpensive.
  21. 21. III I Ila, A . <— e—~ IIII HI BI : I I Greywater wiki. .. we are all exploring ways to live responsibly and reduce waste. There isn’t one “right way” to do this, but some have gone ahead of us and offer us helpful hints.
  22. 22. http: //oasisdesign. net/ greywaterlmisinfofindex. htm#hea| th is an excellent website dedicated to debunking misinformation concerning greywater recycling. It is maintained by Art Ludwig, recognized as a leading authority in the field of greywater research. He also authored a publication entitled, Create an Oasis with Greywater, which is available through the Permaculture International Journal mail order catalogue.
  23. 23. CHICO II Duh with Gnywattr WHUUIIIZII-'I71&| IIIi Ailulhjflj-1}: pq1rn§nlI-n. —n. M—. a.u-: n—- dumb-Q-uuaoog--av-.4:-.7-oi: .-. -——~—. ..-g-u ndpuunuyun u--I -nnaohhnl-A4—I-1.--1--slun-g’ . o¢Iun- ». ..—». .»--v-. _n nul- 1-hug---nu--1:-I»: -p--dud . —up—au-u-nu-u-«0uunpm§p--- 1&Ql1‘lL—o. ? --> — row-u ‘I—IhDbv"U~u11v$¢Xv. o( «Inn: 5.. .: -:1-. .. up-rue-v-tV| ..¢. —; ‘E-091;-i‘-Jtg I . —a¢--. -.. .--yI-. ..r. ... ... ——. ,—. ————— ‘u~. ~.u. v.- q. <;u. u,oo-Isis. -A-. .-: - '§I---‘. -.-a-§ua—. -.--an‘-. -‘gs-. - ‘I--. ..« um. ..“-. ... a.o. ’»4-op. aw-_-g-—. -.. —-g jg-co. -o-q-q 5. . ——~—. -a4.—----o-. .. . -- . ‘ « . ‘.. O I V _. _' »-. _ 11 £11‘ Thwfi qfii m1 113:;
  24. 24. In his book, Mr. Ludwig outlines some common errors documented in his prolonged research of attempted greywater recycling endeavors.
  25. 25. Eli“ IEI ZRRIEIFIE Assuming it's simple Some of the larger systems have all the complexities of fragile ecosystems. Pumpning lo begnning oi the system _ _ _ _ _ . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . r _. -' 5'”“"'‘"9 I” _ dl Plvagmiles comrrmris For wfcfina Y‘ 5 ‘X ‘M’ Typhalatlfolla ‘ I ‘ I I 5 I ‘ . Ywn-clvlnlhnrwlnll
  26. 26. Complex greywater re-use systems include: constructed wetlands (reedbeds), intermittent sand filters, soil filters, greywater septic tanks and aerated wastewater treatment systems (which use considerable quantities of electricity). These require detailed installation and maintenance and are relatively expensive, but provide a high quality treated water which can even be used in drip irrigation systems.
  27. 27. There is a threshold under which it is not feasible to do complex greywater recycling. The home with two adults and two children is unlikely to generate more than an average of 140 gallons of greywater a day, which even if all of it were recycled with 100% efficiency, would not justify retrofitting a house with alternate plumbing, pumps, and water filters.
  28. 28. lEII””. lIEI’I ilI@lI'iR3 I ".3 L; Building overly complex, delicate, and/ or expensive systems with negative net benefit is pointless. HI . lj . F1: "maybe the earth would be way better off if you just wasted the water than if you wasted all the plumbing, pumps, tanks, filters, and electricity needed to make this sort of system work. ..”
  29. 29. tifii iiRRi@PiE Automated filtration and W, §"§: L§. C,e reuse systems for , _ - flushing Fm i—V ifi wt‘ 45 residential, A o 1 low usage toilets are a waste of resources. l’ivcr. ~;11ig. ‘c . <t; 'ra_'. .-'e Sam
  30. 30. i ii i» — 0 SIMPLE ISGOOD ,1 H ; F _ 0 Toilets can be flushed with grey water by simply bucketing it from the bathtub/ shower directly into the toilet bowl (not the tank, where it will tester, and possibly be backsiphoned into the city’s clean water supply in the event of sudden low water pressure). An added plus of reusing bathtub water in this way is that due to flush volume always being under direct intelligent control it is always more conservative. As a side benefit, you save on heating bills in cold climates, since you get a primitive but highly effective heat sink as the bath water sits there and cools.
  31. 31. Elllllfill Storage of grey water all - lj . ‘7§ Greywater is full of bacteria and can become the biological equivalent to blackwater in under 24 hours.
  32. 32. ”° il Cllil F" “ V —R’ l7.’ ’ l L4‘ ‘Call -3. A cavalier disregard for legitimate public health concerns, and/ or excessive paranoia about negligible health concerns
  33. 33. .@l l E] ZRRH RE Use of grey water to irrigate lawnsl friends
  34. 34. _-. -. -it 'Tij'iiana's+: ” . . 5 . ‘Unsafe greywater
  35. 35. Soil mloro- organisms VI. u rrrlaet am. » much purification cu P"5’W P9’ unit of soil depth Plume extent: do nctcqu septic Ieachfldd lume :4] recommended p gataally extmds 50 feet, should be a rrmlnple of that to allow 3:52’ factor. The UPC feet of separation from a well to a lea . VIDII II)! lll. lVl| |’, Vlv‘b ylll-IIIIC WIVCV eupply In are well’; ‘draw down" zone. groumtr/ flown toward» the well from every direction. Septic tank effective punflcstlon In the up or reaches of the sol. The of ogical contanmatlan plume starts ace r and can extend a hundred set or more. and is thus more likely to reach groundwater. ; 7 Per-forateol part In bedrock fieeuree. limestone eavee. or love cube: of well casing wastewater can flow rapidly long distances with little treatment. Cortamlrution pumea can extend for the full bngth of the fioeureo: I rule or more Alrrnef. the rmly pnirifizatian ‘us by plumage fhrrvuqtr poll before the pathogene reach the fieeure ration diuwicu. If a separation distance require ll! ) forexamp| e—a2xsafety Though Inlmlk 5e c effluart added to 18" deep n is rapidly purified by large numbers of beneficial bacteria near surface of sol biological contamination plume attenuates rapidly nthogerl near zero within 50 net in most oails. flaw. p. 43), wastewater may into surface water before it is treated. flmuingwntenthue isnlmostnonntural treatmentothe -. ... .-, .-. , . ..‘, -,. .._-. . trea: ment In this most viologically : ct‘~e zone. AI5. the pathogen levels are Icwl than blackwater to begin w: the coutamhatian ptune dr not extend down more char ‘cot or two. each levels are ’ " - -. L ' l swell seil’ ' 74. ,7 ‘V l l 5P, .,', ,a (-55 85$"; ' ~ 1 Groundlvflerleval ‘ 9"9“"""" surface wtter '—~» . ,,»’ ‘ l i. u infiltration . :. ‘.”“-"5’1‘”—“‘_‘l"’_""°“". 235.23 V-Gl'°| r-VV’c1AwaE¢' * 9 ~' —. .' '. .. tn. DIepoulln5OFoot(l5nr)daep How‘ V ‘ ' drywell bypasees the most ' Effluent from a failed aqrtic or greywater eyetem rumrivq over the ourlace would be I hourrl Lntal it were adequately treated. Depemirg on conditions. Hty feet of overland flaw could remove 1007. of paflvqene (see page 43). Pathogen levels in wastewater 5 red to soil ¢ order 0‘ 90% per foot. (50 cm) travel. Grow generally novice rnuc-I lose than a foot ti day. l contrast. effiuerrt discharged to flcwlng surfs: subsurface waters. where pathogen levels real receaves near zero nstu-al treatment it a foot contamination plumes can spread for thousar excellent treatment can be attained on the surface (see overla be contacted by chllclren or animals, or fnclior. dilution. the treatmmt modality corsidend least desirable by the W1: The Code is not especially rational. It only hot I50 feet for a Health anizalion. Contamination can for miles downstnaal drywell, which prrwlclen little or no safety factor. e code separation from a is a major weakness of current wastewater treatment thinking in the Liter outlet to a well is Ill) feet, about a 10: safety eet from natural surface waters, about a 3 x safety factor (pathogens can trnvelfurtliercwerthesurlacethanthmu thesoil). off—orforthntnntur. evaiif The optimum application point is a lance between various comlderatlons. You want to apply wmtewater high to get the best treatment, thousands of times less p safeguard groundwater and improve reuse, but not so lg’: that it daylight; factor, but only 50 which favors a pipe clumping artlfldall treated effluent directly water: lfthereisany problem—the: truneoutofchlorilxefiheg worst place for it in the entire water urlficatlon capa Into is not, the waste is ‘ ' cycle. Bull: water flows have city than water in soil, and II the point ln the water cycle where it is most critical that the water-be
  36. 36. Q l l H’ l WERE Discharge of grey water directly into natural waters or hardscapes is a bad idea.
  37. 37. l J I: C] . ‘:3$'#‘n’ ".1 ME k-‘VII V ' 77:/ iuscurrziwdtoorrtvlwuiii bnwdhvlhrta-grad? 20.! mm akur : ‘L7"aae; ~ tau-s, u5( spurts aéucv: -if sac‘ mi Map; gngvaatv D-M: cs«; qmgn. ~ mwscrfaua A A‘-yin !0"4s; - keys wnrumr-: lfsmdodardprvidrts ‘avyI¢: r.f-cvrrrurrvycvY Plan a safe, enjoyable use for greywater: create an oasis or an orchard. These systems are generally simple to install and maintain, are inexpensive, beautiful, and provide reasonably efficient re-use of greywater.
  38. 38. uurauai-‘ii’ L. 'e . < f ' V ' firms: -'5 ma-wa roam-I -M awn avwrstarlwgcam bu! rl»‘: 'v . aAut)‘0'4¢t; ~| :au; 4( spds atrzzov-av am‘ reg-5 gm. -yvaavrmv ocn; vIyA: - : i~: ufa: u: A ham i0'.1¢y tap: uh: Mav rt’: mdodarnfpnurux ywywtofitmmmryoef A good system would use underground pipes to discharge kitchen sink greywater (full of composting organic solids) to the roots of a tree in a mulch basin (a depression dug around a bush/ tree, and excavated soil is positioned to form a circular wall around the basin. The basin is then backfilled with mulch. Greywater is directed to the basin, cannot escape, and cannot surface above the mulch).
  39. 39. FIGURE 2: GREYWATER CONTAINED AND Covsnzo IN A Bnmcmso DRAIN-FED MULCH Bitsm (mzv/ mom VIEW) Ernclcscddumbaaptiarvshawwatlcfhclurdischaiycapflonsivwnatrlght (yaucanskiptharestafthedctailsfvrnaw. ncilnefa-bacirtoflibflgwelacar). i‘-‘lav splitter nglswr cmpy 1 gal piastic Outlet dial-ntsr opflon potcavarcdmth upside-davn. empty5gal Claardochargsouflstopelon stepping stones piaauc pat Mail bottom if subsurface distribution is not ailavs access to cut out and holes drilled in raqul-ad. Gwcan be discharged double all for clsan- the suns. Allows solids out 2’ above surface of mulch into which it quioldy disappears. This is much simpler to construct and maintain and the added hum: rbk is minimal (subsurface dis- trfbuflon ls prefcrrvd for kitchaf sink mtcr so vsrmin can‘: use it as a fond source). Mg without lmack- WW Into mulch fvrbiodqradr ingdinorieaoosln ‘Mama, uansocloggingdoosnot (the most common puck fgrugy occur. It isveiylmpar-nan: unaytodlscurbthc kygln, thatdischargccndofylpc flow) ls2'a-mareabavcary obstructiomsasaildsdo
  40. 40. El mil‘) til. Irrigation of acidic plants which can't take alkaline greywater . x l ll ll 2 Plant sage grass and rosemary instead of foxgloves.
  41. 41. Q“ llfll ZRR@FlE Trying to connect a garden hose directly from the back of the laundry washer l ll 0 T l 0 Use a surge tank (eg. plastic barrel) so that large flows from the bath or washing machine do not back up into the house. .
  42. 42. »'sr_, ,, FIGURE 4 cmvrnr DRUM Fiiaxnpafiflz Clailus Nodxivg omtalirlv-g sodiixrrg dbnine or Mm Hydiogterr ; ¢imi'¢le . ‘ "each is accr; 0% A a'*~v-wy. I-. ~bv- M? /HP tie the on-rm / ‘gum 5 1 can oerstaihd waibsaaeas; suu'ufvx_; Aecuewi guyuater syn twnant 54-; t»: r_wu~‘. ~. 50 to 556alorI Phsflc hum Tevrpa-aely holds maaertiseszayss outtaoquikziyifiaraiie/ iosc fsta-fig gI9J«I&f(: ‘i5 not daisavaabl 4.n. ‘t. ~.s cw-hot meter cm: to «~91 A. -Jr : ;a_; .~ Ar- nw. ».~: I. ../ mg mvdvw diam A: « rand dram; -v v-rm 9 «hmig 3'. -rym D‘. - caawnsp the mach»-2 am alifixs maize. " asv ow, -efiowif tihrhose $t. '.‘. ~'s, instead ofcwnigoutniispctrin Setdhniayan nudes wgainnvmpnsssaae. Ilhshflg Ilkahi1¢DtaiI Hose ’ Feed dv-ough Lwhfcw, dryer unto»: sins‘ Iioivtlr -‘-‘. ¢‘i'n tr» -7!" chm: -rq want: Oful-‘Inf Patna’ l, Dvi’ 7¢"ir: «ir 1,‘ 0-iiii"m'_« 3’ 5,,5i34_; ;,; ,_~, . M wiah tevim tape , - 1:0‘ Mat: 1 -‘con 3, Sula. -‘rod fin: -xv; wt]: ya’ or $005 siikwi . v.a'cv' £6026 Gm-Jan Mose §+"si2efivgoc>dflo-‘ ‘ifea. M;f, a-angcorgney ‘~- n‘Mo». ~i-umcf we-1:-xf mi‘derm‘y it as a grtyuansr . hon If: I>- hon J-an not slcyr Jam ch» «nan Thshos-e is irbwd to. -J new mddi Aasin afizsrs ca: -avg sad; “‘. ’i’ ‘Nd ? ??’ $3 may "0: “""‘” ma M. -Ia‘; mu: 10"desp Io»: -s pi; spsats mweyirg ‘”""""""9"”~‘7 3 P acaoncfsoil rmvooigaari/ 'srrs ma‘ iezgts 5;-eywater mm. ac); -«J: to ab-*4.-rfacv A An n l'0"do~_: ivvpa w. 'r. - uh». -to it"s mated arid pl'. ‘|¢&‘1fi y-q-ate! ‘ from running ow? ’ } N ’ o
  43. 43. H“ llfll ZRR@FlE Pump enthusiasm. Hal “ T: Do not use pumps. Pumps are prone to failure. Use gravity fed pipes instead. Work smarter not harder.
  44. 44. Ell llfilf 4” Blackwater PVC wastepipe used for greywater is overkill. Q Q "I, /f‘ lfl, l , ‘, / --~ “W, ) Sometimes with less water in the pipe, / 1.5” or 2" PVC on a CONTINUAL 2% K I slope carries away solids even better s, ,_, ,,, ,,/ than larger diameter pipe.
  45. 45. l l l T“ ifir > i l‘ i O Jwsttbsfoie Don ’t use U-traps , ,_, ., (P-traps and S-traps). Use gravity fed branching tees like these: u--' . ~. - . ' ' . -’- 2' fl“' 1 N. . ,4? K fralchor hit: fitted arid: mod cm}:
  46. 46. H“ llfll Zflfllfillfll Perforated pipe for grey water distribution isn’t smart. ‘ T70 l Greywater is like a smoothie one day, and cement the next. .. it will eventually clog holes. Plus, plant roots will attack the perforated pipe vigorously.
  47. 47. UT llEl Zflfllfillfll Grey water to drip irrigation won’t work (without serious filtration). all t J . J 0 Even if your greywater passes through a simple filter (eg. old pantyhose), it will still contain suspended particles and organic matter which will clog a precise drip irrigation system in weeks.
  48. 48. Overly complex grey water system Greywater Culvert Detail ' GJIVW zs, -G Culvert Incoming Greywater PH L r‘~"t Backwash Unt- lrom Sand Filter to Ovi-rtlow Pipe Overflow Pipo to Leach Fir, -Id Manual Switch for Backwash Flow Float in Surge Tank ' 2- PVC Pl c ' Activates Pump 1/6 ' pp Mn“ Filtered Greywater to Sand Orchard Irrigation area Pump Pushes _ 3; ‘ Filter Greywater from ‘ , i’ " Surge Tank Through x K)‘ , Sand Filter ‘i4). i . I .1 / ) Note: Pipe ioulmg txiz; b- on -. rnplil . d , .z ‘arclarity
  49. 49. If the (social? ) climate supports it, you can always take an outdoor shower in your garden!
  50. 50. or on Advanced greywater treatment Planter bed ‘I I . .. g To Groundwater Over- r - "OW " _ - Se tic Pymp_ Sand filter tang‘
  51. 51. Greywater Sources Pre-treatment Dispersion > Irrigation Soil-box planter F
  52. 52. -. , Six flee ‘ Git-ywalc-r Orchard ‘op’ I ' lmgwi-on L‘m? - . « to Orchard . -- . ~’Greywatcr Pump and Filter G reywater Tank , . , , — , ’ ‘J1 Overflow Lino ‘‘: ' lo Loach Field . N . , Blackwater Lino‘ ~‘ , '1' to Leach Field —‘~ ‘ f )1’. I . ’- . (‘ Leach _ Fleld System Layout The Greywater System Provides Irrigation Only tor the Orchard Area

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Responsible reuse of grey water in homes and other small communities.


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