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Cohesive Devices
• Human beings use language to communicate
with each other and to represent their ideas or
thoughts,
• Communication can be in the form of written
as well as spoken discourse (stretch of lang).
• To do all this they use one or more word
or/and more than one sentence.
• The wide range of sentences can be used as a
unified whole or separate unrelated sentences.
• In this way they produce long texts.
Meaning
• Cohesive device is a device which holds
different parts of a thing together.
• In terms of communication, cohesive devices
are typically single words or phrases that hold
and hang different parts of the text.
• These are basically tools of cohesion
• Function: The major function of cohesion is
text formation.
• Helps in achieving unity of text as a semantic
whole.
unified whole of linguistic items.
Cont….
• A text must be meaningful. A text that is not
cohesive is never meaningful.
• They show the logical relationship between
sentences and paragraphs.
• They help expand the context, such as;
- whether information is completely new,
- related to information in other sentences,
- or is a reference to "old" information from
a previous sentence.
• improves reading and comprehension skills.
Cont…
• Importance: Without them the semantic
system cannot be effectively activated at all.
how meaning in language is created by the use
and inter-relationship of words, phrases, and
sentences
• Links together structurally unrelated elements
through the dependence of one on the other for
its interpretation.
• e.g. Aslam (proper noun) is an intelligent boy.
He (pronoun) always stand first in class.
He is holding two sentences together.
Cont…
• Mary will jump if she is fit.
• The company will change its policy.
• Ayesha wants to know if her proposal was
accepted.
Cohesive devices may take a number of forms
e.g. pronouns, nouns, conjunctions etc.
Examples
• Numerous words are considered cohesive
devices in the English language. For example;
however, in conclusion, basically, at
last, eventually, after all, rarely, normally, at
first, often, further, and firstly.
Each of the above examples can be used to
start a sentence to link together the sentences
or story.
Types of cohesive devices
• Sentences that are presented as a whole are
linked and related to each other by means of
specific cohesive devices, i.e.
• Reference,
• Substitution,
• Ellipsis,
• Conjunctions,
• Lexical items
Reference
• Reference is used to describe the different
ways in which entities- things, people, eventsare referred to within texts
• Linguistic features e.g. pronouns are used to
refer to the already mentioned entities.
• Certain terms in any language cannot be
interpreted semantically rather they make
reference to something else within the text for
their interpretation.
Cont…
• e.g. Saira went to the market in rain. She
stepped in puddle and never went there again.
• She and there show that the information about
them is retrieved elsewhere within the text.
This type of cohesion is called reference.
• Types:
- Personal ref; e.g. I, me, mine, mine, his, her,
they, them, he, she, you, we, us etc.
Cont…
• Demonstrative ref; (This/these, that/those,
here/there)
It is a form of pointing the referent on the basis
of proximity (near, far)
e.g. Leave that there and come here.
I like these books but I don’t like those.
• Comparative ref; Here things compared show
likeness or unlikeness.
e.g. It is the same pen I bought yesterday.
Cont…
It is different pen from the one I bought
yesterday. (general)
There are twice as many books there as the last
time.
Take some more tea (particular comparison)
Substitution
• It is replacement of one linguistic item by
another i.e. replacement of one word/phrase
with another word/phrase.
• Used to avoid repetition of a particular item.
• Something you use instead of the thing you
would normally use.
e.g. The glass broke. I must get another.
You know she already know this. I think
everybody does.
Cont…
A: I will have two eggs on the bread.
B: I will have the same.
I don’t know the meaning of those words, and I
don’t believe you do either.
Is this mango ripe?
It seems so
Ellipsis
• It is the deletion or omission of a linguistic
item.
• It can be interpreted as that form of
substitution in which an item is replaced by
nothing.
• An occasion when words are deliberately left
out of a sentence, though the meaning can still
be understood.
Cont…
• Leaving out of words or sentences as they are
necessary because they have already been
referred or mentioned.
e.g. A: Where are you going?
B: To town instead of I am going to town.
A: Have you been swimming?
B: yes
Conjunction
• A word which joins words and sentences such
as but, when, and, so, or, unless etc.
• Categories:
- Additive (substance added to another)
- Adversative (contrary to expectations)
Causal
(relations
expressed
by
so, hence, therefore, thus)
- Temporal (relation expressed by “then”
Lexical cohesion
• Lexical cohesion is established through
vocabulary.
• While reference, ellipsis and conjunction tend
to link clauses which are near each other in the
text, lexical cohesion tends to link much larger
parts of the text
• Lexical cohesion is created by Reiteration and
Collocation
Cont…
• Reiteration; involves
- the repetition of the same word
- a synonym or near-synonym
- a general word
e.g. There is a boy climbing that tree
- The boy is going to fall…….
- The lad is going to fall……..
- The idiot is going to fall……
Cont…
• Collocation; is the way in which particular
words tend to occur or belong together.

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Cohesive devices

  • 2. • Human beings use language to communicate with each other and to represent their ideas or thoughts, • Communication can be in the form of written as well as spoken discourse (stretch of lang). • To do all this they use one or more word or/and more than one sentence. • The wide range of sentences can be used as a unified whole or separate unrelated sentences. • In this way they produce long texts.
  • 3. Meaning • Cohesive device is a device which holds different parts of a thing together. • In terms of communication, cohesive devices are typically single words or phrases that hold and hang different parts of the text. • These are basically tools of cohesion • Function: The major function of cohesion is text formation. • Helps in achieving unity of text as a semantic whole. unified whole of linguistic items.
  • 4. Cont…. • A text must be meaningful. A text that is not cohesive is never meaningful. • They show the logical relationship between sentences and paragraphs. • They help expand the context, such as; - whether information is completely new, - related to information in other sentences, - or is a reference to "old" information from a previous sentence. • improves reading and comprehension skills.
  • 5. Cont… • Importance: Without them the semantic system cannot be effectively activated at all. how meaning in language is created by the use and inter-relationship of words, phrases, and sentences • Links together structurally unrelated elements through the dependence of one on the other for its interpretation. • e.g. Aslam (proper noun) is an intelligent boy. He (pronoun) always stand first in class. He is holding two sentences together.
  • 6. Cont… • Mary will jump if she is fit. • The company will change its policy. • Ayesha wants to know if her proposal was accepted. Cohesive devices may take a number of forms e.g. pronouns, nouns, conjunctions etc.
  • 7. Examples • Numerous words are considered cohesive devices in the English language. For example; however, in conclusion, basically, at last, eventually, after all, rarely, normally, at first, often, further, and firstly. Each of the above examples can be used to start a sentence to link together the sentences or story.
  • 8. Types of cohesive devices • Sentences that are presented as a whole are linked and related to each other by means of specific cohesive devices, i.e. • Reference, • Substitution, • Ellipsis, • Conjunctions, • Lexical items
  • 9. Reference • Reference is used to describe the different ways in which entities- things, people, eventsare referred to within texts • Linguistic features e.g. pronouns are used to refer to the already mentioned entities. • Certain terms in any language cannot be interpreted semantically rather they make reference to something else within the text for their interpretation.
  • 10. Cont… • e.g. Saira went to the market in rain. She stepped in puddle and never went there again. • She and there show that the information about them is retrieved elsewhere within the text. This type of cohesion is called reference. • Types: - Personal ref; e.g. I, me, mine, mine, his, her, they, them, he, she, you, we, us etc.
  • 11. Cont… • Demonstrative ref; (This/these, that/those, here/there) It is a form of pointing the referent on the basis of proximity (near, far) e.g. Leave that there and come here. I like these books but I don’t like those. • Comparative ref; Here things compared show likeness or unlikeness. e.g. It is the same pen I bought yesterday.
  • 12. Cont… It is different pen from the one I bought yesterday. (general) There are twice as many books there as the last time. Take some more tea (particular comparison)
  • 13. Substitution • It is replacement of one linguistic item by another i.e. replacement of one word/phrase with another word/phrase. • Used to avoid repetition of a particular item. • Something you use instead of the thing you would normally use. e.g. The glass broke. I must get another. You know she already know this. I think everybody does.
  • 14. Cont… A: I will have two eggs on the bread. B: I will have the same. I don’t know the meaning of those words, and I don’t believe you do either. Is this mango ripe? It seems so
  • 15. Ellipsis • It is the deletion or omission of a linguistic item. • It can be interpreted as that form of substitution in which an item is replaced by nothing. • An occasion when words are deliberately left out of a sentence, though the meaning can still be understood.
  • 16. Cont… • Leaving out of words or sentences as they are necessary because they have already been referred or mentioned. e.g. A: Where are you going? B: To town instead of I am going to town. A: Have you been swimming? B: yes
  • 17. Conjunction • A word which joins words and sentences such as but, when, and, so, or, unless etc. • Categories: - Additive (substance added to another) - Adversative (contrary to expectations) Causal (relations expressed by so, hence, therefore, thus) - Temporal (relation expressed by “then”
  • 18. Lexical cohesion • Lexical cohesion is established through vocabulary. • While reference, ellipsis and conjunction tend to link clauses which are near each other in the text, lexical cohesion tends to link much larger parts of the text • Lexical cohesion is created by Reiteration and Collocation
  • 19. Cont… • Reiteration; involves - the repetition of the same word - a synonym or near-synonym - a general word e.g. There is a boy climbing that tree - The boy is going to fall……. - The lad is going to fall…….. - The idiot is going to fall……
  • 20. Cont… • Collocation; is the way in which particular words tend to occur or belong together.