IBM WebSphere Application Server (Clustering) Concept


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IBM WebSphere Application Server (Clustering) Concept, Components. Content is adopted from IBM RedBook

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IBM WebSphere Application Server (Clustering) Concept

  1. 1. © 2010 IBM Corporation WebSphere WebSphere Application Server Clustering Eryan Ariobowo – WebSphere Technical Specialist Jan 2012
  2. 2. © 2010 IBM Corporation Application Server  The platform on which Java language-based applications run.  It provides services that can be used by business applications, such as database connectivity, threading, and workload management. 2
  3. 3. © 2010 IBM Corporation Application Server Architecture  Internal architecture of WebSphere Application Server, and packaging structure 3 Available in ND platform only. Base and Express doesn’t have this capability
  4. 4. © 2010 IBM Corporation Application Server Architecture V8.5  Internal architecture of WebSphere Application Server, and packaging structure Base & Express Network Deployment
  5. 5. © 2010 IBM Corporation Server  Server is a regular Java process responsible for serving J2EE requests (eg.: serving JSP/JSF pages, serving EJB calls, consuming JMS queues, etc). 5
  6. 6. © 2010 IBM Corporation Stand-Alone Application Servers  each application server acts as a unique entity (functions independent from all others)  each can be managed from its own administrative console  stand-alone servers can be managed from a central point by using administrative agents and a job manager 6
  7. 7. © 2010 IBM Corporation Administrative Agent (Admin Agent)  An additional administration component (available since V7)  A single interface to administer multiple unfederated/stand-alone application server (Express & Base) nodes in different environments  Multiple application servers in the same machine can be administer by one administrative agent.  The administrative agent and application servers must be on the same machine  A node can be registered with the administrative agent or federate the node with a deployment manager, but you cannot do both 7
  8. 8. © 2010 IBM Corporation Distributed Application Servers  a distributed server configuration – built by the Network Deployment packaging – enable central administration, workload management, and failover 8
  9. 9. © 2010 IBM Corporation Node, Node Agent  Node – An administrative grouping of application servers for configuration and operational management within one operating system instance – Multiple nodes can be created inside one operating system instance  Node Agent – Process responsible for spawning and killing server processes and also responsible for configuration synchronization between the Deployment Manager and the Node. – Created automatically when you add (federate) a stand-alone application server node to a cell 9 Stand-alone environment Distributed environment
  10. 10. © 2010 IBM Corporation Node Group  A collection of nodes within a cell that have similar capabilities in terms of installed software, available resources, and configuration  Used to define a boundary for server cluster formation  DefaultNodeGroup – contains the deployment manager and any new nodes with the same platform type – created automatically. 10
  11. 11. © 2010 IBM Corporation Profiles  Runtime environments are built by creating profiles.  Product files – a set of read-only static files or product binary files that are shared by any instances of the WebSphere Application Server product.  Configuration files (profiles) – a set of user-customizable data files. This file set includes WebSphere configuration, installed applications, resource adapters, properties, log files, and so on. 11
  12. 12. © 2010 IBM Corporation Profiles  Each profile is stored in a unique directory path 12
  13. 13. © 2010 IBM Corporation Profile Types 13 Product WebSphere profiles available WebSphere Application Server Express ► Application server profiles (stand-alone) ► Management profile with an administrative agent server WebSphere Application Server (Base) WebSphere Application Server Network Deployment (ND) ► Management profile with a deployment manager server ► Management profile with an administrative agent server ► Management profile with job manager server ► Application server profiles (stand-alone) ► Cell profile ► Custom profile ► Secure proxy profile
  14. 14. © 2010 IBM Corporation Profile Types 14 Single aplication server profile • consists of one cell, one node, and one server • has a dedicated administrative console Deployment Manager profiles • A cell for the administrative domain • A node for the deployment manager • A deployment manager with an administrative console • No application servers Cell profile • Combination of two profiles: a deployment manager profile & an application server profile • Deployment manager and application server reside on the same system Administrative Agent profile • created on the same node as the stand-alone servers • can manage only servers on that node Job Manager profile • queue jobs to application servers in a flexible management environment
  15. 15. © 2010 IBM Corporation Profiles 15 node1 server1 dmgrNode dmgr dmgrCell dmgr profile nodeagent1 server2 node2 nodeagent2 profile2 adminconsole addnode profile1 adminconsole  Note: Node of WAS Base/Express can be added to a Deployment Manager
  16. 16. © 2010 IBM Corporation Cell  A grouping of nodes into a single administrative domain.  A cell can consist of multiple nodes and node groups.  In the Base and Express configurations: – contains one node and that node contains one server 16
  17. 17. © 2010 IBM Corporation Cell in Stand-alone & Network Deployment Environment 17
  18. 18. © 2010 IBM Corporation18 Cell in ND Environment – Deployment Manager  A Cell is a virtual unit that is built of a Deployment Manager and one or more nodes.  The Deployment Manager is a process (in fact it is an special WAS instance) responsible for – Managing the installation and maintenance of Applications – Connection Pools and other resources related to a J2EE environment – Centralizing user repositories for application – Centralizing WAS authentication and authorization.  Can contains nodes that are running on mixed platform (heterogeneous cell) Node 1 Node 2 Node 2 Node 2 Deployment Manager
  19. 19. © 2010 IBM Corporation Integrated Solutions Console (administrative console)  connects to – a running stand-alone server OR – a deployment manager (in a distributed environment)  In WAS > V7, it also connects to an administrative agent and a job manager 19
  20. 20. © 2010 IBM Corporation Cluster  virtual units that groups Servers  servers is managed together  resources added to the Cluster are propagated to every Server that makes up the cluster  Provide highly available – because requests are automatically routed to the running servers in the event of a failure  A cell can include no clusters, one cluster, or multiple clusters  Cluster members cannot span cells. 20 A cluster is a group of application servers that collaborate for the purposes of workload balancing and failover.
  21. 21. © 2010 IBM Corporation Example Configuration Cell, DeploymentManager, Node, NodeAgent, Server, Cluster 21
  22. 22. © 2010 IBM Corporation Cluster  Cluster support following types of servers – Application server clusters a logical collection of application server processes that provides workload balancing and high availability. It is a grouping of application servers that run an identical set of applications managed so that they behave as a single application server (parallel processing). – Proxy server clusters consists of a group of proxy servers that can route requests and traffic to applications in a cell – Generic server clusters allows you to configure external servers (non-IBM application servers or a pre-V6 WebSphere Application Server) into a logical cluster that can be used by the proxy server to route requests 22
  23. 23. © 2010 IBM Corporation Vertical & Horizontal Clustering (Scaling) 23 Vertical Horizontal
  24. 24. © 2010 IBM Corporation Mixed Clustering (Horizontal & Vertical) 24
  25. 25. © 2010 IBM Corporation Mixed-node version in a cluster  WAS V7 can contains nodes & server from WAS V5.1, V6.0, V6.1 ,and V7.0  WAS V8 can contains nodes & server from WAS V6, V6.1, V7, and V8 25
  26. 26. © 2010 IBM Corporation Job Manager  Allows the management of multiple WAS domains (multiple deployment managers and administrative agents) through a single administration interface. 27
  27. 27. © 2010 IBM Corporation Web Server  Web servers are independent products i.e. IBM HTTP Server (HIS)  Managed Node – Can be defined to and managed by the administration process through Deployment Manager 28
  28. 28. © 2010 IBM Corporation Web Servers  Unmanaged Node – Manually transfer the web server plug-in configuration file to the web server on an unmanaged node – Still can be administered from the Integrated Solutions Console; push/upload the plug-in configuration file to web server from admin console through HTTP • does not require a node agent 29
  29. 29. © 2010 IBM Corporation Web server plug-in  Used to route requests to one of multiple application servers  Uses the plug-in configuration file (plugin-cfg.xml) to determine if a request should be handled by the web server or forwarded to an application server  Request transmitted to application server can be HTTP or HTTP Secured (HTTPS). 30
  30. 30. © 2010 IBM Corporation Edge Components  Caching Proxy – Reverse Caching Proxy – Forward Caching Proxy  Load Balancer 31
  31. 31. © 2010 IBM Corporation Edge Components: Caching Proxy  Intercepts requests from the client, retrieves the requested information from the content- hosting systems (usually local cache), and delivers that information back to the client  Cacheable content examples: – static Web pages – JavaServer Pages files that contain dynamically generated, but infrequently changing, information  Cache storage – physical storage device that uses raw disk caching (writes directly without using the operating system's read and write protocols) Use htcformat command for preparing storage device for a disk cache – system memory  Cache index – uses system memory space to hold an index of the cache – reduces the processing time to find cached files. 32