Upcoming SlideShare
×

# 9. drought dks 9

389 views

Published on

Published in: Education, Technology
0 Likes
Statistics
Notes
• Full Name
Comment goes here.

Are you sure you want to Yes No
• Be the first to comment

• Be the first to like this

Views
Total views
389
On SlideShare
0
From Embeds
0
Number of Embeds
1
Actions
Shares
0
3
0
Likes
0
Embeds 0
No embeds

No notes for slide

### 9. drought dks 9

1. 1. @\$v8]/L tyf vfB c;'/Iff ÷ 1
2. 2. k|sf]k–1fgdfnf–( v8]/L tyf vfB c;'/Iff n]vs /fdrGb| Gof}kfg] k|sfzs ÷v8]/L tyf vfB c;'/Iff 2
3. 3. s[lt M v8]/L tyf vfB c;'/Iff n]vs M /fdrGb| Gof}kfg] k|sfzs M jftfj/0f tyf afn ;/f]sf/ ;+:yf–g]kfn (ECO-Nepal) ;jf{lwsf/ M k|sfzsdf ;'/lIft ;+:s/0f M k|yd, ;fpg @)^\$ ;ªVof M @,))) k|lt cfj/0f l8hfOg M /d]z bfxfn d'b|s M lszf]/ ckm;]6 k|; -k|f=_ ln=, kmf]g M \$#%!)\$\$ ] d"No M ?= %)÷– ISBN : 978-99946-927-9-8 k|sf]ksf] hf]lvd Go"gLs/0f tyf k|sf]ksf] ;fdgf ug]{ ;fd'bflos Ifdtf clej[l4sf nflu ;r]tg cleofgcGtu{t k|sf]k–1fgdfnf k|sfzgdf cf+lzs ¿kdf cfly{s ;xof]u ug]{ lgDg ;fem]bf/ ;+:yfx¿k|lt Osf]–g]kfn xflb{s cfef/ JoQm ub{5 M PS;gP8 g]kfn cS;kmfd hLaL g]kfn kf]= a= g+= ^@%&, sf7df8f}+, g]kfn kf]= a= g+= @%)), sf7df8f}+, g]kfn kmf]gM \$\$#^\$&& kmf]gM %%@)%*^ kmofS;M (&&–!–\$\$!(&!* kmofS;M (&&–!–%%@#!(& j]e;fO6M www.actionaid.org/nepal j]e;fO6M www.oxfam.org.uk ÷v8]/L tyf vfB c;'/Iff 3
4. 4. k|sfzssf] egfO d'nssf] *# k|ltzt If]qkmn kxf8 / lxdfnL If]qn] 9fs]sf] x'bf a9bf] ' F hg;ªVofsf] nflu cfjZos vfBfGg pTkfbg ug{ e"ldsf] cefj v6lsPsf] cg'ej eO/x]sf] 5 . s[lif e"ldsf] v08Ls/0fsf sf/0f s[lifIf]qdf cfw'lgs k|ljlwsf] k|of]u x'g ;s]sf] 5}g eg] cem} klg d'n'ssf] ^) k|ltzt s[life"lddf l;+rfO ;'ljwfaf6 ljd'v /x]sf] 5 . d'nssf] cGgsf] e08f/ dflgg] !# k|ltzt If]qkmn /x]sf] t/fO{df ' oftfoft / ljsf;sf cGo k"jf{wf/sf] lj:tf/n] ;x/Ls/0fsf] k|lqmof w]/} cufl8 a9]sf] 5 . kl/0ffd:j?k pa{/ e"ldsf] If]qkmn ;ªsl' rt x'b} uPsf] 5 . o;n] vfBfGg pTkfbgdf k|lts"n k|efj kf/]sf sf/0f F xhf/f}F dflg; clgsfnsf] rk]6fdf kb}{ cfPsf 5g . tLg bzscl3;Dd vfBfGg lgof{t ub}{ cfPsf] o; d'nsn] clxn] nfvf}F d]l6«s6g ' vfBfGg cfoft ug'{ k/]sf] 5 eg] bft[ d'nsx?;Fu cg'bfg klg lng' ' kl//x]sf] 5 . ef}uf]lns ljljwtfo'Qm o; d'nsdf k|fs[lts ;|ftsf] cefj geP klg ' ] o;sf] lbuf] Joj:yfkg tyf a'l4dQfk"0f{ pkof]usf] ljlw / 1ffgsf] cefjn] ul/aL lgjf/0fsf k|of;df cf3ft k'usf] 5 . o;sf ;fy} ] s[lifpTkfbg a9fpg] :yfgLo ljlwsf] lj:tf/df ;d]t k|lts"n k|efj kl//x]sf] 5 . hnjfo' kl/jt{gsf] ljZjJofkL k|efjsf] ;fdgf lxGbs'z lxdfno If]qn] ul//x]sf] ;Gbe{df g]kfn ljZjsf b'O{ ;o d'nsdWo]' 5}6f}F :yfgdf /x]sf] 5 . o;af6 d'n'sdf cltj[li6, cgfj[li6, v8]/Lsf] k|sf]kn] cem k|lts"n k|efj kfg]{ ;Defjgf Jofks aGb} uPsf] 5 . o; ;Gbe{df k|sf]k 1ffgdfnfsf] of] z[ªvnf ;dfhsf ;Dk"0f{ kIfsf nflu nfebfoL x'g] ck]Iff ul/Psf] 5 . k|sf]k 1ffgdfnfsf cGo z[ªvnfh:t} o;nfO{ klg ;/n efiffdf k|:t't ug{ ;kmn n]vs Gof}kfg]nfO{ wGojfb lbg}k5{ . o;sf ;fy} 1ffgdfnfsf !% j6f z[ªvnf k|sflzt ug{ k|/0ff k|bfg ug]{ PS;gP8 ] g]kfnsf l;lgo/ lydln8/ Zofd;'Gb/ 1fjfnL / cS;kmfd hLaL g]kfnsf sfo{qmd ;+of]hs lji0f'k;fb v/]n tyf o;sf] z'4fz'l4 / | ;fh;Hhfdf ;xof]u ug]{ Osf]–g]kfnsf ;a} ;xofqLk|lt wGojfb JoQm ub{5f}F . Osf]–g]kfn ECO-Nepal ] 4÷v8]/L tyf vfB c;'/Iff
5. 5. ;fdfG ljifo;"rL v8]/L / o;sf] ;fdgf %–* ljifok|jz ] % v8]/Lsf] hf]lvd ^ v8]/Lsf] hf]lvd ljZn]if0f * v8]/Lsf] k|efj ljZn]if0f (–!# ;ªs6fled'vtf ljZn]if0f ( v8]/Lsf] cg'udg tyf k"jrtfjgL { ] !) k"jrtfjgL Ifdtfsf] ljsf; { ] !) v8]/Lla?4 r]tgf clej[l4 !! v8]/Lsf] ;fdgf !! ;"rgf k|jfx !@ lzIff tyf tflnd !# ;zQm k"jtof/Lsf pkfo { !# vfB c;'/Iff / k|efj !\$–!( vfB c;'/Iff / o;sf sf/0f !\$ k|fs[lts sf/0f !% dfgjLo sf/0f !& vfB c;'/Iffsf] k|efj @) g]kfndf vfB ;'/Iff Joj:yf @# pk;+xf/ @\$ ÷v8]/L tyf vfB c;'/Iff 5
6. 6. v8]/L / o;sf] ;fdgf ljifok|j]z ufF;, af; / sk8f x/]s dflg;sf]] g};lu{s cfjZostf xf] . cfwf/e"t cfjZostfsf] cefjdf dfgjhLjgsf] cl:tTj g} hf]lvddf /xg ;S5 . dflg;n] vfgf, cfjf;, sk8f, lzIff / :jf:Yoh:tf cfwf/e"t cfjZostf kl/k"lt{s} nflu k|fyldstf;fy sfd ug]{ u5{ . To;dWo] klg vfBj:t'sf] cfjZostf k"/f ug{ dflg;n] zf/Ll/s / dfgl;s zlQm a9L vr{g' k5{ . To;}n] eGg] ul/G5– …s]sf nflu sfd ug]{ < oxL k]6sf nflu g xf] .Ú o;af6 :ki6 x'G5– vfBfGg dflg;sf] klxnf] cfjZostf xf] / o;sf] cefjdf hLjg rNg} ;Sb}g . vfB;'/Iff o:tf] zAb xf], h;nfO{ ljZjJofkL ¿kdf u|x0f u/L nf]slk|o agfP/ k|rngdf NofOPsf] 5 . ljZjsf ;/sf/L lgsfob]lv u}/;/sf/L ;+:yf;Dd, cGt/f{li6«o bft[;:yfb]lv u}/;/sf/L ;+:yf;Dd, ax'/fli6«o ;xof]u lgof]ub]lv + ljsl;t, wgL / cg'bfg ;xof]u k|bfg ug{ ;Ifd d'ns;Dd ;a}n] vfB;'/Iffsf] ' ljifonfO{ cufl8 ;f/]sf] kfOG5 . ljZjdf tLj| ¿kdf j[l4 eO/x]sf] hg;ªVofsf nflu b}lgs cfjZostf k"lt{ ug{ vfBfGgsf] pTkfbg To;} cg'kftdf a9fpFb} n}hfg' cfjZos x'G5 . clxn]s} cj:yfdf sltko d'ns vfBfGgsf] cefjsf sf/0f cfkmgf gful/ssf] hLjg ' arfpg c;kmn eO/x]sf] ;dfrf/ klg ;~rf/ dfWodaf6 cfpg] u/]sf 5g . k|To]s jif{ ef]sd/Laf6 xhf/f}F dflg; d[To'sf] d'vdf kl//x]sf] tLtf] oyfy{ jt{dfg ljZjn] ef]lu/x]sf] 5 . vfB;'/Iff eg]sf] s] xf] t < o; ljifodf leGgfleGg} k|sf/n] JofVof ePsf] kfOG5 . oyfy{df, k|To]s JolQmnfO{ cfjZos kg]{ vfBfGgsf] Joj:yf ldnfP/ s;}n] klg vfgfsf] cefjaf6 ef]sd/Lsf] rk]6fdf k/]/ Hofg u'dfpg' gkg]{ cj:yf l;h{gf ug'{ g} vfB;'/Iff xf] . kl/jf/, ;dfh, /fi6« / cGt/f{li6«o ;ª3;+:yf, bft[lgsfo tyf ;d'bfosf x/]s txdf o:tf] ;'/Iffk|0ffnL ckgfpg ;lsG5 . Go"gtd cfjZostf k"lt{sf nflu lglZrt ;do;Dd wfGg;Sg] cGg tyf vfBfGg ;'/lIft /fVg' tyf Jojl:yt ug'{ g} vfB;'/Iffsf] d'ne"t kIf xf] . ljsl;t / wgL /fi6«n] vfBfGgaf6 k|fKt x'g] Sofnf]/L, To;sf] u'0f:t/sf ljifodf klg Wofg lbG5g t/ cljsl;t, ul/a / ;fwg;|ft Go"g ePsf tyf ] hg;ªVof j[l4sf] rfkdf k/]sf d'nsdf vfBfGgsf] u'0f:t/df eGbf To;sf] ' ÷v8]/L tyf vfB c;'/Iff 6
7. 7. pknAw kl/df0fdf lrQ a'emfpg'kg]{ cj:yf /x]sf] 5 . v8]/Lsf] hf]lvd hnjfo' kl/jt{gaf6 x'g] k|sf]khGo hf]lvd jf ;ªs6df h'g;'s} If]q jf To; If]qsf k|f0fLx¿ k|efljt x'g] cj:yf;Fu v8]/LnfO{ hf]8/ x]g{ ;lsG5 . k|sf]ksf] ] hf]lvd Go"gLs/0fsf nflu cGt/f{li6«o /0fgLltn] kl/eflift u/]cg';f/ ;ªs6fled'vtf eg]sf] ef}lts, ;fdflhs, cfly{s tyf jftfj/0fLo tŒj jf k|lqmofaf6 lgwf{/0f x'g] o:tf] cj:yf xf] h;n] ;d'bfonfO{ k|sf]ksf] k|efjsf cuf8L lg/Lx agfpF5 . To;}n] v8]/L kg]{ If]qsf g]tf jf of]hgfljbn] v8]/Lsf] hf]lvdaf/] a'emg tyf v8]/Ldf sf] jf s] Hofbf hf]lvddf 5 < s] sf/0fn] To:tf] ePsf] xf] < hf]lvd pTkGg ug{ s]–s:tf sf/s tŒj / k|lqmofsf] xft 5 < h:tf ljifo klxrfg ug{ hf]lvd ljZn]if0f ug'k5{ . v8]/L If]qut tyf { ;dout ¿kdf km/s x'G5 / o;sf] k|jl[ QnfO{ a'‰g klg lgs} sl7g x'G5 . tyflk lj1x¿n] o;af/] a'‰g / ;d'bfonfO{ o;sf] ;Defljt :t/ / ;dofjlwaf/] a'emfpg' Hofb} h?/L eO;s]sf] 5 . o;sf nflu jiff{sf] k|jl[ Q, tfkqmdsf] ptf/r9fj, hnjfo'sf] cj:yf / o;sf] kl/jt{gsf] :t/h:tf k|dv k|lqmofsf ' af/]df 1fg x'gk5{ . oL tŒjx¿sf] ljZn]if0faf6 g} eljiodf kg{;Sg] v8]/Lsf ' 36gfx¿sf] k|jl[ Q / k|efjsf af/]df hfgsf/L k|fKt ug{ ;xof]u u5{g . ;+oQm /fi6«;ª3Lo cGt/;/sf/L ;d"xn] k|sflzt u/]sf] …hnjfo' kl/jt{g ' @))& k|efj, ;dfof]hg, / ;ªs6fled'vtfÚ gfds k|ltj]bgdf klg jfo'd08nsf] tfkqmd al9/x]sf] / o;n] v8]/Lnufotsf k|sf]ksf] cfj[lQnfO{ qm'/ / ljgfzsf/L agfpg e"ldsf v]ln/x]sf] atfOPsf] 5 . ljZjJofkL tfkqmd j[l4n] st} cltj[li6, st} cgfj[li6 / st} nfdf] ;do;Dd rNg] ;'Vvfkgn] vfBfGg pTkfbgsf] ofd / o;sf] j[l4:t/df k|lts"n k|efj kg]5 . nfdf]{ ;do;Ddsf] ;'Vvf df};d / clglZrt jiff{n] ;d'bfonfO{ kl/jt{gsf] af6f] ckgfpg afWo agfpF5 . v8] / L cfkm} F d f ;ª s 6 xf] O g . o;sf] k| e fjsf] bafan] ;d' b fonfO{ ;ªs6fled'vtftkm{ ws]n/ hf]lvd pTkGg u5{ . ;d'bfosf] v8]/Lsf] ;fdgf ] ug]{ Ifdtfsf] ljsf; lgs} hl6n ljifo ePsf]n] ubf{ klg v8]/Ln] ;d'bfonfO{ cGo w]/} k|sf/sf ;ªs6tkm{ pGd'v u/fpF5 . ljsl;t tyf ljsf;zLn b'j} /fi6«df v8]/Ln] k|efj kf5{ t/ k|efjsf] :t/ / k|efljt If]q, ;fdgf ug]{ Ifdtfdf eg] oL b'j} k|sf/sf /fi6«df j[xt dfqfdf km/s k5{ . To;}n] ;ªs6fled'vtf pTkGg ug]{ tŒjsf] ljZn]if0f ;lxt hf]lvdsf ljleGg cjojx¿sf] cWoog u/L :yfgLo ;d'bfodf kg]{ hf]lvdsf] ljZn]if0f ug'{ 7÷v8]/L tyf vfB c;'/Iff
8. 8. h?/L x'G5 . v8]/Lsf] hf]lvd Go"gLs/0f of]hgf agfpg ;ªs6fled'vtfsf] ¿k/]vf tof/ ug{' klg hf]lvd Go"gLs/0fsf] lgldQ cfjZos x'G5 . k"0f{ ;ªs6fled'vtf ljZn]if0fdf ;'Id tyf j[xt kIfsf] ljZn]if0f / o; kIfdf ;d'bfosf] k|ltsf/ ug]{ jt{dfg Ifdtf s:tf] 5 eGg] ljifodf klg ulx/f] cWoog ug'{ cfjZos k5{ . nfdf] ;do;Dd v8]/L rn]sf] cj:yfdf pTkGg x'g;Sg] ;fdflhs åGå jf lx+;fTds ultljlw, clxn] g} ;d:ofsf ¿kdf b]lvPsf PrcfOeL÷P8;h:tf /f]usf] dxfdf/Laf6 x'g] :jf:Yo ;ªs6, lk5l8Psf ;d'bfosf] a9bf] ul/aL:t/ cflbn] klg hf]lvd a9fO/x]sf] 5 . o:tf ;d:of pTkGg ug]{ d"n sf/0fsf] klxrfg gu/L ;d:ofsf] ;dfwfgdf vf;} pknlAw x'g;Sb}g . ;ªs6fled'v ;d'bfosf] nflu vfB;'/Iff /0fgLltnfO{ ;dofg'sn agfpg " g;s]df /fli6«o tyf cGt/f{li6«o ¿kdf ;+rfng x'g] /fxt k|lqmofdf ;':ttf cfpg ;S5 . j[xt kIfsf] cWoog cg'?k ;d'bfodf bz jif{cl3sf] t'ngfdf clxn] v8]/Lsf] ;ªs6fled'vtf a9]sf] ljZn]if0f ljZjJofkL ¿kdf ul/Psf] 5 . o; ;Gbe{df cNkljsl;t d'nssf ;fy} ljsl;t d'nsdf ;d]t v8]/Ln] ' ' j[xt / s7f]/ k|efj kfg]{ ;Defjgf al9/x]sf] 5 . ljsl;t d'n'sx¿df v8]/Lsf cg'udg / k|efjsf] ;fdgfsf] tof/L tyf o;k|lt hjfkmb]xL /xg kof{Kt ;fwg tyf ;|ft pknAw x'G5g . tfklg kfl/jfl/s hLljsf]kfh{g, ] :yfgLo ;d'bfosf] jftfj/0fLo tyf ;fdflhs ;+/rgfdf k|lts"n k|efj kg]{ k|lqmofnfO{ ;Daf]wg ug{ lgs} sl7gfO eO/x]sf] kfOG5 . ;'Id :t/df s] eO/x]sf] 5 eGg] hfGgsf nflu :yfgLo ;d'bfosf] hLljsf]kfh{g, ablnFbf] jftfj/0fdf ;fd~h:o x'g;Sg] /0fgLlt tyf Ifdtfaf/] ljZn]if0f ug'{ h?/L x'G5 . jt{dfg ;dodf ;d'bfosf] hLljsf]kfh{gdf s:tf] ljljwtf 5 / o;n] v8]/Lsf] ;fdgf ug{ s:tf] of]ubfg k'¥ofpF5 < ;DklQ tyf vfBfGgsf] :t/af6 ltgLx¿ bL3{sfnLg v8]/Laf6 slxn];Dd aRg ;S5g < ;ªs6df g/x]sf JolQmn] ;ªs6fled'v ;d'bfok|lt s:tf] lhDd]jf/L af]w u5{g < cflb ljifodf x'g] ljZn]if0f g} v8]/Lsf] ;fdgf ug]{ k|efjsf/L pkfo x'g eGg] dfGotf cufl8 cfPsf] 5 . ;d'bfosf] ;ªs6fled'vtfsf] klxrfg ug{ hLljsf]kfh{gsf] :yfgLo ljlwsf] ljZn]if0f cfjZos x'G5 . o;n] cfly{s, ;fdflhs, ;f+:s[lts, /fhgLlts / ef}lts tŒjx¿nfO{ aLrdf /fv]/ hf]lvdsf] ;fdgf ug]{ Ifdtfsf] ljsf; ug]{ dfu{ k|z:t ug{ ;S5 . hf]lvd Go"gLs/0fsf nflu hldg / k|fs[lts ;|ftaLr ] dfgjLo ultljlwsf] ;fd~h:o sfod u/L ef}lts ;DklQ, dfgjLo k'hL, F ;fdflhs k'hLnufotsf ;DklQsf] ;+/If0fsf pkfox¿ cjnDag ug'kg]{ F { 8÷v8]/L tyf vfB c;'/Iff
9. 9. x'G5 . pknAw ;DklQdf hlt w]/} ljljwtf x'G5 Tolt g} w]/} hf]lvdsf] ;fdgf ug]{ af6f] km/flsnf] x'G5 . hLljsf]kfh{gdf x'g] ljljwtfn] g} hf]lvdsf] Go"gLs/0f jf ;fdgf ug]{ /0fgLltsf] klxrfg / sfof{Gjog ug{ ;lhnf] x'G5 . ;du|df v8]/Lsf] hf]lvd ljZn]if0fn] k|sf]ksf] ;xL tyf cfw'lgs a'emfOnfO{ :ki6 kfg'{k5{ . o;af6 dflg;df kg]{ c;/sf ;fy} v8]/Lk|lt ;d'bfosf] ;ªs6fled'vtfsf] j[xt / ;"Id cWoog ug{ ;Sg'k5{ . o:tf sfo{n] v8]/Laf6 kg]{ k|efjsf] Go"gLs/0f ug{ cfjZos k"jtof/L ug]{ af6f]nfO{ km/flsnf] kf5{ . { v8]/Lsf] hf]lvd ljZn]if0f v8]/Lsf] hf]lvd Go"gLs/0fsf nflu ;d'bfosf] ;fdgf Ifdtf clej[l4 ug]{ ;+:s[ltsf] ljsf; ug'k5{ . o;sf nflu v8]/Lsf] ;Defljt c;/, k|efljt x'g] { ;d'bfodf cfOkg]{ ;ªs6 / ltgLx¿sf] jt{dfg ;dosf] lqmofsnfksf] hfgsf/L lng' h?/L x'G5 . o;sf ;fy} ;d'bfodf pTkGg x'g;Sg] k|fs[lts, ef}lts, /fhgLlts, ;fdflhs, cfly{s tyf jftfj/0fLo ;ªs6fled'vtfsf] cWoog u/]/ ltgLx¿sf] :t/ lgwf{/0f u/L k|fyldsLs/0f ug'k5{ . v8]/Laf6 x'g] { plNnlvt ;ªs6fled'vtf clwsf+z ;dfhn] ;fdgf ug'kg]{ / o;df k|sf]k / { ;ªs6fled'vtf cNksfnLg / bL3{sfnLg ¿kdf kl/jt{g eO/xg] ePsfn] klg cWoog / ljZn]if0f cfjZos k5{ . v8]/Lsf] k|sl[ tsf] hfgsf/L / o;sf] k|efjsf] ljZn]if0f u/L vt/fsf] k|efjsf/L 9ªun] ;Daf]wg ug'{ cfjZos x'G5 . v8]/Lsf] k|efj Go"gLs/0f tyf k"jtof/Lsf pkfosf] ljsf;sf] nflu { lgDg ljifodf Wofg lbg'k5{ M v8]/Lsf] hf]lvd k|sf]khGo hf]lvdsf] Ps ¿k xf] . o;sf] hf]lvd Joj:yfkg ug{ ;do tyf :yfgljz]ifsf cGo ;/f]sf/jfnf tŒjx¿sf] hfgsf/L x'gk5{ . ' JolQmut, ;d'bflos, ;+:yfut, / /fli6«o Ifdtfsf] clej[l4af6 v8]/Lsf] ;ªs6fled'vtf 36fpg ;lsG5 . k|efjsf] ljZn]if0faf6 v8]/L hf]lvd klxrfg ug{ tyf v8]/Lsf] ;dodf ;ªs6fled"v ;d"x / If]qnfO{ nlIot ug{ dxŒjk"0f{ e"ldsf v]Nb5 . v8]/Lsf] k|efjsf] cg'udg tyf k"jrtfjgLn] hf]lvd klxrfg, k|efjsf] { ] ljZn]if0f, tyf hfgsf/L Joj:yfkg ug{ dxŒjk"0f{ e"ldsf v]N5 . kl/jt{gLo df};d tyf df};d;Fu} kl/jt{g x'g] v8]/Lsf] k|sl[ tn] lbuf]ljsf;, jftfj/0f tyf ;dfhdf uDeL/ hf]lvd pTkGg u5{ . 9÷v8]/L tyf vfB c;'/Iff
10. 10. v8]/Lsf] k|efj ljZn]if0f v8]/Laf6 jt{dfg ;dodf k/]sf] k|efjsf] ;dof]lrt hfgsf/Ln] efjL k|efjsf] eljiojf0fL ug{ tyf kl/jt{gLo ;ªs6fled'vtfsf] cg'dfg ug{ ;xof]u ldN5 . ef}uf]lns agf]6 / pknAw x'g;Sg] ;|ftsf] :j?kcg';f/ v8]/Lsf] k|efj klg ] km/s–km/s x'g;S5 . v8]/Lsf] cjlw / km}ng] :t/df dfq geP/ kl/jt{gLo ;fdflhs cj:yfdf klg o;sf] k|efjsf] :j?k leGg x'g] u5{ . oBlk v8]/Lsf] k|efj Ps eGbf a9L If]qdf km}nG5, t/klg v8]/Lsf] k|efjnfO{ ljz]ifu/L cfly{s, ;fdflhs, ;f+:s[lts tyf jftfj/0fLo k|efjsf ¿kdf juL{s/0f ug{ ;lsG5 . oL k|efj g} ;dfhdf ;ªs6 pTkGg ug]{ k|dv sf/s x'g . To;}n] ' v8]/Lsf] k|efjsf] ljZn]if0fsf nflu v8]/Lsf] ;dodf ckgfpg ;lsg] nlIot k|ltsf/sf pkfonfO{ g} hf]lvd Go"gLs/0fsf ljlw lgwf{/0f ug]{ /fd|f] k|f/De– laGb' dflgG5 . v8]/Lsf] k|efj ljZn]if0faf6 o;sf] ;ªs6fled'v If]q, hg;ªVof jf lqmofsnfknfO{ k|sfz kfg{ ;lsG5 . v8]/Lsf] k|efj ljZn]if0f To;sf sf/0faf6 x'g] vfBfGg pTkfbgsf] sdL, hLjg lgjf{xsf k|f0fLsf] Iflt tyf kfgLsf] e08f/df x«f; x'gh:tf k|ToIf k|efjsf] klxrfgaf6 k|f/De x'G5 . ] o:tf k|efjaf6 3/–hldg a]Rg'kg]{ afWotf jf lj:yfkg x'gkg]{ cj:yf, ef}lts } Iflt tyf dfgl;s tgfjh:tf k|ToIf tyf k/f]If k|efjsf] ljZn]if0f ug{ ;xof]u ldN5 . k|fljlws, cfly{s /fhgLlts tyf cGo tŒjx¿n] v8]/Lsf] k|efjsf] tYofªs ;ªsng ljlw b]z / :yfgcg';f/ km/s kg{ uPtfklg k|efjsf] ljZn]if0f ug]{ / clen]v tof/ ug]{ sfo{ Ps}ksf/sf] / ;xL x'gk5{ . ;xL tYofªsn] of]hgfsf] | ' lgdf{0f ug{ Jojxfl/s hfgsf/L pknAw u/fpF5 . v8]/Laf6 kg]{ k|ToIf tyf k/f]If k|efjsf] tYofªs k|If]k0fn] d"No k|efjsf/L ;'/Iffsf] k|Tofe"ltdf dxŒjk"0f{ of]ubfg lbG5 . o;/L ul/g] k|sf]ksf] ;Daf]wgn] ;Lldt ;|ftsf] ;xL pkof]udf |] ;3fp k'¥ofpF5 / k|efj Go"gLs/0f ug{ j[xt k|efjsf/L x'G5 . ;ªs6fled'vtf ljZn]if0f ;ªs6fled'vtf ljZn]if0fn] v8]/Lsf] k|efjaf6 kg]{ ;fdflhs, cfly{s, /fhgLlts, ef}lts tyf jftfj/0fLo sf/0fsf] klxrfg ug{;Sg] vfsf pknAw u/fpF5 . o;n] ;ªs6fled'vtfsf] kl/0ffddf geP/ ;ªs6fled'vtfdf kg{;Sg] sf/sx¿df Wofg lvR5 . pbfx/0fsf] ¿kdf v8]/Lsf] cj:yfdf jiff{sf] cefjn] 10÷v8]/L tyf vfB c;'/Iff
11. 11. k|ToIf k|efjsf] ¿kdf vfBfGg pTkfbg 36fpF5 . oBlk o; k|efjsf] vf; sf/0fsf ¿kdf ;f+:s[lts dfGotf / ;/sf/L jf u}/;/sf/L If]qaf6 lbOg] cg'bfg b]lvPsf] 5 . k/Dk/fut dfGotfsf sf/0f dfq v8]/Lsf] ;fdgf ug]{ ;fd'bflos k|of; cf]em]ndf k/]sf] 5}g, :yfgLo k|hfltsf afnLsf] lapmx¿ nf]k x'g] vt/f klg a9b} uPsf] 5 . kl/0ffd:j?k ls;fgn] cTolws d"No lt/]/ cfoltt lapmsf] v/Lb ug'kg]{ afWotf a9]sf] 5 . v8]/Laf6 pTkGg { hf]lvd / ;ªs6fled'vtf ljZn]if0f ubf{ o; ljifodf klg Wofg lbg' h?/L b]lvG5 . hLljsf]kfh{gdf k|efj kfg]{ cfly{s, ;fdflhs, /fhgLlts / jftfj/0fLo tŒjsf ;fy} cg'bfgsf] jf:tljstf / To;n] kfg]{ bL3{sfnLg k|efjsf af/]df klg Wofg lbg' h?/L x'G5 . ;ªs6fled'vtfsf cfGtl/s sf/0f cf]em]ndf kbf{ ;d'bfosf] hf]lvd ;fdgf ug]{ Ifdtfdf ljsf; x'g d'lZsn x'G5 . ljZjJofkLs/0faf6 :yfgLo ;d'bfodf kg]{ vfBfGg cfk"lt{sf] ;d:of / v8]/Lsf] k|efj yfxf kfpg' lgs} sl7g x'g] ePsf]n] o;sf] cWoog ;'Id¿kdf x'g' h?/L 5 eg] ;d'bfo jf ;Defljt hf]lvddf kg]{ ;d'bfosf] cfGtl/s ultljlwnfO{ ljleGg b[li6sf]0faf6 x]g'{k5{ . cg';GwfgfTds cWoog tyf v8]/Lsf] kl/b[io lgdf{0f klg v8]/Lsf] ;ªs6fled'vtf a'emg ;xh ljlw xf] . ;ªs6fled'v ;d'bfosf] hfgsf/L ;ªsng ug]{ cGo ;|ftsf] ¿kdf, vf;u/]/ ] clgsfnsf] ;dodf vfB c;'/Iff / ;ªs6fled'vtfaf/] hfgsf/L tyf dfkg k|0ffnL, ljZj vfB sfo{qmdsf] ;ªs6fled'vtf ljZn]if0f tyf dfkg k|0ffnL / ;+oQm /fi6«;ª3sf] vfB tyf s[lif ;ªu7gsf] vfB ;'/Iff k|0ffnL klg ' x'g;S5 . v8]/Lsf] cg'udg tyf k"jrtfjgL { ] v8]/L ;':tpTyfg k|sf]k ePsfn] o;sf] k"jrtfjgL lbg' sl7g x'G5 . v8]/Lsf] { ] ;'? / cGt lgwf{/0f ug{' c;Dejh:t} x'G5 . oBlk df};dL tYofªssf cfwf/df k|sf]k Joj:yfkg ug]{ / ;fdgf ug]{ Ifdtfsf] ljsf; ug'{ h?/L x'G5 . hnjfo' kl/jt{g klg v8]/Lsf] k|dv sf/s ePsfn] hnjfo' kl/jt{gsf] k|efjsf] ' ;fdgf ug]{ k|lqmofn] o;sf] hf]lvd Go"gLs/0fdf klg ;xof]u ldN5 . v8]/Lsf] k"jrtfjgL cGo hnjfo'hGo k|sf]ksf]eGbf w]/} hl6n 5 / ;fk]lIfs ¿kdf { ] o;sf] ljZjJofkL ljsf; sd 5 . o;sf] k"jrtfjgL d'Vo ¿kdf df};dL { ] jiff{, gbLsf] axfj, e"ldut kfgLsf] ;xt, lxpFsf] df]6fO tyf cGo P]ltxfl;s tYofªsLo clen]vdf e/ k5{ . ÷v8]/L tyf vfB c;'/Iff 11
12. 12. k"jrtfjgL Ifdtfsf] ljsf; { ] of]hgfljb tyf j}1flgsn] ;d;fdlos, plrt, a'emg ;lsg], vr{ ug{ ;lsg], hgs]lGb|t k|0ffnLsf] ljsf; u/]df v8]/Lsf] k"jf{gdfg ug{ ;Dej x'g] ck]Iff ' ul/Fb} cfPsf] 5 . o;sf] nflu plrt ;fdflhs tyf k|fljlws Ifdtfsf] ljsf; u/L v8]/Lsf] cfj[lQ / c;/af/] hfgsf/L lng] / lbg] ug'{k5{ . ;/sf/L / cGo ;/f]sf/jfnf lgsfosf] Ifdtfsf] ljsf;, vf]h, lg/LIf0f, ljZn]if0f tyf dfkg ug{ / v8]/Lsf] k|sf]ksf] ;Defljt k|efjsf] k"jf{gdfg ' ug{ cfjZos k"jf{wf/, j}1flgs, k|fljlws, ;+:yfut Ifdtfsf] ljsf; / lbuf]kgsf] nflu ;xof]usf] k|a4{g ug'k5{ . { v8]/Llj?4 r]tgf clej[l4 gofF l;h{gfsf nflu 1fgsf] ljsf; / lj:tf/ ug'{ h?/L x'G5 . o;sf nflu lzIffnfO{ Jojxfl/s k4ltdf ?kfGt/0f ug'{ cfjZos 5 . ablnFbf] kl/l:ylt cg'?ksf] lzIff ePdf k|sf]ksf cGo 36gfsf ;fy} v8]/Laf/] ;d'bfon] hfgsf/L k|fKt ug{;S5g / To;sf] ;fdgf ug]{ :yfgLo ljlwsf] ljsf; ug{ ;S5g . Jojxfl/s lzIffk|0ffnLn] ;dfhdf k|sf]khGo 36gfsf] ;fdgf ug]{ ;+:s[ltsf] ljsf; ug{ ;xof]u ug]{ x'bf klg efjL ;dfh ;'/lIft /xg ;S5 . F o;sf nflu cWoog–cg';Gwfgstf{, vf]hstf{ / ;/f]sf/jfnfaLr ;+jfb tyf ;~hfnsf] ljsf; u/L ;"rgf / 1fgsf] k|jfxdf k|fyldstf /xg'k5{ . :yfgLo b[li6sf]0f tyf cfjZostfsf] :ki6 cWoog u/L To;sf cfwf/df r]tgf clej[l4sf ;fj{hlgs sfo{qmdsf] ljsf; / lj:tf/ ug{ ;lsPdf ;d'bfosf] k|sf]k ;fdgf Ifdtf clej[l4 x'G5 . o:tf sfo{qmd ;~rfng ubf{ lg0f{o k|lqmofdf ;d'bfosf] ;zQm pkl:ylt jf ;xeflutf x'g] ;+:s[ltsf] ljsf; ug'{k5{ . v8]/Lsf] ;fdgf v8]/Lsf] Joj:yfkgdf w]/} r'gf}tL /xG5g . v8]/LnfO{ k|sf]ksf ¿kdf :jLsf/ ub}{ ljz]if1 / gLltlgdf{tfaLr ;dGjo sfod x'g' / ;f]xL cg';f/ /0fgLlt th'df u/L Go"gLs/0f tyf ;fdgfsf gLlt lgdf{0f ug'{ /fd|f] x'G5 . v8]/L ;':t { pTyfg k|sf]ksf] sf/s ePsfn] o;sf] k|efjsf Go"gLs/0fsf ljsNkx¿sf] ljsf; g} o;sf] ;fdgf ug]{ pQd pkfo xf] . xfn;Dd d'nsdf v8]/LnfO{ ' k|sf]ksf] ¿kdf glnOPsfn] klg o;af6 kg]{ k|efjsf] ckTsfnLg ;fdgfsf /0fgLlt aGg ;s]sf] 5}g / hgr]tgf clej[l4df klg 7f]; sfo{qmd ;~rfng x'g ;s]sf] 5}g . nfdf] v8]/Lsf] cj:yfdf vfBfGg / ;fdfGo :t/df lapm ÷v8]/L tyf vfB c;'/Iff 12
13. 13. cg'bfg lbg] k/Dk/fsf] ljsf; ePklg Tof] g} ;d:of ;dfwfgsf] bL3{sfnLg ;dfwfgsf] pkfo eg] xf]Og . v8]/Lsf] :j¿ksf] klxrfg, cg'udg, Go"gLs/0f / k"jtof/Ldf hnjfo' kl/jt{g { g} d'Vo rrf{sf] ljifo ag]sf] 5 . v8]/Lsf] ljsf; / lj:tf/ ef}uf]lns agf]6sf cfwf/df km/s–km/s x'g] ePsf]n] klg o;nfO{ ;xL ¿kdf kl/eflift ug{ ;lsPsf] 5}g . To;}n] :yfgcg';f/ ljsf; ePsf ;"rsfªssf] cfwf/df dfq o;af/] jf:tljs r]tgf clej[l4 x'g ;S5 . To:t} v8]/Lsf] hf]lvd Go"gLs/0f u/L k|efj Go"gLs/0f ug{ ljz]if1 / ;d'bfoaLr /x]sf] Ifdtfsf] b"/L x6fpg' klg Psk|sf/sf] r'gf}tL /x]sf] 5 . v8]/LnfO{ ljz'4 k|fs[lts tyf ef}lts 36gfsf ¿kdf lng] k/Dk/f klg 5 . olb of] ljz'4 k|fs[lts 36gf xf] eg] o;sf] cfj[lQ / k|efjdfly s:tf] lgoGq0f ug]{ eGg] k|Zg cufl8 cfpF5 . jiff{sf] bL3{sfnLg cefjn] v8]/L pTkGg x'g] / ef}uf]lns ljljwtfn] o;sf] cfj[lQ lgwf{/0f ug]{ ePsfn] klg ;d:of b]vf k/]sf] kfOG5 . o;nfO{ k|sf]ksf] ¿kdf lnPdf o;df /x]sf] ef}lts, ;fdflhs, cfly{s, ;f+:s[lts, gLltut, jftfj/0fLonufotsf kIfsf] ljZn]if0f ug{kg]{ x'G5 . ;xL ' gLlt, k"jtof/L of]hgf / Go"gLs/0f sfo{qmdn] j[xtdfqfdf v8]/Lsf] ;ªs6fled'vtf { 36fpg ;lsg]df s'g} cfzªsf /xFbg . csf]{ r'gf}tLsf ¿kdf gLlt tyf cGo } lg0f{o ug]x¿df k|sf]kkl5eGbf Go"gLs/0fsf sfo{df ul/g] nufgL d"Nok|efjsf/L { x'G5 eg]/ ljZj:t lbnfpg' /x]sf] b]lvG5 . clzIff, c1fgtf, k/Dk/fut d"No– dfGotfsf sf/0f / bL3{sfnLg ;f]rsf] ljsf; gePsfn] klg gLltlgdf{tfx¿ /ge'Nndf k/]sf 5g . To;}n] v8]/Lsf] ;fdgfsf nflu k"jtof/L of]hgfsf] { ;Defljt nfek|lt ;+jbgzLn eP/ ;/sf/n] gLltlgdf{0f u/L of]hgf agfpg ] kxn ug'k5{ . { ;"rgf k|jfx ;d'bfonfO{ plrt hfgsf/L / 1fg lbg ljleGg d'nsdf ul/Psf v8]/L ' Joj:yfkgsf ljlw / tf}/tl/sfaf/] cg'ej cfbfgk|bfgsf] sfo{qmd lgoldt ?kdf ul/g'k5{ . o:tf cg'ejnfO{ ;d'bfon] a'‰g] vfsfdf ljsf; u/L r]tgf clej[l4 ug{ ;xof]u k'¥ofpg] ;"rgfsf] k|jfx lgoldt ?kdf ug'{ cfhsf] cfjZostf klg xf] . ;"rgfsf] k|jfxn] ;d'bfodf v8]/Lsf] hf]lvd sd ug]{ 1fg k|bfg ug{ ;xof]u k'Ug] ePsfn] o;nfO{ gLlt / sfo{of]hgfsf] k|dv ' kf6f]sf] ?kdf x]l/g'k5{ . ;"rgf ;ªsns / bftfaLr x'g] cGtlqmofn] pTs[i6 ;~hfnsf] ljsf; / a'emfOsf] :t/ dfly p7g] ePsfn] To;n] nlIot ju{sf] k|ltlglwTj ug{ ;S5 . kl/0ffd:j¿k hf]lvddf k/]sf ;d'bfonfO{ /fxt dfq 13÷v8]/L tyf vfB c;'/Iff
14. 14. xf]Og, ;fdgf Ifdtfsf] ljsf;df ;3fp klg k'¥ofpF5 . lzIff tyf tflnd k|sf]k hf]lvd Go"gLs/0f lzIffdf v8]/Lsf] ljifonfO{ klg hf]8/ n}hfg' jt{dfgsf] ] cfjZostf xf] . k|lzIfs / k|lzIffyL{aLrsf] x'g] kf/:kfl/s l;sfO tyf cGtlqm{ofTds k|lqmofn] hf]lvdsf] ljZn]if0f / ;fdgf ug]{ /0fgLltsf] vfsf tof/ ug{ ;xof]u ldN5 . o;sf nflu cf}krfl/s lzIffsf ;fy} a]Un} k|sf/sf] tflnd sfo{qmd klg sfof{Gjogdf Nofpg'k5{ . v8]/Laf/] k/Dk/fut hfgsf/L, :yfgLo 1fg, cfd;~rf/sf] ;lqmo ;xeflutfaf6 k|fs[lts k|sf]kaf6 ;'/lIft /xg ;xof]u ldN5 . v8]/Lsf] k|sf]ksf ;Defljt kLl8t / cGo ;/f]sf/jfnf kIfaLr ;xeflutfd"ns tflndsf sfo{qmdn] o;sf] c;/ sd ug]{ ;fdflhs ;+:s[ltsf] ljsf;df ;xof]u u5{ . cgf}krfl/s t/ Joj;flos lzIffn] efjL lkF9LnfO{ klg hf]lvdsf] ;Daf]wg ug]{ / To;sf] ;fdgf ug]{ Ifdtf k|bfg ug]{ ePsfn] tflndnfO{ /fi6«JofkL agfpg' ;fGble{s x'G5 . ;zQm k"jtof/Lsf pkfo { v8]/Lsf] k|sf]kaf6 aRg Go"gLs/0f, hLljsf]kfh{gdf ug'kg]{ kl/jt{gsf af/]df { cWoog cfjZos 5 . cWoogaf6 k|fKt glthfsf cfwf/df k"jtof/Lsf of]hgf { agfpg' ;fGble{s x'G5 . v8]/Lcl3, v8]/Lsf] ;do / eljiodf JolQm tyf ;DalGwt ;+:yfn] ckgfpg' kg]{ cfsl:ds of]hgfnfO{ 5f]6s/Ldf lgDgcg';f/ lng ;lsG5 M k|efj Go"gLs/0f tyf k"jtof/L of]hgfsf nflu k|efjsf/L gLlt tyf ;+:yfut { Ifdtfdf ljsf; ug'k5{ . { ;/sf/L tyf u}/;/sf/L lgsfo, JolQm tyf gful/s ;d'bfo k"0f{ ¿kdf ;lqmo eP/ sfd ug'k5{ . { cfsl:ds k|ltsf/sf pkfoeGbf Go"gLs/0fsf nflu ljsNk vf]Hg'k5{ . k|sf]k Go"gLs/0f, ljsf; / k|sf]k k|ltsf/df sfo{/t JolQmaLr ;+jfb, cg'ejsf] cfbfgk|bfg / ;dGjo sfod ug'k5{ . { v8]/Lsf] k|efj Go"gLs/0fsf nflu k"jtof/L pkfosf] 5gf}6 ubf{ PsLs[t { jftfj/0fLo tyf k|fs[lts ;|ft Joj:yfkg, ;fdflhs tyf cfly{s ljsf;, ] e"pkof]u of]hgf / hnjfo' kl/jt{gnfO{ ;dfof]hg ug'k5{ . { k"jtof/L of]hgf lgdf{0f tyf sfof{Gjogdf :yfgLo ;d'bfosf] k|ToIf ;xeflutf { x'gk5{ . ' ;+:yfut Ifdtf, ;dGjofTds ;+oGq, :yfgLo cfjZostf tyf k/Dk/fut 1fg k|efjsf/L Go"gLs/0f / k"jtof/L /0fgLltsf] sfof{Gjogdf cfjZos { 5. 14÷v8]/L tyf vfB c;'/Iff
15. 15. vfB c;'/Iff / k|efj g]kfnsf] s"n hg;+Vofsf] em08} ^^ k|ltzt k|ToIf jf ck|ToIf¿kdf s[lifdf cfwfl/t 5 . s]xL jif{ otf s[lif cf>Lt hg;+Vofdf sdL cfFpb} u/]sf] kfOP klg cToflws hg;+Vofsf] d"n k]zf s[lifdf cfwf/Lt 5 . clxn] ;Dd ljsfzsf k"jf{wf/ k'Ug g;s]sf] ljs6 ef}uf]lns cj:yfdf vfB;'/Iff a9L ;/f]sf/sf] ljifo aGb} cfPsf] 5 . g]kfnsf] ;Gbe{df vfB;'/Iffsf] s'/f ubf{ lg/k]lIft ¿kdf eGbf ;fk]lIft¿kdf Jofvf ug'{ a9L ;fGble{s x'g] b]lvG5 . vfB;'/Iff k[ys geO ljljw kIf;Fu ufl;Psf] x'G5 . o;sf sltko ;Gbe{ k|fs[lts ljifoj:t';u klg ufFl;Psf] x'G5g t/ jt{dfg ;dodf dfgjLo ultljlw F rfxgf / cfjZoQmf o'4 ;fdflhs åG4 a9bf] hg;+Vof cj}wflgs s[lifk|0ffnL, 36bf] pTkfbg, c;Gt'lnt ljt/0f h:tf s'/fn] vfB;'/Iffsf] l:yltnfO{ sdhf]/ kfl//x]sf] kfOG5 . s[lif k|wfg d'ns eP/ klg ljleGg sf/0fn] g]kfn vfB;'/Iffsf] ' b[li6n] la:tf/} bf?0f aGg yfn]sf] 5 . g]kfnsf] xfn;Ddsf] hg;ªVof / vfBfGg pTkfbgsf] cg'kftsf cfwf/df vfB c;'/Iffsf] ;Defjgf klg a9b5 . } s]xL kxf8L / lxdfnL lhNnfdf vfBfGg ljt/0fk|0ffnLsf] ljsf; x'g g;Sgfn] obfsbf ef]sd/Lsf] cj:yf l;hgf x'g] u/]sf] 5 eg] lg/k]If ul/aLsf] /]vfd'lg /x]sf sltko kl/jf/n] plrt ;dodf cfjZos vfBfGgsf] hf]xf] ug{ g;Sgfn] ;d:of plAhg] u/]sf] kfOG5 . tyflk, xfd|f] d'nssf] vfBfGg pTkfbg / ' pkef]usf] oyfy{ cj:yfs} kl/j]zdf /x]/ vfB;'/Iffsf] rrf{ ug'{ ;fGble{s x'g]5 . vfB c;'/Iff / o;sf sf/0f vfB;'/Iff / c;'/Iffsf dxŒjk"0f{ kIfx¿ Ps};fy ufFl;P/ cfpg] u5{g . o:tf ;jfnsf k5fl8 ufFl;P/ cfpg] sf/0fnfO{ cnUofP/ x]g{ klg ldNb}g . vfB;'/Iff eg]sf] kof{Kt vfBfGg pTkfbg jf pknAw ePsf] ;dodf eljiodf j[l4 x'g] hg;ªVof, vfFrf] / k|sf]ksfnLg cj:yfsf nflu cfjZos kg]{ kl/df0fdf vfBfGgsf] ;~ro u/L ;xh k|flKt / ;d'lrt ljt/0f ug{;Sg] Ifdtfsf] ljsf; ug'{ xf] . o;}sf] 7Ls ljk/Lt cj:yfnfO{ eg] vfB c;'/Iffsf] cj:yfsf ¿kdf a'‰g'kg]{ x'G5 . 15÷v8]/L tyf vfB c;'/Iff
16. 16. vfB c;'/Iffsf ljleGg kIfnfO{ cWoog ubf{ o;sf sf/0fsf] eofjx lrq k|s6 x'g;Sb5 . vfB c;'/Iffaf6 ;dfh / d'ns ef]sd/Lsf] qf;bLk"0f{ ' rk]6fdf ws]lnG5 . ljz]ifu/L, clk|msfsf ;'8fg, Olyof]lkof, ;f]dflnofnufot ljZjsf clt sd ljsl;t d'nssf hgtf vfg gkfP/ ef]sef]s} d/]sf / ' s'kf]if0fsf lzsf/ ePsf ;dfrf/ k|sfzdf cfO/xG5g . To:t}, ;d:of xfd|f] d'n'ssf s]xL ljs6 kxf8L / lxdfnL lhNnfsf vf; If]qdf slxn]sfxLF b]vfkg]{ u/]sf] 5 . cNksfnLg ¿kdf b]lvg] To:tf] ;d:ofsf] lg/fs/0f ug]{ k|of; klg x'b} cfPsf] b]lvG5 . F vfB c;'/Iff pTkGg x'g d'Votof k|fs[lts / dfgjLo sf/0f lhDd]jf/ b]lvG5g . ctM vfB c;'/Iff x'g;Sg] sf/0fnfO{ lgDgfg';f/ x]g{ ;lsG5 M k|fs[lts sf/0f cltj[li6 tyf af9Lklx/f] ljZjsf ljleGg efudf jiff{sf] lgoldt :j¿kdf kl/jt{g x'b} cfPsf] 5 . F cltj[li6, cgfj[li6 / v08j[li6h:tf k|lts"n jiff{sf sf/0fn] s[lifpTkfbg / hg;ªVof j[l4sf] aLrsf] ;Gt'ngdf vnn k'Ub} cfPsf] 5 . ljleGg k|sf]kn] dfgjLo ultljlwsf ljljw kIf k|efljt x'bf s[lif pTkfbgsf] b/ emg–emg F 36b} uPsf] kfOG5 . To:tf sf/0fdWo] cltj[li6af6 pTkGg x'g] af9Lklx/f] k|dv /x]sf] b]lvG5 . g]kfndf k|To]s jif{sf] af9Lklx/f]df k/L cf};t @@( ' hgf dflg;n] Hofg u'dfpg'kg]{ cj:yf /x]sf] 5 eg] v]tLof]Uo e"ldsf] ljgf; klg pNn]Vo¿kdf eO/x]sf] 5 . af9Lklx/f]n] jif]gL v]tLof]Uo e"ld s6fg u/]/, v]tdf /f]lkPsf] afnL aufP/ { / k'// 7"nf] Iflt k'¥ofpg] u/]sf] 5 . o:tf] Iflt lg/Gt/ eO/xFbf s[liftGq ] k|efljt eO{ vfBfGg pTkfbgdf 7"nf] lu/fj6 cfpg yfn]sf] kl/0ffd:j¿k vfB c;'/Iffsf] ;Defjgf a9b} uPsf] 5 . cgfj[li6 / v8]/L vfBfGgsf] /fd|f] pTkfbgsf nflu lgoldt jiff{ x'g' clgjfo{ x'G5 . g]kfndf cltj[li6sf sf/0f st} af9Lklx/f]sf] k|sf]k pTkGg x'G5 eg] cgfj[li6 / v08j[li6n] v8]/Lsf] k|sf]k klg lgDTofO/xG5 . g]kfnsf] k"jL{ If]qdf cltj[li6sf 16÷v8]/L tyf vfB c;'/Iff
17. 17. sf/0f cfpg] af9Lklx/f]af6 d'ns cfqmfGt eO/xFbf klZrdL If]q v8]/Lsf] ' k|sf]kaf6 d'lem{O/x]sf] x'G5 . g]kfnsf clwsf+z v]tLof]Uo e"lddf l;+rfOsf] ;'ljwf pknAw gePsf] x'bf cfsfz]kfgLsf] e/df s[liftGq l6ls/x]sf] 5 . ctM F o;/L cfjZos kl/df0fdf jiff{ gxFbf v]tLaf6 cfzftLt pTkfbg lng ;lsg] ' s'/} ePg . o;af6 ;du| s[lif pTkfbg Go"g eO{ ef]sd/Lsf] cj:yf l;h{gf x'g] ;Defjgf a9b5 . d?e"dLs/0f k|fs[lts jftfj/0f ;Gt'lnt /fVg] d'Vo tŒj jg;Dkbf xf] . jgn] e"–Ifo lgoGq0f, df6f]sf] pj{/fzlQmsf] ;+/If0f / k|j4{g, k'g?Tkfbg Ifdtfsf] ljsf;, cDnLokg lgoGq0fh:tf dxŒjk"0f{ sfo{ ub{5 . t/, s[life"ld, 3fF;, bfp/f, sf7nufotsf a9bf] hg;ªVofsf cfjZostf kl/k"lt{sf nflu j}slNks ;|ftsf] ] ljsf; x'g g;Sbf tLj| ultdf jgljgf; x'b} cfPsf] 5 . jgljgf;s} k|efj:j¿k F ljZjdf tfkqmd j[l4 tyf hnjfo' kl/jt{gsf c;/ klg pTkGg ePsf 5g . o;}sf] kl/0ffd:j¿k ljZjdf d?e"dLs/0f x'g]qmd a9]sf] / s[life"ldsf] k'g?Tkfbg Ifdtf;d]t gi6 x'b} uPsf] kfOG5 . o;af6 s[lifIf]qdf k|lts"n F k|efj kg{uO Pstkm{ pTkfbgdf x|f; cfpFbf vfB c;'/Iffsf] cj:yf pTkGg eO/x]sf] 5 eg] csf]tkm{ o;n] vfB c;'/Iffsf] cj:yf pTkGg ug]{ cGo { kIfsf] k[i7kf]if0f;d]t ul//x]sf] 5 . pj{/fzlQmdf x|f; vfBj:t' pTkfbg x'g] d"nfwf/ g} hldg xf] . s[lifpTkfbgsf] kl/df0f df6f]sf] pj{/fzlQmdf lge{/ /xG5 . ctM ljleGg sf/0fn] df6f]sf] pj{/fzlQmdf x|f; cfpFb} hfFbf s[lifpTkfbgdf qmlds¿kn] x|f; cfpFb} uPsf] 5 . /f;folgs dn, sL6gf;s cf}iflwh:tf /;fogsf] cTolws k|of]uaf6 s]xL ;do;Dd pTkfbg a9]sf] b]lvP klg To;af6 b"/ufdL¿kdf pj{/tfsf lx;fan] lgsDdf / aGh/ aGg] / jftfj/0fsf cGo kIfdf ;d]t gsf/fTds c;/ kg]{ cg'ej ul/Psf] 5 . To;}u/L, clgof]lht / cj}1flgs e"–pkof]usf sf/0f Pstkm{ s[life"ldsf] ;d'lrt pkof]u x'g ;Qm}g eg] csf{]tkm{ df6f]sf] pj{/fzlQm 36b} uP/ s[lifpTkfbgdf x|f; cfpF5 . o;/L, vfBfGg pTkfbgdf lg/Gt/ sdL cfpFbf vfBfGgsf] cefj eO{ d'ns clgsfnsf] rk]6fdf km:b5 . ' 17÷v8]/L tyf vfB c;'/Iff
18. 18. k|sf]k / cGo ljkb k[YjLsf] s'g} klg If]qdf ;w}F s'g} g s'g} lsl;dsf] k|fs[lts k|sf]k pTkGg eO/x]sf] x'G5 . af9Lklx/f], cfunfuL, x'/Latf;, e'Orfnf]h:tf ljleGg k|sf]k F pTkGg x'bf vfB c;'/Iffsf] cj:yf l;h{gf x'G5 . k|sf]kaf6 Pstkm{ ;l~rt F vfBfGg gi6 x'g] / csf]tkm{ pTkfbg If]qdf gsf/fTds k|efj kg]{ ePaf6 { pTkfbg 36g] sf/0fn] eljiosf nflu cfjZos x'g] vfBfGgsf] hf]xf] x'g g;Sbf vfB c;'/Iffsf] l:ylt pTkGg x'G5 . dfgjLo sf/0f cj}1flgs v]tLk|0ffnL / e"–pkof]u g]kfndf cfw'lgs / lbuf] e"–Joj:yfkg k|0ffnLsf] cem} ljsf; x'g;s]sf] 5}g . g]kfndf v]tLof]Uo e"ldsf] ;'/Iff ug]{ / df6f]sf] pj{/fzlQm sfod /fvL pTkfbsŒj a9fpg] lbuf] k|ljlw ckgfOPsf] kfOFb}g . ctM s[lifk|0ffnLdf ;dofg'sn j}1flgs k|ljlwsf] cjnDag ug{ g;Sbf s[lifpTkfbgdf x|f; x'b} " F uPsf] 5 / kl/0ffd:j¿k vfB c;'/Iffsf] cj:yf klg pTkGg x'g] ;Defjgf a9b} uPsf] 5 . g]kfndf e"–pkof]u of]hgf;d]t nfu" x'g;s]sf] 5}g . v]tLof]Uo e"ld ;x/Ls/0fsf] rk]6fdf k/]sf] 5 eg] cf}Bf]lus If]qsf] ljsf;n] klg v]tLof]Uo hldgsf] bfo/f ;fF3¥ofpFb} nu]sf] 5 . pBf]u tyf snsf/vfgfaf6 lgM;lh{t ' /f;folgs kbfy{ ldl;gfn] df6f]sf] k|fs[lts u'0fdf klg kl/jt{g cfO/x]sf] 5 . o;/L vfBfGg pTkfbg If]q / pTkfbsŒj 36]/ pTkfbgdf sdL cfpFbf vfB c;'/Iffsf] l:ylt pTkGg xFb} uPsf] 5 . ' e"ldsf] rfSnfaGbL tyf v08Ls/0f a9bf] hg;ªVof / kl/jf/ ljefhgsf sf/0faf6 e"ldsf] efuaG8f ug]{ k|jl[ Qdf klg tLj|tf cfO/x]sf] 5 . kfl/jfl/s efuaG8faf6 e"ld v08Ls/0f x'gfn] s[lifk|0ffnL lbuf] x'g g;ls/x]sf] dfq xf]Og, pTkfbgzLn hldgsf] sdL;d]t x'b} uPsf] 5 . rfSnfaGbL gul/Psf 6'qmf e"lddf cfw'lgs v]tLk|0ffnL ckgfpg F / d]l;g pks/0f k|of]u ug{ lgs} sl7g x'G5 . o:tf sf/0fn] klg s[lifpTkfbg 36]/ vfB c;'/Iffsf] l:ylt cfpg] ;Defjgf a9b} uPsf] 5 . 18÷v8]/L tyf vfB c;'/Iff
19. 19. afnL ljljwLs/0fsf] cefj g]kfnsf] s[lif k/Dk/fut k|0ffnLdf cfwfl/t 5 . yf]/} e"ldsf] cTolws pkof]u u/L w]/} vfBfGg pTkfbg ug{ o:tf] v]tLk|0ffnLdf kl/jt{g u/L ;do–;dodf cfxf/f afgL (Food Habit) df kl/jt{g ug'{ cfjZos dflgG5 . v]tLdf cTolws /f;folgs dn / sL6gf;s cf}iflw k|of]u ubf{ tTsfn pTkfbg a9] klg h}ljs tŒjdf x|f; cfP/ la:tf/} df6f]sf] pTkfbg Ifdtf 365 . To;}u/L, Pp6f hldgdf ;wF} Pp6} afnL nufpgfn] klg vf;–vf; tŒjsf] x|f; eO{ ck]lIft pTkfbg k|fKt ug{ ;lsFbg . t;y{, hldgdf afnL ljljwLs/0f / } h}ljs dnsf] k|of]u a9L ug'{ df6f]sf] u'0f:t/ sfod /fVg / ck]lIft pTkfbg lng;d]t kmnbfoL x'G5 . t/, g]kfnL ls;fgdf To; lsl;dsf] r]tgf gx'bf F pTkfbgn] lbuf] ¿k lng ;s]sf] kfOFbg . vfBfGg eGgfn] rfdn dfq ;Demg] } / eft vfg] afgL dfq /xgfn] wfgsf] pTkfbg sd x'gf;fy vfB c;'/Iffsf] ;d:of hGdg] u/]sf] oyfy{ klg 5 . ahf/ ljsf;sf] cefj ahf/sf] ljsf; x'g g;s]sf If]qdf s[lifpTkfbgsf] ;dfg'kflts laqmLljt/0f x'g;Sg] ;Defjgf Go"g x'G5 . oftfoftsf] kx'r gePsf b'ud u|fdL0f If]qdf F { :yfgLo cfjZostfeGbf a9L vfBfGg pTkfbg ug'sf] s'g} cf}lrTo /xFbg . { } g]kfnsf clwsf+z lxdfnL lhNnfx¿df pTkflbt vfBj:t' ;'ud tyf ;x/L If]qdf Nofpg / ;'ud If]qdf pTkflbt vfBfGg tL lhNnfdf k7fpg ;lsg] oftfoftsf] ljsf; gePsf sf/0f kmnk"mn, df;', b"w / pmg dfq a9L pTkfbg x'g] lxdfnL lhNnfdf vfBfGgsf] cefj x'g] u/]sf] 5 . b'ud u|fdL0fIf]q { leq} klg ahf/sf] plrt ljsf; gxFbf pknAw vfBfGgsf] ;d]t ;dfg'kflts ' ljt/0fsf] cefjn] vfB c;'/Iff cj:yf cfpg] u/]sf] kfOG5 . vfBfGgsf] b'?kof]u ljZjdf ;f+:s[lts k/Dk/f, ;fdflhs /Lltl/jfh, k/Dk/fut wf/0ff / dlb/fhGo kbfy{ pTkfbgdf vfBkbfy{sf] b'?kof]u ug]{ k|rng /x]sf] 5 . ;f+:s[lts / wfld{s sfo{qmddf vfBfGgsf] k|of]u vfgsf nflu dfq geP/ cGo k|of]hgdf ;d]t ul/g] ub{5 . k"hfsf cIftf, k'/f0f tyf o1df ul/g] r?xf]d, cf}Bf]lus tyf 3/fo;L¿kdf agfOg] hfF8 / /S;Lh:tf dlb/fhGo kbfy{sf] pTkfbgdf 19÷v8]/L tyf vfB c;'/Iff
20. 20. vfBfGgsf] 7"nf] c+z b}lgs v]/ hfg] ub{5 . o;sf cltl/Qm ahf/sf] cefj ePsf If]qdf a9L ePsf] cGg 3/kfn'jf kz'sf] bfgf–vf]nsf] ¿kdf klg vr{ ] x'G5 . o:tf sf/0fn] klg dflg;nfO{ cfjZos cGgsf] cefj pTkGg eO{ vfB c;'/Iffsf] cj:yf cfpF5 . c;Gt'lnt ljt/0f / ;fdflhs åGå g]kfndf ef}uf]lns hl6ntf, oftfoftsf] sl7gfO / jt{dfg ;dodf b]vfk/]sf] ;fdflhs åGån] b]zdf pTkflbt vfBfGgsf] ;dfg'kflts ljt/0f x'g ;ls/x]sf] 5}g . vfBfGgsf] cfk"lt{ ;'ud If]qdf ubf{ a9L nfe k|fKt ug{ ;lsg] x'bf F Jofkfl/s kIfaf6 b'ud If]qdf vfBfGgsf] laqmL–ljt/0fsf] Joj:yf ldnfpg { ?lr b]vfOPsf] kfOFbg . ;fdflhs åGåsf cj:yfdf Ps kIfn] cfk"lt{ u/]sf] } vfBfGg csf]{ kIfaf6 n'6g] sfo{df a9f]Q/L x'G5 . o; cj:yfdf vfBfGgsf] Go"g pTkfbg x'g] If]qdf vfB;'/Iffdf cj/f]w pTkGg eO{ ef]sd/Lsf] cj:yf pTkGg x'g;S5 . pNn]lvt sf/0fn] vfBfGgsf] pTkfbg x|f; x'b} uP/ vfBfGg ;'/Iff Joj:yf F sdhf]/ x'b} hfg] ;Defjgf Pslt/ a9]sf] 5 eg] csf]l{ t/ pTkflbt vfBfGgsf] F ;d'lrt ljt/0fsf] cefjdf vfBfGg sd pTkfbg x'g] If]qdf vfB;ªs6 pTkGg xFb} uPsf] 5 . g]kfnsf] t/fO{ If]qdf pTkflbt cfjZostfeGbf a9L ' ePsf] vfBfGg ef/ttkm{ lgsf;L x'G5 eg] vfBfGg pTkfbg Go"g x'g] pRrkxf8L / lxdfnL lhNnfdf t/fO{sf] vfBfGg 9'jfgL ug{ sl7g ePsfn] jif}l{ kR5] vfB ;ªs6 tyf ef]sd/Lsf] cj:yf l;h{gf x'g] u/]sf] 5 . 20÷v8]/L tyf vfB c;'/Iff
21. 21. vfB c;'/Iffsf] k|efj ;fdflhs k|efj ;dfhdf vfB c;'/Iffsf] k|ToIf k|efj kb{5 . ;fdflhs k|f0fL ePsfn] dflg; ;dfhdf a:b5, vfBfGgnufot s'g} klg uhf]{ 6fg{ ;dfhsf c¿ kl/jf/df hu]8f /x]sf vfBfGg k|fKt ug{] k|of; ub{5 . o;sf nflu vfBfGg hu]8f x'g] kl/jf/;Fu lsGg] jf ;fk6 lng] k|of; x'g;S5 . To;}u/L, g]kfnsf u|fdL0fIf]qdf ;fx' jf wgL kl/jf/sf] d]nfkft u/]/ b}lgs vfBfGgsf] cfjZostf k"lt{ ug]{ k| r ng k/Dk/fut¿kdf rNb} cfPsf] 5 . cfk" m a;] s f] ;dfhaf6} Jojxf/;ªut¿kdf vfBfGgsf] hf]xf] ug]{ k|of; ug'{ dfgjLo :jefj xf] . Jojxf/;ªut¿kaf6 vfBfGg k|fKt x'g g;Sbf k]6 kfNgsf nflu dflg;n] rf]/L jf n'6kf6 ug'kg]{ cj:yf;d]t cfpF5 . s;}sf] 3/df cfjZostfeGbf { a9L vfBfGg e08f/0f x'g' / ToxL ;d'bfosf] s;}sf] 3/df 5fs;Dd 6fg]{ cj:yf gx'bf o; lsl;dsf] ;fdflhs ck/fwsf] l:ylt pTkGg x'G5 . o:tf F afWotfa; l;h{gf x'g] l:yltaf6 ;fdflhs åGå, ck/fw, cftªssf] ;d]t l;h{gf x'g;Sb5 . vfBfGgsf] cefj tyf ul/aLsf sf/0f ljZjdf jif]gL ;of}F { dflg;n] cfTdxTof u/]sf] klg ;'Ggdf cfpF5 . ctM vfB c;'/Iffn] ;dfhdf rf]/L, 8s}tL, n'6kf6h:tf ck/fw a9fpg] dfq xf]Og, dfgjLo pmhf{ tyf ;+zfwgdf gsf/fTds k|efj k/L d'n'ssf] ;du| ;fdflhs tyf cfly{s ljsf;df k|ZglrGx v8f ul/lbG5 . cfly{s k|efj vfB c;'/Iffaf6 cfly{s If]q ax'cfoflds lsl;dn] k|efljt x'G5 . vfBfGgsf] cefjdf dflg; s'kf]if0fsf] df/df dfq kb}g, hLjgd/0fsf] bf];fFwdf k'Ub5 . { o; cj:yfdf cfly{s ljsf;sf] /fli6«o cleofgdf ck]lIft of]ubfg k|fKt x'g ;Sb}g . dfgj ;+zfwgsf] pTkfbsŒjdf x|f; x'G5, a]/f]huf/sf] ;ªVof a9b5 . ;Gt'lnt vfgfsf] cefjaf6 zf/Ll/s ljsf;df cj/f]w pTkGg eO{ :jf:Yo ;d:of b]vfkb{5 . ;Gt'lnt dfgl;s ljsf; gx'bf z}lIfs Pjd af}l4s:t/df F x|f; cfpF5 . o; cj:yfn] ;du| cy{tGqd} gsf/fTds cj:yf k}bf x'G5 . ÷v8]/L tyf vfB c;'/Iff 21
22. 22. vfB cefjsf] l:ylt k}bf ePdf ljsf;lgdf{0fsf ;f/f sfo{nfO{ yftL /fv]/ vfB cfk"lt{sf] Joj:yf ldnfpg' ;/sf/sf] bfloŒj x'G5 . o; cj:yfdf vfB cfoft ug{, cefj ePsf If]qdf 9'jfgL ug{ / ;d:ofu|:t If]qdf ljt/0f ug{ ' /fHon] 7"nf] cfly{s nufgL ug'kg]{ cj:yf cfpF5 . o;af6 ljsf;lgdf{0fdf { Joo x'g] k'hL 36guO{ ljsf; sfo{ g} cj?4 x'gk'U5 . o;}u/L, vfB cefjsf F sf/0f s'kf]if0f, To;af6 pTkGg x'g] ljleGg /f]u / dxfdf/L;d]t lgoGq0f ug'kg]{ cj:yf cfOk/]df cfly{s ;d:of cem ylkG5 . kmntM b]zsf] cy{tGqn] { ult lng g;Sg] cj:yf pTkGg eO{ ;+jbgzLn If]qdf ;ªs6sfnLg cj:yfsf] ] 3f]if0ff;d]t ug'kg]{ cj:yf cfpg;S5 . ctM vfB c;'/Iffsf] k|efjsf] kl/0ffd { (Result) cfly{s / ;fdflhs b[li6n] klg eofjx x'g;S5 . ;f+:s[lts k|efj vfB c;'/Iffaf6 ;fdflhs / cfly{s If]qdf kfg]{ k|efjsf] gsf/fTds kl/0flt ;f+:s[lts If]qdf klg b]lvG5 . o;f] x]bf{ vfgfsf] cefjn] ;f+:s[lts If]qdf To:tf] eofjx gsf/fTds l:ylt pTkGg xf]nfh:tf] b]lvGg . t/, o;n] bL3{sfnLg¿kdf /fli6«o k/Dk/f, wd{ / ;+:s[ltdf g/fd|f] c;/ kfg]{ ;Defjgf /xG5 . ha dflg;n] cfk"m afFRgsf nflu cfjZos kg]{ vfg]s/f kfpFbg, ta ' } cfˆgf] wd{, ;+:s[lt, rfnrng, k/Dk/f;d]t 5f8]/ cfly{s ;|ftsf] hf]xf]sf ] nflu wd{ kl/jt{g ug]{ hf]lvd;d]t p7fpg] ub{5 . ef]sf] dflg; ;fdflhs ;DklQsf ¿kdf /x]sf ;f+:s[lts ;Dkbfsf] rf]/L / a]rlavg u/]/ k]6 eg{] Joj:yf ldnfpg;d]t tlD;G5 . o;s} pbfx/0fsf ¿kdf vfg gkfpg] l:yltdf /x]sf pRrkxf8L, lxdfnL lhNnf / cGo If]qaf6 cgdf]n k'/ftflŒjs dxŒjsf j:t' Pjd wfld{s u|Gy rf]l/g'nfO{ lng ;lsG5 . sltko hgtfn] Ps kfyL rfdn–lk7f];u s/f]8f}F d"No kg]{ cfkmgf wfld{s F u|Gysf kf08'lnlk, k|frLg d"lt{, wft'sf ;fdfg ;f6]/ k]6 kfn]sf oyfy{ ;'Gg kfOG5 . k]6 kfNgs} nflu w]/n] cfˆgf ;+:s[lt, rfnrng la;]/ ljb]lzg' k/]sf], } { gf/sLo hLjg latfpFb} of}gJofkf/ ug{ / P8;nufot of}ghGo /f]u leqofpg afWo x'gk/]sf] ljs/fn cj:yf;d]t /x]sf] 5 . ctM o:tf] cj:yf lg/Gt/ ' rln/x] df}lns k/Dk/f / dfGotf x/fpFb} hfg] dfq xf]Og, ;fdflhs ;Eotfn] gsf/fTds af6f] lng] 8/ /xG5 . To;}n] elgPsf] 5– …ef]sfPsf]n] h'g;'s} ck/fw klg ug{ ;Sb5 .Ú 22÷v8]/L tyf vfB c;'/Iff
23. 23. afnaflnsf, czQm tyf j[4df kg]{ k|efj vfB c;'/Iffsf] k|efj afnaflnsf, czQm / j[4j[4fdf a9L kb{5 . afnsnfO{ hGdgf;fy zf/Ll/s tyf dfgl;s ljsf;sf nflu kf}li6s cfxf/sf] cfjZostf kb{5 . ;'Ts]/L dlxnfnfO{ oy]i6 vfgf k|fKt geP To;sf] k|ToIf k|efj b"w] aRrfdf kb{5 . o;af6 s'kf]if0fsf] lzsf/ eO{ afnaflnsfdf zf/Ll/s tyf dfgl;s ljs[lt b]vf kg{ ;Sb5 . To;}u/L sl7g zf/Ll/s / dfgl;s sfd ug{ c;dy{, czQm JolQmn] cfk"mnfO{ cfjZos vfBj:t' h'6fpg g;s]/ d[To'sf] d'vdf k'Ug'kg]{ cj:yf cfpF5 . joZs dflg;df s]xL ;do kf]if0fo'Qm vfgfsf] cefj eP klg zf/Ll/s cj:yf Tolt sdhf]/ gx'g] x'G5 . t/, zf/Ll/s¿kdf sdhf]/ j[4j[4fsf nflu cfjZos vfBfGg, /]vb]v pknAw ePg eg] ltgsf] cj:yf lgs} bogLo aGb5 . ctM vfB c;'/Iffsf] k|ToIf k|efj czQm / j[4x¿df a9L kb{5 . ue{jtL dlxnfdf vfB c;'/Iffsf] k|efj ;a}eGbf a9L kb{5 . ue{jtL dlxnfn] kf]if0fo'Qm vfgf gkfPdf hGdg] aRrf ljsnfªu x'g;Sg], dft[lzz' d[To'b/ pRr x'g,] cfly{s¿kn] ;lqmo hgzlQmdf sdL cfpg]h:tf ;d:of;d]t pTkGg x'g;S5g . To;}n] ;Dk"0f{ kIfnfO{ rqmLo¿kdf ufFHg] dfgjLo ;d:ofsf ¿kdf /x]sf] vfB c;'/Iffsf] lg/fs/0fsf nflu ;a} kIfaf6 uDeL/¿kdf lng'kg]{ x'G5 . g]kfndf vfB;'/Iff Joj:yf vfBsf] ;'/Iff / ;d'lrt ljt/0f u/L vfB c;'/Iffsf] cj:yfaf6 d'nsnfO{ ' arfpg ;/sf/n] ljleGg sfo{qmd ;~rfng u/]sf] 5 . o;} ;Gbe{df vfBfGg cefj x'g glbg / ul/aLsf] /]vfd'lg /x]sf hgtfnfO{ /fxt k|bfg ug{ ljz]if vfBfGg sfo{qmdcGtu{t ljsf;lgdf{0fsf sfo{ klg x'Fb} cfPsf 5g . ;ªs6sfnLg cj:yfdf kl/rfng ug{sf nflu vfBfGg ;'/Iff ug]{ / cfjZos k/]sf avt kl/rfng ug{] Joj:yf ldnfOPsf] 5 . o;sf nflu /fli6«o, cGt/f{li6«o, låkIfLo, ax'kIfLo ;xof]u;d]t k|fKt eO/x]sf] 5 . o;/L ;~rflnt sfo{qmdsf s]xL ljz]iftf oxfF pNn]v ug'{ jf~5gLo x'g5 M ] 23÷v8]/L tyf vfB c;'/Iff
24. 24. vfBfGg sdL x'g] pRrlxdfnL tyf kxf8L If]qsf #) b'ud lhNnfdf{ ;/sf/åf/f vfBfGg, ljz]ifu/L rfdn 9'jfgLdf cg'bfg lbg] sfo{ jif]gL eO/x]sf] 5 . { ljZj vfB sfo{qmd, ljZj vfB ;ªu7g, hfkfg cGt/f{li6«o ;xof]u lgof]u (JAICA), PS;gP8 g]kfn, hd{g ;xof]u lgof]u (GTZ) tyf cGo /fli6«o tyf cGt/f{li6«o u}/;/sf/L ;+:yfdfkm{t klg If]qut ¿kdf vfB kl/rfng u/L vfB c;'/Iffsf] l:ylt cfpg glbg] k|of; eO/x]sf] 5. k|mfG; ;/sf/sf] vfBcg'bfg (Franch Food Aid) cGtu{t lg/Gt/¿kdf ux'F pknAw x'b} cfPsf] 5 . ;flasdf \$ xhf/ d]l6«s6g ;xof]u k|fKt F eO/x]sf]df ljut b'O{ jif{bl] v j[l4 u/L * xhf/ d]l6«s6g k|fKt x'g yfn]sf] 5 . hfkfg ;/sf/sf] vfB;xof]u sfo{qmd (KR Programme) cGtu{t ;g @))) df @% xhf/ d]l6«s6g ux'F k|fKt ePsf] / ;g @))\$ sf] jif{df hfkfgL o]g #& s/f]8a/fa/sf] sl/a ( xhf/ d]l6«s6g rfdn ;xof]u k|fKt eO{ g]kfn cfpg] k|lqmofdf /x]sf] 5 . g]kfnn] blIf0f Pl;ofnL If]qLo ;xof]u ;ªu7g sf] vfB;'/Iff sfo{qmdcGtu{t cfˆgf] k|lta4tfcg';f/ \$ xhf/ d]l6«s6g vfBfGgsf] hu]8f Joj:yfnfO{ lg/Gt/tf lbO/x]sf] 5 . d'nsdf vfB c;'/Iffsf] l:ylt tyf ' ef]sd/Lsf] k|sf]k pTkGg ePdf of] ;l~rt vfBfGg kl/rfng ug{ ;lsg] Joj:yf /x]sf] 5 . plNnlvt Joj:yfsf cfwf/df g]kfndf vfB c;'/Iffsf] l:ylt hf]lvdk"0f{ g/x]sf] :ki6 x'G5 . oftfoftsf] sl7gfO, cfw'lgs ljt/0fk|0ffnLsf k|ljlwsf] cefj, ;fdflhs åGå nufotsf ;d:ofaf6 pTkflbt vfBfGgsf] ;dfg'kflts ljt/0f x'g g;Sbf vfB;'/Iffsf] l:yltdf gsf/fTds c;/ b]lvg yfn]sf] eg] :jLsfg}{ kb{5 . t;y{, o;sf] ;dfwfgfy{{ a]ndf ;hu x'g' cfjZos 5 . } 24÷v8]/L tyf vfB c;'/Iff
25. 25. pk;+xf/ g]kfndf vfBfGg;'/Iff (Food security) l:ylt cgk]lIft cyf{t v/fa dfGg ;lsGg . g]kfndf a9bf] hg;ªVof, s[lifpTkfbsTjdf cfpFb} uPsf] x|f;, e"– Ifo tyf e"–:vngsf sf/0f df6f]sf] pj{/fzlQmdf ePsf] x|f;, jg;Dkbfsf] ljgf;, l;FrfOsf] e/kbf]{ Joj:yfsf] cefj, cfsfz] v]tLk|0ffnLdf lge{/tfh:tf ljleGg sf/0faf6 vfBfGg pTkfbgdf x|f; cfpg] u/]sf] 5 . o;sf cltl/Qm, vfBfGgk|ltsf] ;f]r / afgL–a]xf]/fdf ck]lIft kl/jt{g Nofpg g;Sg', r? xf]d, ljleGg pT;j, rf8kj{df nufOg] 6Lsf, hfF8/S;L / kz'cfxf/sf nflu vfBfGgsf] b'?kof]u a9b} hfFbf vfB c;'/Iffsf] l:ylt cfpFbg eGg klg } ;lsGg . o:tf] cGgsf] b'?kof]u lgoGq0f gug]{ xf] eg] eljiodf g]kfn klg vfBfGg ;ªs6sf] rk]6fdf kg{;Sg] b]lvG5 . ctM g]kfndf o:tf ljljw ljifo ;d]6/ bL3{sfnLg sfo{qmd tyf sfo{of]hgf;lxt lbuf] vfBfGg gLlt tof/ ] u/L sfof{Gjogdf Nofpg] Pjd j}bl] zs vfBfGg ;xfotfnfO{ lbuf] agfpg kxn ug{' cfjZos b]lvG5 . 25÷v8]/L tyf vfB c;'/Iff
26. 26. ÷v8]/L tyf vfB c;'/Iff 26