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Modals of speculation about the past
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Modals of speculation

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Modals of speculation

  1. 1. <ul><li>TO MAKE GUESSES ABOUT </li></ul><ul><li>THE PRESENT OR THE FUTURE </li></ul><ul><li>THE PAST </li></ul>MODALS OF SPECULATION
  2. 2. MODALS OF SPECULATION <ul><li>TO MAKE GUESSES ABOUT </li></ul><ul><li>THE PRESENT OR THE FUTURE </li></ul>
  3. 3. TO MAKE GUESSES ABOUT THE PRESENT OR THE FUTURE <ul><li>MUST </li></ul><ul><li>MAY </li></ul><ul><li>MIGHT </li></ul><ul><li>COULD </li></ul><ul><li>CAN’T </li></ul>+ INFINITIVE
  4. 4. MUST <ul><li>We use it to express that something is certain or highly probable . </li></ul><ul><li>If A is bigger than B, and B is bigger than C… </li></ul><ul><li>… then A must be bigger than C. </li></ul><ul><li>Mary keeps crying – she must have a problem. </li></ul>
  5. 5. She must be tired
  6. 6. He must be angry
  7. 7. CAN’T <ul><li>We use it to express that something is certainly not the case or highly improbable . </li></ul><ul><li>It can’t be the postman at the door. It’s only seven o’clock. </li></ul><ul><li>She can’t have a 10-year-old daughter! She’s only 24! </li></ul>
  8. 8. He can’t be poor
  9. 9. MAY vs MIGHT <ul><li>We use them when there is a possibility of it happening. </li></ul><ul><li>I may go to Edinburgh tomorrow </li></ul><ul><li>(Perhaps a 50% chance) </li></ul><ul><li>Peter might come with me </li></ul><ul><li>(Perhaps a 30% chance. It is possible but not very likely to happen) </li></ul>
  10. 10. MODALS OF SPECULATION <ul><li>TO MAKE GUESSES ABOUT </li></ul><ul><li>ACTIONS IN PROGRESS NOW </li></ul>
  11. 11. TO MAKE GUESSES ABOUT ACTIONS IN PROGRESS NOW <ul><li>MUST </li></ul><ul><li>MAY </li></ul><ul><li>MIGHT </li></ul><ul><li>COULD </li></ul><ul><li>CAN’T </li></ul>+ BE + - ING
  12. 12. TO MAKE GUESSES ABOUT ACTIONS IN PROGRESS NOW <ul><li>Do you know where Ben is? </li></ul><ul><li>I don’t know, he may_____________ to music in his room. </li></ul><ul><li>Have you seen the newspaper? I think James picket it up. He may _________ it. </li></ul>be listening be reading
  13. 13. They must be gossiping
  14. 14. He must be sleeping
  15. 15. MODALS OF SPECULATION TO MAKE GUESSES ABOUT THE PAST
  16. 16. TO MAKE GUESSES OR TO SPECULATE ABOUT THE PAST <ul><li>MUST </li></ul><ul><li>MAY </li></ul><ul><li>MIGHT </li></ul><ul><li>COULD </li></ul><ul><li>CAN’T </li></ul>+ HAVE + PAST PARTICIPLE
  17. 17. MAKE GUESSES OR SPECULATE ABOUT THE FOLLOWING SITUATION He must have won the race
  18. 18. MAKE GUESSES OR SPECULATE ABOUT THE FOLLOWING SITUATION They must have lost the match
  19. 19. MAKE GUESSES OR SPECULATE ABOUT THE FOLLOWING SITUATION They may have hit the jackpot
  20. 20. She may have lost her keys
  21. 21. She must have put on weight
  22. 22. They must be having a row
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