Hfa in nepali

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Hfa in nepali

  1. 1. k|sf]k Go'lgs/0f ;DalGw ljZj ;Dd]ng !*–@@ hg/L @))%, sf]a], Xof]uf], hfkfg Xof]uf] sfo{ ;+/rgf @))% – @)!% k|sf]k ;fdgf ;DalGw /fi6« tyf ;fd'bflos Ifdtf clej[l4
  2. 2. www.unsidr.org/wcdr k|sf]k Go'lgs/0f ;DalGw ljZj ;Dd]ng k|ltj]bgsf] ;f/ ;+If]k (A/CONF.206/6 OG6/g];gn :6«fl6lh km/ l8hf:6/ l/8S;g -cfOP;l8cf/_ ljifo ;'lr != kl/ro s_ k|sf]kn] lgDTofPsf r'gf}tLx? v_ of]sf]xfdf /0fgLlt M l;s]sf kf7x? / sdLsf] klxrfg @= k|sf]k Go'lgs/0f ;DalGw ljZj ;Dd]ng pB]Zo, cfzf ul/Psf kl/0ffdx? / /0fgLlts pB]Zo s_ pB]Zo v_ cfzf ul/Psf kl/0ffdx? Uf_ /0fgLlts pB]Zo
  3. 3. #= sfo{;+/rgf @))%–@)!%sf k|fyldstfx? s_ ;fdfGo dfGotfx? v_ sfo{sf nflu k|fyldstfx? != k|sf]k Go'lgs/0f /fli6«o tyf :yfgLo k|fyldstf ePsfn] o;nfO{ bl/nf] ;+:yfut cfwf/sf ?kdf nfu' ug'{ k5{ eGg] s'/fsf] ;'lglZrttf ug'{ @= k|sf]khGo vt/fsf] klxrfg, d'Nof+sg tyf cg'udgsf ;fy} o;sf] k'j{ ;'rgf ; +oGq lgdf{0f ug'{ #= ;a} txdf ;'/Iff tyf Ifdtf clej[l4sf] ;+:sf/ ljsf; ug{ 1fg, gljg ljrf/ tyf lzIffsf] k| of]u $= ljBdfg vt/fsf kIfx?sf] Go'lgs/0f %= ;a} txdf k|efjsf/L hjfkmsf nflu k|sf]k k'j{tof/LnfO{ dhj'lts/0f ug]{ $_ k|of]u tyf cg'udg s_ ;fdfGo ;f]rx? v_ /fHox? u_ If]qLo ;+u7g tyf ;+:yfx? 3_ cGt/fli6«o ;+u7gx? ª_ k|sf]k Go'lgs/0fsf nflu cGt/fli6«o /0fgLltx? r_ ;|f]t kl/rfng cg'R5]b k|sf]k Go'lgs/0f ;DalGwt s]xL jx'klIfo ljsf;x?
  4. 4. != kl/ro != ;g @))%sf] hgj/L !*–@@ k|sf]k Go'lgs/0f ;DalGw ljZj ;Dd]ng hfkfgsf] sf]a] ;x/sf] Xof]uf]df ePsf] lyof] . pQm ;Dd]ngdf k|sf]k ;fdgfsf nflu /fli6«o tyf :yfgLo Ifdtf clej[l4 ug{ …sfo{ ;+/rgf @))%–@)!% - o;kl5 of] k|ltj]bgdf …sfo{ ;+/rgfÚ zAbfjnLsf] k|of]u ul/g] 5_ nfO{ :jLsfl/Psf] lyof] . o; ;Dd]ngn] ;+s6fljd'v tyf vt/fsf] hf]lvdnfO{ Go'lgs/0f ug{ /0fgLlts tyf Jojl:yt k|j4{gsf df}sfx? k|bfg u¥of] . o;n] k|sf]knfO{ ;Djf]wg ug{ To;sf cfaZostf, pkfox?sf] klxrfg, / /fi6« tyf ;d'bfosf] Ifdtf lgdf{0fsf] kxn ub{5 . s_ k|sf]kn] lgDTofpg] r'gf}ltx? @= k|sf]ksf sf/0f JolQmsf] af“Rg] clwsf/, ;Ddfgk'0f{ hLjg / lhljsf]kfh{gdf k'¥ofpg] Iflt a9bf] 5 . o;af6 ljz]iful/ ul/jx? / ljsf;sf k|ltkmn k|efljt ePsf 5g . k|sf]ksf] vt/f ljZjJoflk ?kdf a9bf] 5 / o;sf sf/0f s'g} Ps If]qdf kg]{ k|efjn] csf]{ s'g} If]qnfO{ klg TolQs} k|efljt t'NofPsf] x'G5 h'g Ps csf{;“u ;DalGwt /xG5g . of] k|efj, a9bf] ;+s6fljd'vn] h]lnPsf] 5 h'g hg;+Vofsf]
  5. 5. kl/jt{g, k|fljlws / ;dflhs–cfly{s cj:yf, cJojl:yt ;xl/s/0f, pRr hf]lvd If]qsf] ljsf;, ljsf;f]Gd'v, jftfj/l0fo Xf;, df};d ljljws/0f, df};d kl/jt{g, ef}ule{s vt/f, l;ldt ;|f]tdf k|ltikwf{, / PrcfO{eL÷P8; h:tf] dxfdf/Lsf] k|efj h;n] eljio tkm{ O{+lut u/]sf] 5 / hxf“ k|sf]kn] ljZj cy{tGqnfO{ g} vt/f k'¥ofpg ;S5 / ljsf;f]Gd'v d'n'ssf] hg;+Vof tyf lbuf] ljsf;nfO{ tx; gx; kfg{ ;S5 . ljut b'O{ bzsdf, cf};t ? kdf @) s/f]8 JolQm jif]{gL k|sf]kaf6 k|efljt eO/x]sf 5g . #= k|sf]khGo vt/f ta pTkGg x'G5 ha hf]lvdn] ef}lts, ;fdflhs, cfly{s / jftfj/l0fo vt/fx?;“u cGt/lqmof u5{ cyf{t To;df vnn k'¥ofp“5 . hnjfo';“u ;DalGwt pTklQx? g} clwsf+z ?kdf k|sf]k;“u hf]l8Psf 5g . k|sf]k Go'lgs/0fsf] dxTj a9bf] 5 , o;nfO{ :jlsfl/Psf] 5 / k|sf]knfO{ ;Daf]wg ug] { Ifdtf klg a9bf] 5 . ljz]if ul/ k|sf]k Joj:yfkg tyf Go'lgs/0fsf k|of; lg/Gt/ /x] klg o;n] ljZjJoflk r'gf}lt v8f u/]sf] 5 . $= k|sf]khGo vt/fnfO{ sd ug{sf nflu Jojl:yt ?kdf o;nfO{ gLltut ?kdf Plss[t ug]{, lbuf] ljsf; tyf ul/jL Go'lgs/0f ;DalGw of]hgf / sfo{qmd agfpg], o;nfO{ l4–klIfo, If]qLo tyf cGt/fli6«o ;xof]u / +;fem]bf/L ub{} n}hfg] ;jfndf ca cfP/ cGt/fli6«o ;xdlt ag]sf] 5 . lbuf] ljsf;, ul/jL Go'lgs/0f, ;'zf;g k|sf]k Go'lgs/0f kf/:kl/s ;xof]usf cfwf/ x'g / r'gf}ltx?nfO{ ;fdgf ug{ ultlzn k|of; rfNg' k5{ h;sf sf/0f ;fd'bflos tyf /fli6«o txdf vt/fnfO{ Jojl:yt ug{ cfaZos Ifdtf ljsf; ug{ ;lsof]; . h:t} M Pp6f s'g} cjwf/0ffsf] klxrfg ug{ ;lsof]; h;af6 Ps dxTjk'0f{ tTjsf] ?kdf cGt/fli6«o ?kdf ;xdlt ul/Psf] ljsf;sf] nIf k|fKt ug{ ;lsof]; h; cGtu{t ;x;|flJb 3f]if0ffdf pNn]v ul/Psf s'g} NfIf klg o;df kg{ ;S5g .
  6. 6. %= ljut s]xL jif{ otf dxTjk'0f{ ;j{klIfo 3f]if0ffx?df k|sf]khGo vt/f Go'lgs/0fsf]] k|of;x?nfO{ k|j4{g ug]{ dxTj cGt/fli6«o, If]lqo ;fy} /fli6«o / :yflgo txdf cfTd;ft ul/Psf] 5 . v_ of]sf]xfdf /0fgLlt M l;s]sf kf7x? / sdLsf] kxlrfg ^=;'/lIft ljZjsf nflu of]sf]xfdf /0fgLlt M k|fs[lts k|sf]k /f]syfd, k'j{tof/L tyf lgjf/ 0f ;DalGw dfu{ lgb]{zg tyf sfo{ of]hgf -of]sf]xfdf /0fgLlt_, ;g !(($df kfl/t ePsf] xf] . o; /0fgLltn] k|sf]k vt/f Go'lgs/0f / k|sf]ksf] k|efjdf pNn]vlgo dfu{ klxNofPsf] 5 . &= of]sf]xfdf /0fgLlt nfu' u/]kl5sf] k|ultsf] d'Nof+sgn] lbuf] ljsf;sf] ;Gbe{df k|sf]khGo vt/fnfO{ ;Daf]wg ug]{ Jojl:yt sfo{sf] ;'lglZrttf / o;nfO{ ;fdgf ug{sf nflu tof/ ul/Psf /fli6«o tyf :yflgo Ifdtfdf cfufdL jif{x?df cfO{kg]{ d'Vo r'gf}tLx?sf] klxrfg u/]sf] 5 . *= o; of]sf]xfdf /0fgLlt d'Nof+sgn] k|sf]khGo vt/f Go'lgs/0fnfO{ ;';'lrt ug] { cu|ufdL cjwf/0ff, hgtfnfO{ pgLx?sf] cfkmg} ;d'bfodf k|sf]khGo vt/f Go'lgs/0fdf k|of;sf nflu k|]l/t ug]{ tyf ;xeflu u/fpg] k|s[ofnfO{ dxTj lbPsf] b]vfPsf] 5 . o;n] /fli6«o, If]lqo cyjf cGt/fli6«o ;xof]u tyf ljlQo k|0ffnLaf6 ljlgof]lht ljsf; ah]6sf] l;ldt ;|f]t vt/f Go'lgs/0f pB]Zosf nflu 5'6ofO{Psf] s'/fdf klg k|sfz kf/]sf] 5 . pknAw l;ldt ;|f]t k|of]u ul/ k|sf]khGo vt/fnfO{ Go'lgs/0f ug]{ o;sf] dxTjk'0f{ kIfnfO{ klg s]nfPsf] 5 . (= d'Vo sdL tyf r'gf}ltx?x?nfO{ lgDg % If]qdf klxrfg ul/Psf] 5 M
  7. 7. s_ ;'zf;gM ;+u7gfTds, sfg'gL / gLltut ;+/rgf v_ Vft/fsf] klxrfg, d'Nof+sg, cg'udg / k'j{ ;'rgf u_ 1fgsf] Joj:yfkg / lzIff 3_ cGtlg{lxt vt/fsf kIf Go'g ug]{ ª_ k|efjsf/L k|ltlqmof / ;'wf/sfnflu k'j{tof/L oL d'Vo If]qx?df Wofg lbO{ Ps bzs -@))%–@)!%_ ;f+ble{s sfo{ ; +/rgfnfO{ ljsf; ul/g' k5{ . @= k|sf]k Go'lgs/0f ;DalGw ljZj ;Dd]ng pB]Zo, cfzf ul/Psf kl/0ffdx? / /0fgLlts pB]Zo s_ pB]Zo M !)= k|sf]k Go'lgs/0f ;DalGw ljZj ;Dd]ng % ljz]if pB]Zo ;lxt ;fw/0f ;efsf] lg0f{on] ;+rfng ePsf] xf] . s_ k|sf]k Go'lgs/0fsf lgb]{lzt ;+/rgfx?nfO{ @! cf}+ ztfJbLsf] ljZjnfO{ ;'wf/ tyf ;'/lIft ug{sf nflu of]sf]xfdf /0fgLlt / o;sf] sfo{ of]hgfaf/] ePsf] k'gd{'Nof+sgnfO{ lgZsif{df k'¥ofO{ o;af/] k|ltj]bg a'emfpg] .
  8. 8. v_ ljz]if ultljlw h;n] hf]xfg;ju{df ePsf] lbuf] ljsf; ;DalGw lzv/ ;Dd]ng cGtu{tsf] of]hgf sfof{Gjogn] klxrfg u/]sf ;f+ble{s cfjZostf h:t}M ;+s6fljd'v, vt/f d'Nof+sg / k|sf]k Joj:yfkg ;DalGw nfu' ug]{ ;'lglZrttf u5{ . u_ /fd|f cEof;x? / l;sfO{x?nfO{ ;f6f;f6 ug]{, h;af6 k|sf]k Go'lgs/0fnfO{ lbuf] ljsf; ;“u;“u} cem} a9fjf lbg ;lsof]; / o;sf sdL tyf r'gf}tLx?nfO{ klxrfg ug{ ;lsof]; . 3_ k|sf]k Go'lgs/0f gLltsf] cfjZostfnfO{ cf}+Nofpb} hgr]tgf clej[l4 ug]{ / ToxL“af6 tL gLltx? Nffu' ug{sf nflu ;xlhs/0f tyf k|j4{g ug]{ . ª_ hf]xfg;ju{ of]hgf sfof{Gjogn] O{+lut u/] cg';f/ ;a} If]qsf ;j{;fw/0f tyf k| sf]k Joj:yfkg ;+:yfx?nfO{ e/kbf]{ / ;lhn} pknAw x'g] k|sf]k ;DalGw pko'Qm ;'rgf j[l4 ug]{ . v_ cfzf ul/Psf kl/0ffdx? !!=oL pB]Zox?nfO{ Wofgdf /flv / of]sf]xfdf /0fgLlt d'Nof+sgaf6 lgZsif{ lgsfln, k|sf]k Go'lgs/0f ;DalGw ;Dd]ng -o;kl5 …;Dd]ngÚ pNn]v ul/g] 5_df ;xeflu d'n's tyf cGo kIfn] cfufdL !) jif{df lgDg cfzf ul/Psf] kl/0ffd k|fKtLsf nflu nfUg' k5{ M k|sf]kn] /fi6« tyf ;d'bfosf] ;DklQsf] ?kd /x]sf hLjg / ;fdflhs, cfly{s / jftfj/l0fo kIfdf pNn]vgLo IftL k'¥ofp“5 .
  9. 9. o; kIfnfO{ cg'e'lt ug{ ;a} kIf h:t} ;/sf/, If]qLo tyf cGt/fli6«o ;+:yf, gful/s ;dfhsf ;fy} :jo+;]jL, lglh If]q / j}1flgs ;d'bfosf] k'0f{ k|ltj4tf / ;+nUgtfsf] cfjZostf 5 . u_ /0fgLlts pB]Zox? !@=o; ck]lIft kl/0ffdsf nflu , ;Dd]ngdf k|ltj4 ul/Psf lgDg /0fgLlts pB]Zox? Nffu' ug'{ k5{ M s_ k|sf]k ;DalGw k|of;x?nfO{ lbuf] ljsf; gLlt, ;a} txdf of]hgf tyf sfo{qmdsf ;fy} k|sf]k /f]syfd, ;'wf/, k'j{tof/L / ;+s6 Go'lgs/0fdf Plss[t u/]df k|efjsf/L /xG5 . v_ ;a} txdf ;+:yf, ;+oGq / Ifdtfsf] ljsf; tyf dhj'lts/0f ug'{ k5{, ljz]iful/ ;fd'bflos txdf h;n] Jojl:yt ?kdf vt/f ;fdgfsf nflu of]ubfg k'¥ofpg] 5 . u_ vt/f Go'lgs/0f ;DalGw cjwf/0ffx?nfO{ cfsl:ds ljklQ k'j{tof/L, o;sf] hjfkmb]xLkg / ;'wf/ sfo{qmdx?df Jojl:yt ?kdf ;dflji6 u/fpg' k5{ . #= sfo{;+/rgf @))%–@)!%sf k|fyldstfx? s_ ;fdfGo dfGotfx?
  10. 10. !#= lg0ff{os pko'Qm sfo{sf dfWodn] xfl;n x'g] ck]lIft kl/0ffd / /0fgLlts pB]Zosf nflu ;Dd]ngn] lgDg ;fdfGo dfGotfx?nfO{ Wofg lbg' kg]{ pNn]v u/]sf] 5 M s_ of]sf]xfdf /0fgLltdf /x]sf l;4fGtx?sf] clxn]sf] ;Gbe{df ;fGble{stf 5 h;nfO{ k|sf]k Go'lgs/0fsf nflu k|ltj4tfsf ?kdf lrlqt ul/Psf] 5 . v_ cGt/fli6«o ;xof]u tyf ;fem]bf/Lsf] dxTjnfO{ Wofgdf /fVb}, k|To]s /fi6«sf] cfkmgf] lbuf] ljsf;sf nflu / k|sf]khGo vt/f Go'g ug{sf nflu k|efjsf/L pkfo canDag ug{ k|fylds pQ/bfloTjsf ;fy} cfkmgf] ef}uf]lns If]q leqsf] hg; +Vof, ef}lts k'jf{wf/ tyf cGo /fli6«o ;DklQx?nfO{ k|sf]ksf] c;/af6 ;'/Iff ug'{ k5{ . To;}ul/, a9bf] ljZjJoflk cGt/lge{/tfsf] kl/k|]Ifdf cGt/fli6«o ;xof]u / cGt/fli6«o jftfj/0fnfO{ ;'b[l9s/0f ug'{ cfjZos o; cy{df 5 ls h;af6 1fgsf] ljsf;sf nflu clek|]l/t / of]ubfg lbg ;lsof]; . u_ k|sf]khGo vt/f Go'lgs/0fsf nflu Pp6f Plss[t, ax'–hf]lvd cjwf/0ffnfO{ gLltdf canDag ug'{sf ;fy} k|sf]ksf] vt/fdf /x]sf] /fi6«x?df k| sf]k / 4G4kl5sf] cj:yfdf lbuf] ljsf;, p4f/, k'g:{yfkg / ;'wf/sf ultljlwnfO{ ;Daf]wg ug{ of]hgf tyf sfo{qmd lgwf{/0f ug'{ k5{ . 3_ ;a}vfn] k|sf]khGo vt/f Go'lgs/0f Joj:yfkg gLltx?, of]hgf tyf lg0f{o k| s[ofsf ;fy} vt/fsf] d'Nof+sg,k'j{;'rgf, ;'rgf Joj:yfkg / lzIff tyf tflnd sfo{qmddf n}+lus cjwf/0ffnfO{ klg Plss[t ug'{ k5{ . ª_ k|sf]khGo vt/f Go'lgs/0f ;DalGw of]hgf tof/L ubf{ ;f+:s[lts ljljwtf, pd]/ / ;+s6df k/]sf ;d'x cfbL kIfdf Wofg lbg' k5{ .
  11. 11. r_ ;d'bfo tyf :yflgo clwsf/Lx? b'j}nfO{ k|sf]khGo vt/f Go'g ug{ tyf Joj:yfkg ug{ ;zlQms/0f ug'{ k5{ / o;sf nflu pgLx?sf] cfjZos ;'rgfdf kx'“r k'¥ofpg' k5{ / k|sf]hGo vt/fnfO{ 36fpg ;|f]t tyf clwsf/ pknAw u/fpg' k5{ . 5_ k|sf]ksf] vt/fdf /x]sf ljsf;f]Gd'v /fi6«, ljz]iful/ Go'g cfo ePsf /fi6« tyf ;–;fgf 6fk'n] ag]sf ljsf;f]Gd'v d'nsx?df Hff]lvd / vt/f pRr ePsfn] pgLx? sf] k|sf]knfO{ ;Daf]wg ug]{ tyf ;'wf/ ug]{ kIfdf pgLx?sf] Ifdtf a9fpgsf nflu ljz]if Wofg lbg' k5{ . h_ k|sf]khGo vt/f Go'lgs/0fsf nflu cGt/fli6«o tyf If]lqo ;xof]unfO{ a9fpg' cfaZos /x]sf] 5 h'g o; k|sf/ ug{ ;lsG5 M • k|sf]khGo vt/f Go'lgs/0fnfO{ ;an agfpg 1fg, k|ljlw / ljz]if1tfsf] lj:tf/ ug'{ k5{ . • cg';Gwfgaf6 kQf nfu]sf s'/fx?, l;sfO{x? / /fd|f cEof;x?sf] ;f6f;f6 ug'{ k5{ . • k|sf]khGo vt/f ;DalGw ;'rgf / o;n] kfg]{ k|efjsf] ;'rgfnfO{ ;+u|lxt ug'{ k5{ h;n] lbuf] ljsf; tyf k|sf]khGo vt/f Go'lgs/0f ;DalGw ;'rgfsf] k|jfx ug{ ;sf]; . • k|sf]khGo vt/f Go'lgs/0fsf ;a} txdf hgr]tgf clej[l4 tyf Ifdtf ljsf; ug]{ ;fy} ljsf;f]Gd'v /fi6«df k|sf]k ;fdgf ug{sf nflu ;'zf;gdf hf]8 lbg cfaZos ;xof]u pknAw u/fpg' k5{ .
  12. 12. • …O{g 8]A6]8 kf]/ slG6«h O{lgl;ol6eÚnfO{ Wofgdf /flv o; sfo{qmddf k/]sf /fi6«x?df pQm sfo{qmd r':t, ultlzn / k|efjsf/L ?kdf nfu' ug'{ k5{ . • ljBdfg vt/fx? / eljiodf cfO{kg]{ gof“ k|sf]khGo vt/fx?af6 aRg cfly{s ;xof]u pknAw u/fpg' k5{ . em_ k|sf]hGo vt/f Go'lgs/0fsf nflu /f]syfdsf] ;+:s[lt k|j4{gsf ;fy} kof{Kt ;|f]t kl/rfng ug'{ klg eljiosf nflu nufgL ug'{ xf] h;n] oy]i6 k|ltkmn lbG5 . vt/fsf] d'Nof+sg tyf k'j{ ;'rgfdf ul/g] cfjZos nuflgn] hLjg, ;DklQ / lhljsf]kfh{gsf] ;'/ Iff / ;+/If0f u5{ h;sf sf/0f lbuf] ljsf; / k|sf]k eO{;]skl5sf] cj:yfdf To;sf] ;fdgf, ;Daf]wg, p4f/ / ;'wf/df k|sf]k;“u h'Wg] Ifdtf k|0ffnLnfO{ ;:tf] / k|efjsf/L agfp“5 . ~f_ k|sf]khGo vt/fsf] ;fdgf ug{ cu|ufdL pkfox?sf] cfjZostf 5 . k|sf]khGo vt/fdf p4f/sf] cj:yf, k'g:{yfkg / k'g;++/rgfnfO{ Wofgdf /flv o;n] lhljsf]kfh{gsf] k'glg{df{0f / ef}lts tyf ;fdflhs–cfly{s ;+/rgfx?sf] of]hgf tyf k'glg{df{0fnfO{ eljiodf x'g] k|sf]khGo vt/fnfO{ sd ug{ tyf ;d'bfosf] ;fdgf Ifdtf a9fpg] Ps df}sfsf] ?kdf lng' k5{ . 6_ lbuf] ljsf;sf] ;+be{df k|sf]khGo vt/f Go'lgs/0f Ps cGt/–;DalGwt ;jfn xf], To;}n] cGt/fli6«o :t/df ;Demf}tf ulPsf ljsf;sf nIf xfl;n ug]{ of] Pp6f dxTjk'0f{ tTj xf] h;df ;x;|flJb 3f]if0ff klg k5{ . o;sf cltl/Qm ;a} k|of;x? dfgljo ;xof]usf nflu x'g' k5{ h;sf dfWodaf6 vt/f / eljiodf cfO kg]{ ; +s6fljd'vtfnfO{ oyf;So sd ug{ ;lsof]; .
  13. 13. v_ sfo{sf nflu k|fyldstfx? !$= of]sf]xfdf /0fgLlt d'Nof+sgsf] lgZsif{ lgsfNbf, k|sf]k Go'lgs/0f ;DalGw ljZj ;Dd]ngsf of]hgfx?sf] cfwf/df / ljz]if ul/ ;xdlt ul/Psf ck]lIft kl/0ffdx? / / 0fgLlts pB]Zox?sf] cfwf/df ;Dd]ngn] lgDg % k|fylds sfo{x?nfO{ lnPsf] 5 M s_ k|sf]khGo vt/fsf] Go'lgs/0f /fli6«o / :yfgLo k|fyldstf ePsfn] o;nfO{ alnof] ;+:yfut cfwf/df nfu' ug'{ k5{ eGg] s'/fsf] ;'lglZrttf ug'{ . v_ k|sf]ksf vt/fx?sf] klxrfg, d'Nof+sg / cg'udg ug]{ tyf k'j{ ;'rgf ;+oGqnfO{ ;'b[9 ug]{ . u_ ;a} txdf ;'/Iffsf] ;+:s[lt tyf k|sf]k ;fdgfsf nflu 1fg, cGj]if0f / lzIffsf] k|of]u ug]{ . 3_ vt/fsf cfwf/e't kIfnfO{ Go'g ug]{ . ª_ ;a} txdf k|sf]k k'j{tof/Lsf k|ltlqmofnfO{ ;'b[l9s/0f ug]{ . !%= k|sf]khGo vt/fsf] Go'lgs/0f cjwf/0ffdf /fHo, If]lqo tyf cGt/fli6«o ;+:yf / cGo ;DalGwt kIfx?n] oL % k|fylds sfo{x?df /x]sf ultljlwx?nfO{ plrt tj/df cfkmg} kl/l:ylt / Ifdtf cg';f/ ckgfpg' k5{ / To;nfO{ nfu' ug'{ k5{ .
  14. 14. != k|sf]khGo vt/fsf] Go'lgs/0f /fli6«o / :yfgLo k|fyldstf ePsfn] o;nfO{ alnof] ;+:yfut cfwf/df nfu' ug'{ k5{ eGg] s'/fsf] ;'lglZrttf ug'{ . !^= k|sf]khGo vt/f Go'lgs/0fsf nflu h'g /fi6«x?n] gLlt, P]g sfg'g / ;+:yfut ; +;rgf ljsf; u/]sf 5g pgLx?n] k|utL / ljsf;nfO{ j:t'ut tyf dfkgsf] O{sfO{sf] cfwf/df vt/fnfO{ Joj:yfkg ug]{ Ifdtf /xG5 / ;dfhsf ;a} If]qdf k|sf]khGo vt/f Go'lgs/0fsf ;Dk'0f{ sfo{x?df lj:tfl/t ;Ddlt xfl;n ug{, ;+nUg /xg / To;nfO{ ;DkGg ug{] Ifdtf /xG5 . k|d'v ultljlwx? !_ /fli6«o ;+:yfut / sfg'gL ;+/rgf s_ /fli6«o Plss[t k|sf]khGo Go'lgs/0f ;+oGqsf] l;h{gf / ;'b[l9s/0fsf nflu ;xof]u k'¥ofpg' k5{ h:t} M ax'If]lqo /fli6«o d~r, h'g /fli6«o :t/af6 :yfgLo tx ;Dd clwsf/ ;DkGg x'G5 To;sf] dfWodaf6 ;a} If]qdf ;+of]hgsf] ;xlhs/0f x'G5 . /fli6«o d~rn] ;a} If]qaLr ;xlhs/0f klg ug'{ k5{ ;fy} /fli6«o tyf If]lqo txdf ;DalGwt If]qaLr lj:t[t jx;sf] yfngL ug'{ k5{ . v_ pko'Qm tj/df k|sf]khGo vt/f Go'lgs/0fnfO{ ;/sf/sf ;a} txsf] ljsf; gLlt / of]hgfsf ;fy} ul/jL Go'lgs/0f /0fgLlt / If]lqo / ax'–If]lqo gLlt tyf of]hgfdf Plss[t ug'{ k5{ . u_ k|sf]khGo vt/f Go'lgs/0fsf nflu P]g sfg'gnfO{ cfaZostf cg';f/ u|x0f / kl/ dfh{g ug'k5{ ;fy} o; cGtu{tsf lgodx? / ;+oGqn] vt/f Go'lgs/0fsf nflu ;xlhs/ 0f u5{ / pTk|]/0ffsf] k|j4{g u5{ .
  15. 15. 3_ k|sf]khGo vt/fsf :yfgLo gd'gf tyf k4ltsf] ljlzi6tf / dxTjsf] klxrfg ug'{ k5{ / pko'Qm cfwf/df k|sf]khGo vt/f Go'lgs/0fsf pQ/bfloTjx? / ;|f]tsf] ljs]lGb|s/0f ug'{ k5{ . @= ;|f]tx? ª_ k|sf]khGo vt/f Go'lgs/0fsf nflu ;a} txdf pknAw dfgj ;|f]t Ifdtfsf] d'Nof+sg ug'{ k5{ / eO{/x]sf / eljiodf cfjZos kg]{ o; ;DalGw a}7sx?sf] Ifdtf lgdf{0f of]hgf tyf sfo{qmdsf] ljsf; ug'{ k5{ . r_ k|sf]khGo vt/f Go'lgs/0f Joj:yfkg gLlt, sfo{qmd, sfg'g / lgodx?sf] ljsf; tyf sfof{Gjog ug{sf nflu ;|f]t pknAw u/fpg' k5{ h'g ;a} txsf ;DalGwt If]q tyf ;Dk'0f{ k|zf;lgs txdf k|fylds sfo{ ;'lrsf cfwf/df k'Ug' k5{ . 5_ k|sf]khGo vt/f Go'lgs/0fnfO{ ljsf;sf sfo{qmddf Plss[t ug{ / k|j4{g ug{ ;/ sf/n] alnof] /fhg}lts k|ltj4tf b]vfpg' cfjZos 5 . #= ;fd'bflos ;xeflutf h_ j:t'ut gLlt lgdf{0f, ;+hfnsf] k|j4{g, :jo+;]jL ;|f]tx?sf] /0fgLlts Joj:yfkg, e'ldsf / pQ/bfloTjsf] dxTj / cfjZos clwsf/ / ;|f]tx?sf] x:tfGt/0fsf dfWodaf6 k|sf]khGo vt/f Go'lgs/0fdf ;fd'bfosf] ;xeflutfnfO{ k|j4{g ug'{ k5{ .
  16. 16. @= k|sf]khGo vt/fsf] klxrfg, d'Nof+sg tyf cg'udgsf ;fy} o;sf] k'j{ ;'rgf ; +oGq lgdf{0f ug'{ !&= k|sf]khGo vt/f Golgs/0fsf] k|j]z ljGb' / k|sf]k ;fdgfsf] ;+:s[lt k|j4{g hf]lvdsf] 1fg / k|sf]ksf] ef}lts ;fdflhs,cfly{s / jftfj/l0fo ;+s6fljd'vtfdf cjl:yt x'G5 h'g clwsf+z ;dfhn] ef]u]sf x'G5g / 5f]6f] / lb3{sflng ?kdf vt/f / ; +s6fljd'vtfsf :j?kx? kl/jt{g eO{/x]sf 5g, o;nfO{ ToxL k|fKt 1fgsf cfwf/df lnO{g' k5{ . k|d'v ultljlwx? != /fli6«o / :yflgo d'Nof+sg s_ hf]lvd gSzfx? / ;DalGwt ;'rgfx?sf] ljsf; ug]{, ;do ;dodf cBfjlws ug]{ / j[xQ/ ?kdf lg0f{o txdf a;]sfx?, ;j{;fw/0f / vt/fdf /x]sf ;'dbfonfO{ pko'Qm 9f“rfdf af“8g' k5{ . v_ /fli6«o tyf :yfgLo tj/df k|sf]khGo vt/f tyf ;+s6fljd'vtfsf dfkgx?sf] k|0ffnL ljsf; ug]{, h;sf dfWodaf6 lg0f{o txdf a;]sfx?nfO{ k|sf]ksf sf/0f ;fdflhs, cfly{s / jftfj/l0fo cj:yfdf k/]sf]] c;/ d'Nof+sg ug{ ;lhnf] xf]]; / k|fKt kl/0ffdnfO{ lg0ff{os txdf /xg], ;j{;fw/0f / vt/fdf /x]sf hg;+Vofdf k'¥ofpg ;lsof]; . u_ lgoldt ?kdf cGt/fli6«o, If]lqo, /fli6«o tyf :yflgo ;+oGq4f/f k|sf]k ePsf], o;n] kf/]sf c;/ tyf Ifltaf/] tYof+s ;+sng ug]{, ;+Zn]z0f ug]{, ;+If]lks/0f ug]{ / tYof+lso ;'rgf tof/ ug]{ .
  17. 17. @= k'j{ ;'rgf 3_ hg s]lGb|t k'j{ ;'rgf k|0ffnLsf] ljsf; ug]{, o; lglZrt k|0ffnLsf] dfWodaf6 ;dod} / a'emg ;Sg] ul/ vt/fdf /x]sfnfO{ ;'rgf k|jfx ug]{ h'g nlIft ju{sf] hg;+Vof, n}+lus, ;f+:s[lts / lhljsf]kfh{gsf ljz]iftfx?nfO{ Wofgdf /flvPsf] x'g' k5{ .;Defljt vt/fsf] cj:yfdf k'j{ ;'rgf k|0fflnnfO{ s;/L ;+rfng ug] { eGg] af/] k|sf]k Joj:yfks tyf lg0f{o txdf a:g]x?n] k|efjsf/L ?kdf sfof{Gjog ug{ ;S5g . ª_cfktsflng cj:yfnfO{ Wofgdf /flv To;a]nf lnO{g] l56f] / ;+of]lht sbdnfO{ ;'lglZrttf ug{ k'j{ ;'rgf k|0ffnLsf nflu ;'rgf ;+oGq :yfkgf ul/ ;do ;dodf o;nfO{ cBfjlws / k'gd{'Nof+sg ug'{ k5{ . r_ k'j{ ;'rgf k|0ffnLnfO{ ;/sf/L gLlt, lg0f{of ug]{ k|s[of / cfktsflng Joj:yfkg k|0fflnsf] /fli6«o / :yfgLo txdf Plss[t ug{sf nflu ;+:yfut Ifdtfsf] ;'lglZrttfnfO{ :yflkt ug'{ k5{ / o;sf] lgoldt hf“r k|0ffnL / sfo{sf] d'Nof+sg ug'{k5{ . 5_ ;g @))#df hd{gLsf] af]gdf ;DkGg k'j{ ;'rgf ;DalGw bf];|f] cGt/fli6«o ;Dd]ngaf6 kfl/t kl/0ffdnfO{ nfu' ug'{ k5{ / o;nfO{ k'j{;'rgf;“u ;DalGwt ;a} If]q tyf kIf dfkm{t ;'b[9 ;+of]hg tyf ;xof]u ub}{ k'j{;'rgf k|0ffnLnfO{ k|efjsf/L agfpg' k5{ . h_ …dl/;;Ú /0fgLltsf kl/0ffd nfu' ug'{ k5{ / cem of] eGbf a9L …af/af8f];Ú sfo{qmd ;+/rgf nfu' ug{ hf]8 lbg' k5{ h;af6 ;–;fgf 6fk'af6 ag]sf]
  18. 18. ljsf;f]Gd'v /fHox?sf] lbuf] ljsf;df 6]jf k'uf]; / ;'b[9 / k|efjsf/L k'j{ ;'rgf k|0ffnL :yfkgfaf6 k|sf]khGo vt/f sd ug{'sf ;fy} To;sf] ;dfwfg ug{ ;lsof]; . #= Ifdtf em_ k'jf{wf/ tyf a}1flgs, k|fljlws / ;+:yfut Ifdtfsf] ljsf; tyf lbuf]kgfsf nflu ;xof]u pknAw u/fpg] h'g cg';Gwfg, d'Nof+sg, ljZn]if0f, gSzf+sgsf nflu cfjZos 5 / hxf“ ;Dej 5 Toxf“sf] k|sf]khGo vt/f, ;+s6fljd'vtf / k|sf]ksf] c;/af/] eljiojfl0f ug]{ . ~f_ k|sf]k;“u ;DalGwt tYof+lso ;'rgfsf] ljsf; / ;'wf/sf nflu ;xof]u pknAw u/fpg] / d'Nof+sg, cg'udg, k'j{;'rgf k|0ffnLsf nflu cGt/fli6«o, If]lqo, /fli6«o / :yfgLo txdf oL tYof+ssf] v'nf cfbfg k|bfg tyf ;fj{hlgs ug{sf nflu k| f]T;fxg / k|j4{g ug]{ . 6_ vt/fsf] d'Nof+sg, cg'udg / k'j{;'rgfsf nflu cg';Gwfg, ;fem]bf/L, tflnd / k| fljlws Ifdtf lgdf{0f ug{sf nflu j}1flgs / k|fljlws ljlw tyf Ifdtfdf ;'wf/ Nofpg ;xof]u pknAw u/fpg] . cGtl/Ifdf cfwfl/t k[YjLsf] cWoog, cGtl/If k|ljlw,, ef}ule{s ;'rgf k|0ffnL, vt/fsf] eljiojfl0f, df};d tyf hnjfo'sf] eljiojf0fL, ;'rgf ; +oGq / vt/f d'Nof+s / k'j{;'rgf k|0ffnLsf] nfut / kmfO{bfaf/]sf k'jf{wf/x? nfO{ k|j4{g ug]{ . 7_ vt/f gSzf+sg ;DalGw tYof+s, k|sf]khGo vt/f, c;/x? / Iflt ;DalGw tYof+lso ;'rgfsf] ljZn]if0f, ;+If]lks/0f, ;Dk|]if0f / cfbfg k|bfg ug{sf nflu ; +oGq :yfkgf ul/ To;nfO{ ;'b[l9s/0f ug'{ k5{ ;fy} vt/f d'Nof+sg / cg'udgfsf nflu :jLsfo{ ljlwsf] ljsf; ug{ ;xof]u k'¥ofpg' k5{ .
  19. 19. $= If]lqo / pbfpbf vt/fx? 8_ If]lqo k|sf]khGo vt/f, c;/x? / Ifltaf/] tYof+lso ;'rgf / tYof+s ;+sng ug]{ . 9_ If]lqo tyf l;dfkf/ vt/fx?sf] d'Nof+sg tyf cg'udg ug{ / pko;Qm dfWod4f/f ;'rgf cfbfg k|bfg ug{ / k'j{;'rgf pknAw u/fpg If]lqo / cGt/fli6«o k/:k/ ;xof]u x'g' k5 . 0f_ lb3{sflng c;/x? / pbfpbf ;jfnx? h;n] ;+s6fljd'vtf / vt/fx?nfO{ a9fpg ;Sg] x'G5g jf ;d'bfos jf clwsf/Lx?sf] k|sf]knfO{ ;Daf]wg ug]{ Ifdtfdf o;n] c;/ k'¥ofpg ;S5, To;}n] o; af/] cg';Gwfg, ljZn]if0f ug]{ / To;af/] hfgsf/L pknAw u/fpg' k5{ . #= ;a} txdf ;'/Iff tyf Ifdtf clej[l4sf] ;+:sf/ ljsf; ug{ 1fg, gljg ljrf/ tyf lzIffsf] k|of]u !*= olb hgtfnfO{ k|sf]k /f]syfd tyf ;fdgf s;/L ug]{ eGg] ;+:sf/af/] ;lx ;'rgf clek|l/t ug{ ;Sg] xf] eg] k|sf]k Go'lgs/0fdf pNn]Vo sld cfpg ;S5, h;sf nflu vt/f, ;+s6fljd'vtf / Ifdtfaf/] ;DalGwt 1fg / ;'rgfsf] ;+sng tyf ;Dk|]if0f cfjZos 5. k|d'v ultljlwx? M !=;'rgf Joj:yfkg tyf cfbfg k|bfg
  20. 20. s_ k|sf]khGo vt/f tyf To;af6sf] ;'/Iffsf nflu ;lhn} a'lemg ;lsg] ;'rgf pknAw u/fpg], ljz]if ul/ hf] pRr hf]lvd cj:yfdf /x]sf JolQmx? 5g , vt/f 36fpg / k| sf]k ;fdgfsf nflu hgtfx?nfO{ xf};nf k|bfg ug]{ tyf ;xlhs/0f ug]{ . ;'rgfdf ;f+ble{s k/Dk/fut tyf cfbLjf;L 1fg / ;f+:s[lts ;DkbfnfO{ ;dflxt ug]{ / ;f+:s[lts tyf ;fdflhs kIfnfO{ Wofgdf /flv o;nfO{ ljleGg nlIft ;d'xdf ;Dk|]if0f ug]{ . v_ ;a} kIf / If]qaLr k|sf]k ljz]if1, Joj:yfks / of]hgfsf/sf] ;+hfnnfO{ dh'j'lts/0f ug]{ . lgsfox? / cGo kIfx? :yfgLo txdf vt/f Go'lgs/0f of]hgf ljsf; ubf{ pknAw ljz]if1tf k|of]u ug{sf nflu dhj't k|s[of l;h{gf ug]{ . u_ k|sf]khGo vt/f Go'lgs/0fdf sfo{/t a}1flgs ;d'bfo tyf cEof;stf{aLr ;Djfb / ;xof]usf] k|j4{g tyf ;'wf/ ug]{ / ;j} kIfaLr ;fem]bf/Lsf nflu xf};nf lbg], ;fy} k|sf]khGo vt/f Go'lgs/0fdf ;fdflhs–cfly{s kIfdf sfo{/t kIfnfO{ klg ;DnUg u/fpg] . 3_ k|sf]khGo vt/f Go'lgs/0fnfO{ ;3fp k'¥ofpg] pB]Zon] tflnd / ;'rgf cfbfg k|bfg tyf ;Dk|]if0fsf nflu tTsfn ;'rgf, ;+rf/ / pku|xdf cfwfl/t / ;DalGwt ;]jfx? sf ;fy} k[YjLsf] cjnf]sg cflbsf] k|of]u, pkof]u / wfGg ;Sg] IfdtfnfO{ k|j4{g ug]{ . ª_ dWod txdf, :yfgLo, /fli6«o, If]lqo / cGt/fli6«o :t/df ;lhn} k|of]u ug{ ;lsg] ;'rgf, cGj]zif0f / /fli6«o ;'rgf k|0ffnLnfO{ ljsf; ug'{ k5{ / k|sf]khGo vt/f ;DalGw /fd|f cEof;x? ;DalGwt ;'rgfx?sf] cfbfg k|bfg, k/n d'No tyf ;lhn} k| of]u ug{ ;lsg] k|ljlw / gLltx?af6 l;s]sf kf7x?, of]hgf / dfkgnfO{ ;Dk|]if0f ug'{ k5{ .
  21. 21. r_ ;x/L ljsf;;“u ;DalGwt ;+:yfx?n] lgdf{0fsfo{ jf hldg lsga]r ;'? ug'{ eGbf klxn] k|sf]khGo vt/f sd ug]{ eGg]af/] ;j{;fw/0fnfO{ ;';'lrt ug'{ k5{ . 5_ k|sf]khGo vt/f Go'lgs/0f;“u ;DalGw k|of]u ul/g] cGt/fli6«o :t/sf zJbfjlnx?nfO{ cBfjlws ug'{ k5{ / j[xQ/ ?kdf To;nfO{ ;Dk|]if0f ug'{ k5{, h'g slDtdf klg ;+o'Qm/fi6« ;+l3o lgsfo cGtu{tsf ;a} efiffdf x'g' k5{ h;nfO{ sfo{qmd / ;+:yfut ljsf;, cg';Gwfg, tflnd kf7oqmd / ;fj{hlgs ;'rgf sfo{qmdx?df k|of]u ug{ ;lsG5 . @=;'rgf / tflnd h_ k|sf]khGo vt/f Go'lgs/0f ;DalGw 1fgnfO{ ;a} txsf] ljBfno lzIff kf7oqmddf ;dfj]z ug{ k|j4{g ug]{ / o'jf tyf afnaflnsfnfO{ ;';'lrt ug{ cGo cf}krfl/s tyf cgf}krfl/s ;+oGq k|of]u ug]{, k|sf]khGo vt/f Go'lgs/0fsf nflu …lbuf] ljsf;sf nflu lzIff ;+o'Qm /fi6«;+l3o bzs @))%–@)!%Úsf] cfaZos tTjnfO{ Plss[t ug{sf nflu kxn / k|j4{g ug]{ . em_ ljBfno tyf pRr z}lIfs ;+:yfx?df :yfgLo vt/f d'Nof+sg / k|sf]k k'j{tof/L sfo{qmd nfu' ug{ kxn ug]{ . `_ vt/fsf k|efjx?nfO{ Go'g s;/L ug]{ eGg]af/] ljBfnox?df o; ;DalGw sfo{qmd tyf ultljlw ;+rfng ug]{ . 6_ ljz]if If]q tyf kIf-ljsf; of]hgfsf/x?, cfktsflng Joj:yfks, :yfgLo ;/sf/L clws[tx? cflb_nfO{ nlIft ul/ k|sf]khGo vt/f ;DalGw tflnd tyf l;sfO{ sfo{qmd ljsf; ug]{ .
  22. 22. 7_ ;d'bfodf cfwfl/t tflndx?nfO{ k|j4{g ug]{, :jo+;]jLx?sf] e'ldsfnfO{ Wofgdf /flv, pko'Qm cj:yfdf, k|sf]k ;fdgfsf nflu :yfgLo lzk / 1fgnfO{ k|j4{g ug{sf nflu To;nfO{ k|f]T;fxg ug]{ . 8_ dlxnf tyf vt/fhGo If]qsf ;d'bfosf nflu pko'Qm tflnd tyf lzIffd'ns cj;/df ;dfg kx'“r x'g' k5{ , n}+lus tyf ;f+:s[lts ;+j]bglzntf kIfnfO{ Vofn /fVb} To;vfn] tflndnfO{ k|j4{g ub}{ n}hfg] / k|sf]khGo vt/f Go'lgs/0fdf o;nfO{ lzIff tyf tflndsf] cfjZos tTjsf] ?kdf lnO{g' k5{ . #= cg';Gwfg 9_ ;a} txdf ax'–hf]lvd d'Nof+sg / cfly{s–;fdflhs nfut–kmfO{bf ljZn]z0f eljiojfl0fsf nflu ;'wfl/Psf ljlw ljsf; ug'{ k5{, oL ljlwx?nfO{ If]lqo, /fli6«o / :yflgo txsf lg0ff{os txsf k|s[ofx?df ;dflxt u/fpg' k5{ . 0f_ k|sf]khGo vt/f Go'lgs/0f ljlwx?sf] ljsf; tyf k|of]usf nflu k|fljlws tyf j}1flgs IfdtfnfO{ ;'b[l9s/0f ug'{ k5{ . To;}u/L ;+s6fljd'vtf tyf ef}ule{s, df};d, hn / df};d ;DalGwt vt/fx? ;DalGw c;/x?sf] cWoog tyf gd'gfnfO{ ;'lb[l9s/0f ug'{ k5{ . o;sf ;fy} If]lqo cg'udg Ifdtf / d'Nof+sn ljlwnfO{ ;'wfg'{ k5{ . $=hgr]tgf
  23. 23. t_ k|sf]k ;fdfgfsf] ;+:s[lt ljsf; ug{ tyf ;fj{hlgs lzIff cleofgnfO{ lbuf] agfpg / ;dfhsf] ;a} txdf 5nkmn rnfpgsf nflu alnof] ;fd'bflos ;xeflutfsf nflu ;+rf/ dfWodsf] k|of]unfO{ k|j4{g ug'{ k5{ . $= ljBdfg vt/fsf kIfx?sf] Go'lgs/0f !(= kl/jlt{t ;fdflhs, cfly{s, jftfj/l0fo cj:yfx? tyf hldgsf] k|of]u;“u ;DalGwt k| sf]khGo vt/fx? / ef}ule{s 36gf, hnafo', df};d kl/jt{g;“u ;DalGwt vt/fsf c;/x? nfO{ If]lqo ljsf; of]hgf / sfo{qmdsf ;fy} k|sf]k eO{;s]sf] kl5sf] cj:yfdf ;Daf]wg ug'{ k5{ . d'Vo ultljlwx? M != jftfj/l0fo tyf k|fs[lts ;|f]t Joj:yfkg s_ kof{j/0f k|0fflnsf] lbuf] k|of]u / Joj:yfkgsf ;fy} ;'b[9 hldgsf] k|of]u of]hgf ljsf;sf ultljlwsf dfWodaf6 vt/f tyf ;+s6fljd'vtf Go'g ug{ k|]l/t ug]{ . v_ Plss[t jftfj/l0fo tyf k|fs[lts ;|f]t Joj:yfkg cjwf/0ff nfu' ug]{ h;n] k|sf]khGo vt/f Go'lgs/0fnfO{ canDag u5{ , ;fy} ;+/rgfut tyf c;+/rgfut k|s[of h:t} M Plss[t af9L Joj:yfkg / hf]lvdf /x]sf] kof{j/l0fo k|0ffnLsf] pko'Qm Joj:yfkg . u_ vt/f Go'lgs/0f;“u ;DalGwt ljBdfg df};d clgoldttf tyf eflj df};d kl/jt{g / 0fgLltx?nfO{ k|sf]khGo vt/f Go'lgs/0fsf nflu Plss[t u/fpg] / To;nfO{ df};d kl/jt{g;“u hf]8g], h;n] df};d ;DalGwt k|sf]khGo vt/fsf] :ki6 klxrfg ug]{ 5 / h;df of]hgfsf/, O{lGhlgo/ / cGo lg0ff{osx?4f/f tof/ kfl/Psf] vt/f Go'g ug]
  24. 24. { k|s[ofx?sf] 9frf / ;'wfl/Psf] tyf lgoldt k|of]usf nflu df};dhGo vt/f ;DalGwt ;'rgfx? /xg] 5 . @= ;fdflhs tyf cfly{s ljsf; cEof;x? 3_ ;'dbfosf] vt/fhGo hf]lvdsf] ;fdgf ug]{ Ifdtfsf] ;'lglZrttf ug{ vfB ;'/Iff dxTjk'0f{ ljifo xf] / o;sf] k|j4{g ul/g' k5{, ljz]iful/ h'g If]q v8]/L, af9L tyf cGo vt/fsf] hf]lvddf /x]sf 5g h;n] s[lifdf lge{/ lhljsf]kfh{gnfO{ sdhf]/ agfp“5 . ª_ k|sf]khGo vt/f Go'lgs/0f of]hgfnfO{ :jf:Yo If]qdf Plss[t ug]{, …k| sf]kaf6 c:ktfnx? ;'/lIft 5gÚ eGg] o; pB]ZonfO{ k|j4{g ug]{ / o;sf] ;'lglZrttfsf] nflu gof“ c:ktfnx? k|sf]khGo vt/fnfO{ k|lt/f]w ug{ ;Sg] agfpg' k5{ h;sf sf/0f k|sf]ksf] cj:yfdf tL sfd ug{ ;Sg] cj:yfdf /x'g / eO/fv]sf :jf:Yo ;+:yf ljz]iful/ k|fylds :jf:yo s]Gb|x?df vt/fnfO{ sd ug]{ Ifdtfsf] ?kdf ljsf; ug]{ . r_ ;+s6k'0f{ cj:yfdf /x]sf ;fj{hlgs ;]jfx? / ef}lts k'jf{wf/nfO{ ;+/If0f tyf dhj't agfpg], o;df ljBfno, lSnlgs, c:ktfn, vfg]kfgL tyf ljB'lt cfk'lt{ ;+rgf, ;+rf/ tyf oftfoft, k|sf]k ;'rgf tyf Joj:yfkg s]Gb|, / ;f+:s[lts ?kn] dxTj /fVg] hldg tyf ;+/ rgf k5{g h;nfO{ pko'Qm 9f“rf, e'sDk k|lt/f]wfTds k|ljlw tyf k| sf]knfO{ y]Ugsf nflu k'glgdf{0f ug]{ h'g vt/fsf] ;fdgf ug{ ;Sg] xf]cf]; . 5_ ul/j, a[4a[4f / ckf+u / k|sf]kaf6 k|efljt cGo hg;+VofnfO{ ;xof]u ug{ ;fdflhs ;'/Iff ;+oGq nfu' ug'{ k5{ . ;+s6fljd'v cj:yfdf /x]sf hg;+Vofsf] dfgl;s
  25. 25. IfltnfO{ sd ug{ dgf]– ;fdflhs tflnd sfo{qmd ;+rfng ug'{ k5{, k|sf]k uO;s]kl5sf] cj:yfdf ljz]if ul/ afaflnsfnfO{ Wofg lbg' k5{ . h_ k|sf]khGo vt/f Go'lgs/0fsf pkfox?nfO{ k|sf]k kl5sf] p4f/ tyf k'g:yf{kg k| s[ofdf ;dflxt u/fpg' k5{ / p4f/sf] ;dodf o;nfO{ cj;/sf] ?kdf k|of]u ul/ Ifdtf ljsf; ug'{ k5{, ;fy} ljz]if1tf, 1fg / l;sfO{x?sf] cfbfg k|bfg ug]{ h;n] lb3{sflng ? kdf k|sf]khGo vt/f Go'g ug{ ;3fp k'¥ofp5 . em_ lj:yflkt hg;+Vofdf vt/fhGo hf]lvd tyf ;+s6fljd'vtf a9g glbgsf nflu pko'Qm sfo{qmdsf] ;'lglZrttf ug]{ . ~f_ pRr– hf]lvdsf] If]qdf /x]sf hg;+Vofsf] ;+s6fljd'vtfhGo vt/f sd ug{sf nflu ljljw cfod'ns sfo{qmdnfO{ k|j4{g ug]{ / pgLx?sf] k|sf]khGo ; +s6fljd'vtf ga9f]; eg]/ pgLx?sf] cfo tyf ;DklQsf] sd cf“sng gxf]; eGg] ;'lglZrttf ljsf; gLlt tyf k|s[of4f/f ul/g' k5{ . 6_ cfly{s vt/f–af8kmf8 ;+oGqsf] ljsf;nfO{ k|j4{g ug]{, ljz]ifu/ k|sf]k lj?4 ljdf ;+rfng ug]{ . 7_ lglh If]qnfO{ k|sf]khGo vt/f Go'lgs/0f ultljlwx?df ;DnUg u/fpg lglh–;fj{hlgs ;fem]bf/Lsf] :yfkgfnfO{ k|j4{g ug]{, lglh If]qnfO{ k|sf]k /f]syfdsf] ;+:s[lt ljsf; ug{ clek|]l/t ug]{, k'j{ k|sf]k ultljlwsf nflu hf]8bf/sf ;fy ;|f]t kl/rfng ug]{ h:t} Mvt/f d'Nof+sg / k'j{ ;'rgf k|0ffnLsf nflu . 8_ k|sf]khGo vt/fnfO{ ;Daf]wg ug{ j}slNks tyf gljg cfly{s ;+oGq ljsf; tyf k|j4{g ug]{ .
  26. 26. #= hldg– k|of]u tyf cGo k|fljlws sfo{x? 9_ k|sf]khGo vt/f d'Nof+sgnfO{ k|sf]k hf]lvd j:tLx?sf] ;x/L of]hgf tyf Joj:yfkgdf ;dflxt ug]{, ljz]if ul/ ;x/ pGd'v j:tLx? / clws hg;+Vofsf] rfk /x]sf If]qx?df . cgf}krfl/s tyf c:yfoL j:tL tyf pRr hf]lvd If]qdf /xsf cfjf;x?sf] ;jfndf o;nfO{ k|fyldstfsf ;fy ;Daf]wg ug'{ k5{, ;fy} ;x/L ul/jL Go'lgs/0f tyf ;'s'Djf;L cj:yf ;'wf/sf sfo{qmd ;+/rgf nfu' ug]{ . 0f_ k|sf]khGo vt/fsf dfGotfx?nfO{ d'Vo ;+/rgf kl/of]hgfsf] of]hgf k|s[ofsf] d'nwf/df Nofpg] ;fy} o;vfn] kl/of]hgfsf] 9f“rf, :jLs[lt tyf nfu' ug{] cfwf/x? df ;dflhs, cfly{s / jftfj/l0fo c;/x?sf] d'Nof+sgn] lg0ff{os e'ldsf v]Ng] 5 . t_ hldg k|of]u gLlt tyf of]hgfsf] kl/Kf|]Ifdf k|sf]khGo vt/f Go'lgs/0fsf nflu lgb]{zg tyf cg'udg ljlwx?sf] ljsf; / ;'wf/ ug]{ / o;sf] k|of]usf nflu k|f]T;fxg ug]{ . y_ k|sf]khGo d'Nof+sgnfO{ u|fld0f ljsf; tyf Joj:yfkgnfO{ ;dflxt ug]{, ljz]iful/ lxdfnL tyf af9Ln] u|:t x'g] ;dy/ If]qx?df, ;fy} ;'/lIft dfgj j:tLsf nflu pko'Qm hldgsf] klxrfg ug]{ . b_ ljBdfg ;+lxtfsf] k'gd'{Nof+sg ug{ tyf gof“ ejg ;+lxtf, k'g:{yfkg / k'glg{df{0f cEof;x?sf] /fli6«o tyf :yflgo txdf ljsf; ug{sf nflu k|f]T;fxg ug]{ . oLgnfO{ :yflgo kl/k|]Ifdf cem w]/} pkof]uL agfpg] pB]Zon] ljz]if ul/ cgf}krfl/s tyf cJojl:yt dfgj j:tLdf nfu' ug'{ k5{ . ;Ddltdf cfwfl/t cjwf/0ff cg';f/
  27. 27. k|sf]k k|lt/f]wfTds ;+/rgfx?nfO{ a9fjf lbg o;vfn] ;+lxtfnfO{ cg'udg tyf nfu' ug'{ k5{ . %= ;a} txdf k|efjsf/L hjfkmsf nflu k|sf]k k'j{tof/LnfO{ dhj'lts/0f ug]{ @)= k|sf]k uPsf] a]nf, o;sf c;/x? / IfltnfO{ pNn]vlgo ?kdf Go'g ug{ ;lsG5 obL vt/f hf]lvdsf If]qsf clwsf/Lx?, JolQm tyf ;d'bfo k'j{ tof/L cj:yfdf 5g / pgLx? sfo{ ;Dkfbgsf nflu tof/L cj:yfdf x'g'sf ;fy} k|efjsf/L k|sf]k Joj:yfkgsf nflu 1fg / Ifdtfn] ;';lHht 5g . k|d'v ultljlwx? M s_ If]lqo, /fli6«o / :yflgo txsf] k|sf]k Joj:yfkgsf nflu gLlt, k|fljlws, / ;+:yfut Ifdtfsf ;fy} k|fljlws, tflnd, dfgj tyf ef}lts ;|f]tnfO{ klg ;'lb[l9s/0f ug]{ . v_ ;j{;Ddlt cjwf/0ff cg';f/ k|sf]khGo vt/f Go'lgs/0fdf ;Djfbsf] k|j4{g tyf ;xof]u ug]{, ;'rgfsf] cfbfg k|bfg tyf ;a} txsf ljsf; tyf cGo ;DalGwt lgof]u / ; +:yfx?aLr k'j{;'rgf, k|sf]khGo vt/f Go'lgs/0f, k|sf]k ;Daf]wg ljifodf ;+of]hg x'g' kg]{ . u_ dhj'lts/0f ug]{ / cfjZos k/]sf vG8df ;+of]lht If]lqo cjwf/0ff ljsf; ug]{, If]lqo gLltx?, sfo{ ;+oGq, of]hgf / ;'rgf k|0ffnLsf] l;h{gf ug]{ / To;nfO{ a9fjf lbg] tfls o;af6 r':t / k|efjsf/L k|sf]k ;Daf]wgsf] tof/L jf ;'lglZrttf ug{ ;lsof]; h;n] /fli6«o Joj:yfkg IfdtfnfO{ a9fjf lbg ;sf]; .
  28. 28. 3_ k|sf]k k'j{tof/L tyf s'g} klg a]nf 36g ;Sg] l:yltnfO{ Wofgdf /flv ;a} txdf of]hgf tyf gLlt agfpg] / To;nfO{ k'gd'{Nof+sg ug]{ tyf cBfjlws /fVg] , ljzif]ul/ ;a}eGbf vt/fsf] hf]lvddf /x]sf ;d'xnfO{ s]lGb|t ug]{ . lgoldt ?kdf k| sf]k k'j{ tof/L cEof;x?sf] k|j4{gsf ;fy} p4f/ s;/L ug]{, vfB tyf cvfB p4f/ ;fdflu|df kx'“r af/] l;sfpg] . ª_ hxf“ cfaZos 5 Toxf“ cfktsflng sf]if :yfkgfsf] k|j4{g ug]{ h;af6 k|sf]k ;Daf]wg, p4f/ tyf k'j{ tof/Lsf nflu ;xof]u k'Ug ;sf]; . r_ ;d'bfo ;lxtsf ;DalGwt kIfsf] k|sf]khGo vt/f Go'lgs/0fsf nflu ;lqmo ;xeflutf u/fpgsf nflu ljz]if ;+oGq ljsf; ug]{ jf :jo+;]jL efjgfsf] ljsf; ug]{ . $_ k|of]u tyf cg'udg s_ ;fdfGo ;f]rx? @!= o; sfo{ ;+/rgfdf pNn]v ul/Psf /0fgLlts pB]Zo tyf k|fyldstfx? nfu' tyf cg'udg ug]{ sfo{nfO{ ax' klIfo cjwf/0ffdf /x]sf ljleGg kIf ;fy} ljsf; If]qn] ;Daf]wg ug'{ k5{ . /fHo, If]lqo, cGt/fli6«o ;+:yfx?sf ;fy} ;+o'Qm /fi6« ; +l3o lgsfo / cGt/fli6«o ljlQo ;+:yfx?nfO{ k|sf]khGo vt/f Go'lgs/0fsf ;jfnnfO{ pgLx?sf] ;a} txsf] lbuf] ljsf; gLlt, of]hgf tyf sfo{qmddf ;dfj]; ug{ cfXfg ug'{ k5{ . gful/s ;dfhsf ;fy} :jo+;]jL, tyf ;d'bfodf cfwfl/t ;+:yfx?, a}1flgs ;d'bfo / lglh If]q dxTjk'0f{ kIf x'g h;n] k|sf]khGo vt/f Go'lgs/0fnfO{ ;a} txdf nfu' ug{ dxTjk'0f{ ;xof]u k'¥ofp“5g .
  29. 29. @@=k|To]s /fHosf] cfly{s tyf ;fdflhs ljsf;sf] k|d'v bfloTj /xG5, To;}ul/ Ps :fIfd cGt/fli6«o jftfj/0fsf] dxTj 1fgsf] ljsf;df of]ubfg lbg tyf To;nfO{ k| efjsf/L agfpg / k|sf]k ;fdgfsf nflu /fi6« tyf ;dfhnfO{ ;Ifd agfpg Ifdtf tyf pTk|]/0ffsf] cfjZostf k5{ . /fHo, If]q tyf cGt/fli6«o ;+:yfn] ;+o'Qm /fi6« ;+3 nufot cGo cGt/fli6«o ;+:yf, cGt/fli6«o ljlQo ;+:yfx?, Iflqo lgsfo, bft[ ;+:yf, u}/;/sf/L ;+:yfx? hf] k|sf]khGo vt/f Go'lgs/0fdf ;DnUg /x]sf 5g pgLx?;“u / 0fgLlts ;+of]hg ug'{ k5{ . @#= pko'Qm cj:yfdf ;+hfn lgdf{0f hgjsfnt, ;+of]hg, ;'rgf tyf cg'ejsf] cfbfg k|bfg, vt/fx? Tyf ;+s6fljd'vtfsf] j}1flgs d'Nof+sg / ;+yfut Ifdtf ljsf; / k| sf]khGo vt/fx?;“u h'Wgsf nflu /fHo, If]q tyf cGt/fli6«o ;+:yfn] If]lqo ; +oGq tyf ;+:yfx?sf] Ifdtfsf nflu If]lqo, of]hgf, gLlt / ;emf cEof;x? ljsf; ug{ ;xof]u k'¥ofpg' k5{ . @$= o; sfo{ ;+/rgfsf] sfof{Gogdf of]ubfg k'¥ofpg ;a} txdf ax'–klIfo ;fem]bf/L lgd{f0fsf nflu ;a} KfIfnfO{ ,pko'Qm cj:yfdf, :jo+;]jL ?kdf nfUg pTk|]l/t ug'{ k5{ . /fHo tyf cGo kIfn] /fli6«o, If]lqo tyf cGt/fli6«o txdf :jo+;]jL ;d'x :yfkgf tyf ;'b[l9s/0fsf nflu pTk|]l/t tyf k|j4{g ug'{ k5{, h'g :jo+;]jLx? s'g} /fi6« tyf cGt/fli6«o ;d'bfosf nflu ;+s6fljd'vtf tyf k|sf]khGo vt/fnfO{ sd ug{sf nflu ;Daf]wg ug{ pknAw u/fO{g] 5 . @%= ;fgf 6fk'x?af6 ag]sf ljsf;f]Gd'v d'n'sdf …af/af8f];Ú sfo{qmdsf] sfo{nfO{ ult lbgsf nflu …dl/;;Ú /0fgLltn] oL /fHox? k|fs[lts tyf jftfj/l0fo k| sf]k / To;sf c;/sf lx;fjn ljZjd} clt g} hf]lvdk'0f{ cj:yfdf /x]sf] / c;dfg'kflts lx;fjn] pRr cfly{s, ;fdflhs tyf jftfj/l0fo d'No r'sfpg' kl//x]sf] pNn]v u/]sf] 5 . oL ;fgf ljsf;f]Gd'v /fHox? k|efjsf/L k|sf]k Joj:yfkgsf nflu k|ltj4 5g eg]
  30. 30. /fli6«o ;+/rgfdf ;'wf/ NofPsf 5g . /fli6«o k|sf]knfO{ sd ug{, k'j{ tof/L / k'j{ ;'rgf Ifdtf, k|sf]khGo vt/f Go'lgs/0fsf nflu hgr]tgf clej[l4, /fli6«o of]hgf k|s[ofdf vt/f Joj:yfjgnfO{ d'nwf/df Nofpg, ljdf tyf k'glj{df;“u ;DalGWft ;Demf}tfx? / cfktsflng cj:yfdf To;sf] eljiojfl0f tyf ;Daf]wg ug{ / k|fs[lts tyf jftfj/l0fo k|sf]ksf sf/0f k|efljt dfgj j:tLdf cGt/fli6«o ;d'bfosf] ;xof]udf /fli6«o sfo{ ;+/rgfnfO{ ;'lb[l9s/0f u/]sf 5g . @^= ljz]if k|s[ltsf ;+s6fljd'vtfx? / sd ljsl;t /fi6«x?sf] k|sf]knfO{ ;Daf]wg ug]{ tyf To;nfO{ sd ug]{ ckof{Kt IfdtfnfO{ Wofgdf /flv, sd ljsl;t /fi6«x?af6 g} ;xof]usf] ck]Iff of] cy{df ul/G5 ls of] k|fyldstfsf] ljifo xf], sfo{;+/rgf sfof{Gjogsf nflu pNn]vlgo sfo{qmd tyf ;DalGwt ;+:yfut ;+oGqnfO{ ;lqmo agfpg' k5{ ;fy} ljutdf xfl;n u/]sf pknlAwx?sf] ;+/If0f ug'{ k5{ . @&= clk|msL d'n'sdf x'g] k|sf]kn] clk|msL dxfb]znfO{ lbuf] ljsf;sf] pB]Zo xfl;n ug{ ;a} eGbf 7'nf] afwf lgDTofPsf] 5 , ljz]iful/ To; If]qdf x'g] k|sf]ksf] eljiojf0fL, cg'udg / k|sf]knfO{ sd ug{ ;Sg] Ifdtf cefj 5 . hf]lvdn] lgDTofPsf] clk|msL hgtfsf ;+s6fljd'vtfnfO{ sd ug{sf ul/lj lgjf/0f /0fgLlt cfjZos tTj xf] ;fy} ljutdf xfl;n u/]sf ljsf;sf nIfnfO{ ;+/If0f ug{ k|of; ug'{ k5{ . @*= k|sf]k Go'lgs/0f ;DalGw ljZj ;Dd]ngsf] cg'udgsf ;fy} k|sf]k Go'lgs/0f ;DalGwt If]qsf cGo k|d'v ;Dd]ngx?sf] cg'udg Plss[t tyf ;+of]lht x'g' k5{ . @(= @))%–@)!% ;Dddf sfof{Gjog x'g] o; sfo{ ;+/rgfsf] ;lx tj/n] k'gd'{Nof+sg x'g' kg]{ 5 .
  31. 31. v_ /fHox? #)= ;a} /fHox?n] lgDg pNn]lvt sfo{x? /fli6«o tyf :yflgo txdf ;DkGg ug{sf k|oTglzn x'g' k5{, o;df alnof] ckgTjsf] efjgf x'g' k5{ / gful/s ;dfh tyf cGo kIf;“u ;fem]bf/L ug'{ k5{, o;sf nflu tf]lsPsf] cfly{s, dfgj, / ef}lts Ifdtf cg';f/ x'g' k5{ / k|sf]khGo vt/f Go'lgs/0f;“u ;DalGwt 3/]n' sfg'gL cfjZostf tyf ljBdfg cGt/fli6«o ljlwnfO{ Wofgdf /fVg' h?/L x'G5 . s_ /fHosf] Ifdtf, cfjZostf / gLlt cg';f/ k|sf]khGo vtf/ Go'lgs/0fsf] /fli6«o cj:yfsf] cfwf/e't d'Nof+sg tof/L tyf k|sfzg ug]{ / To; ;'rgfsf] cfbfg k|bfg ;DalGwt If]lqo tyf cGt/fli6«o ;+:yf;“u ug]{ . v_ sfo{ ;+/rgf sfof{Gjog tyf nfu' ug{ Ps pko'Qm /fli6«o ;+of]hg k|0ffnL r'Gg] / OG6/g];gn …:6«fl6lh km/ l8hf:6/ l/8S;gÚ ;lrjfnonfO{ ;'rgf ;';'lrt ug] {. u_ o; sfo{ ;+/rgf;“u ;DalGwt k|sf]khGo vt/f Go'lgs/0f /fli6«o sfo{qmdsf ;fy} cGt/fli6«o ;xof]uaf/] 5f]6s/Ldf cBfjlws ug]{ / k|sflzt ug]{ . 3_ o; sfo{ ;+/rgf cGtu{tsf /fli6«o pknlAwx?sf] d'Nof+sg k|s[of ljsf; ug]{, h;n] nfut kmfO{bf ljZn]if0f k|0ffnL / eO/x]sf ;+s6fljd'vtf tyf vt/fsf] cg'udg tyf d'Nof+sg ug]{, ljz]if ul/ h'g If]qx? Hfnjfo' tyf ef}ule{s vt/fsf] hf]lvddf /x]sf 5g .
  32. 32. ª_ k|sf]khGo vt/f Go'lgs/0f ;DalGw pknlAw ePsf ;'rgfx?nfO{ lbuf] ljsf;sf ;jfndf rf;f] /fVg] cGt/fli6«o tyf cGo ;+/rgfsf] l/kf]l6{+u ;+oGqdf ;dfj]z ug]{ . r_ k|sf]khGo vt/f;“u ;DalGwt cGt/fli6«o sfg'gL ;+oGqx?nfO{ :jLsfg]{ / /fHon] tL ;+oGqsf] k|efjsf/L ?kdf sfof{Gjog ug]{ . 5_ df};d clgoldttf tyf df};d kl/jt{g;“u hf]l8Psf vt/f Go'lgs/0fnfO{ k|sf]khGo vt/f Go'lgs/0f tyf df};d kl/jt{g ;DalGw /0fgLltx?;“u Plss[t tyf To;sf] k|j4{g ug]{, k|sf]khGo vt/f Go'lgs/0f sfo{qmdnfO{ Wofgdf /flv ef}ule{s vt/f h:t} e'sDk tyf klx/f] Joj:yfkg ;'lglZrttf ug]{ . u_ If]qLo ;+u7g tyf ;+:yfx? #!= k|sf]khGo vt/f Go'lgs/0fdf e'ldsf ePsf If]lqo ;+u7gx?nfO{ cfXfg ul/ lgDg sfo{ tf]lsPsf ldlt, ;|f]t tyf k|fyldstfsf cfwf/df ;DkGg ug{' k5{ M s_ If]lqo sfo{qmdx?sf] k|j4{g ug'{ k5{, h; cGtu{t k|fljlws ;xof]u, Ifdtf ljsf;, vt/f tyf ;+s6fljd'vtfsf] cg'udg / d'Nof+sgfsf nfluljlwx?sf] ljsf;, ;'rgfsf] cfbfg k|bfg / ;|f]tsf] k|efjsf/L ljt/0f sfo{qmd kb{5g h;n] /fli6«o tyf If]lqo ?kdf ePsf sfo{ ;+/rgfsf pB]Zox? xfl;n ug{sf nflu ;xof]u k'¥ofpg] 5 . v_ klxrfg ul/Psf cfjZostf tyf tf]lsPsf] dfGotfdf /x]/ k|sf]khGo vt/f Go'lgs/0fsf] cj:yf af/] If]lqo tyf pk–If]lqo d'Nof+sg ug]{ tyf k|sfzg ug]{ .
  33. 33. u_ If]lqo ?kdf ePsf k|ult, afwf ty ;xof]u cfj:ostfaf/] cfjlws k'gd'{Nof+sgsf nflu ;+of]hg ug]{ tyf To;nfO{ k|sfzg ug]{ / cg'/f]w cfPdf /fli6«o sfo{qmd tyf k|ultx?af/]sf] ;'rgfnfO{ cBfjlws ug{ tL /fi6«x?nfO{ ;xof]u k'¥ofpg] . 3_ k|sf]khGo vt/f Go'lgs/0fsf] If]qdf cg';Gwfg, tflnd, lzIff, / Ifdtf clej[l4sf nflu If]lqo ;fem]bf/L s]Gb|x? :yfkgf ug]{ jf ePsfnfO{ ;'b[l9s/0f ug]{ . ª_ k|sf]k k'j{ ;'rgf, ;'gfld ;lxtsf nflu If]lqo ;+oGq / Ifdtf ljsf; ug{ ;xof]u k'¥ofpg] . 3_ cGt/fli6«o ;+u7gx? #@= ;+o'Qm /fi6«;+l3o k|0ffln / cGt/fli6«o ljlQo ;+:yfx? nufotsf cGt/fli6«o ;+:yfx?nfO{ lgDg pNn]lvt sfo{ lgwf{l/t ;|f]t, ldlt tyf k|fyldstf leq /lx ;DkGg ug{ cfXfjfg ul/Psf] 5 M s_ k|sf]k Go'lgs/0fsf nflu cGt/fli6«o /0fgLltnfO{ k'0f{tM ;xof]u tyf sfof{Gjog ug{ k|]l/t ug]{, k|sf]k ;fdgf /fi6« tyf ;'dbfo lgdf{0fdf pNn]vlgo Plss[t cjwf/0ffsf nflu ;xof]u k'¥ofpg], k|sf]khGo vt/f Go'lgs/0fnfO{ sfo{ ;+/ rgfdf pNn]v u/] cg';f/ dfgljo tyf lbuf] ljsf;sf If]qdf alnof] cwf/, ;DaGw, Pstf / Plss[tsf nflu k|]l/t ug]{ . v_ k|sf]ksf] hf]lvddf /x]sf ljs;f]Gd'v d'n'sdf pko'Qm dfWod tyf ;+of]hg4f/f k|sf]khGo vt/f Go'lgs/0fsf nflu ;+o'Qm /fi6«;+l3o k|0ffnLsf] ;a{–klIfo IfdtfnfO{ ;'b[9 ug]{ / sfo{ ;+/rgfdf pNn]v eP cg';f/ k|sf] Go'lg/0f ;DalGw
  34. 34. cGt/fli6«o /0fgLlt agfpg / o;sf] pB]Zo tyf k|fyldstf xfl;n ug{ lgoldt d'Nof+sgsf nflu pko'Qm ljlwx? sfof{Gjog ug]{ . u_ o; sfo{ ;+/rgfnfO{ k|sf]ksf] vt/fdf /x]sf ljsf;f]Gd'v d'n'sn] sfof{Gjog ug{sf nflu ;fGble{s sfo{x?sf] klxrfg ug{ ;xof]u k'¥ofpg] , ;Dej eP;Dd k| To]s ;+:yfsf] cfkmg} j}1flgs, dfgljo / ljsf; If]qx?, gLlt, sfo{qmd tyf cEof;x?df oL ;fGble{s sfo{x? Plss[t x'g' k5{ eGg] s'/fsf] ;'lglZrttf ug]{ / logsf] sfof{Gjogsf nflu kof{Kt ;|f]tsf] pknAwtf u/fpg] . 3_ k|sf]ksf] hf]lvddf /x]sf ljsf;f]Gd'v /fi6«x?nfO{ k|sf]khGo vt/f Go'lgs/0fsf sfo{ tyf sfo{qmdsf] /fli6«o /0fgLlt tyf of]hgf lgdf{0fsf nflu ;xof]u k'¥ofpg], / sfo{ ;+rgfsf k|fyldstfsf cfwf/df klxrfg u/] cg';f/ k|sf]khGo vt/f Go'ls/0fdf pgLx?sf] ;+:yfut / k|fljlws Ifdtf ljsf; ug{] . ª_ o; ;+/rgfnfO{ ;xof]u k'¥ofpg ;DalGwt ;+of]lht ;+oGq h:t} ;+o'Qm /fi6«; +3 ljsf; ;d'x / …O{G6/ Ph]lG; :6flG8+u sldl6 -Xo'dflg6]l/g PS;g_sf sfo{x? Plss[t ug{], o;df /fli6«o tx / …/]l;8]G6 sf]cl8{g]6/ l;:6dÚ / ;+o'Qm / fi6«;+3sf] 6f]nLnfO{ ;DnUg u/fpg] . ;fy} k|sf]khGo vt/f Go'lgs/0fsf ljlwx? nfO{ …sdg slG6« P;]:fd]G6Ú, ;+o'Qm /fi6«;+l3o ljsf; ;xof]u ;+/rgf / ul/lj lgjf/0f /0fgLltx?df Plss[t ug]{ . r_ ljBdfg ;+hfn tyf d~rx?sf] glhssf] ;fem]bf/Ldf, ;a} txdf x'g] k|fs[lts vt/f, ; +s6fljd'vtf, vt/f, k|sf]ksf] c;/af/] ljZjJoflk ?kdf e/kbf]{ tYof+s ;+sngsf nflu ;xof]u k'¥ofpg] . oL k|of;x?df ljsf;sf l;4fGt, tYof+lso cfwf/sf] ;'/Iff, ;'rs tyf ;'rf+ssf] ljsf;, k'j{ ;'rgf k|0ffnLnfO{ ;xof]u, tYof+ssf] k'0f{ tyf v'nf cfbfg k|bfg kb{5g .
  35. 35. 5_ k|efljt /fi6«x?sf] cg'/f]w / cfktsflng p4f/ ;xof]u tyf ;+of]hg ;Demf}tfsf] lgb]{lzt l;4fGtsf] ;Demf}tf cg';f/ /fHox?nfO{ pko'Qm, ;dod} / plrt ; +of]hgdf cGt/fli6«o p4f/ ;xof]u pknAw u/fpg ;xof]u k'¥ofpg' k5{ . o; ;xof]unfO{ vt/f tyf ;+s6fljd'vtf sd ug]{, Ifdtf clej[l4 ug]{ / k|efjsf/L ?kdf ;x/L vf]lh tyf p4f/sf nflu cGt/fli6«o ;xof]u h'6fpg] pB]Zon] pknAw u/fpg' k5{ . cGt/fli6«o ;xof]u tyf p4f/ l56f] / 5l/tf] ?kdf k|efljt If]qdf k'Ug] k|fjwfgx? /fli6«o tyf :yflgo txdf ;'lglZrttf ug]{ / To;nfO{ Iflt tyf vt/f sd ug{sf nflu ;'b[l9s/0f ug]{ . h_ k|sf]ksf sf/0f ;+qmd0fsflng cj:yfdf /x]sf /fHox?sf] lbuf] ef}lts k'jf{wf/, ;fdflhs tyf cfly{s ;'wf/ / eljiodf cfO{kg]{ vt/f sd ug{nfO{ ;xof]u k'¥ofpgsf nflu cGt/fli6«o ;+oGq ;'b[l9s/0f ug]{ . o;df k|sf]k uO{;s]kl5sf] cj:yfdf ;DalGwt /fi6«x?df vt/f Go'lgs/0f ultljlwx?nfO{ ;xof]u k'¥ofpgsf nflu lj1x? tyf ;+o'Qm /fi6«;+l3o ;+u7g4f/f p4f/, k'g:{yfkg k|s[of / /fd|f cEof;x?sf] cfbfg k|bfg, 1fg tyf k|fljlws ;xof]u pknAw u/fpg' k5{ . em_ cGt/–;f+u7lgs /0fgLlts pB]Zo / k|sf]khGo vt/f Joj:yfkg– Iflt Go'lgs/0f, k'j{tof/L, ;Daf]wg tyf p4f/df cfwfl/t k|sf]k Joj:yfkg tflnd sfo{qmdnfO{ lng' k5{ / / o;nfO{ ;'b[l9s/0f ug'{ k5{ . ª_ k|sf]k Go'lgs/0fsf nflu cGt/fli6«o /0fgLltx? ##= k|sf]k Go'lgs/0fsf nflu cGt/fli6«o /0fgLltsf ;fem]bf/x?, ljz]iful/, k|sf]k Go'lgs/0f ;DalGw …O{G6/ Ph]lG; 6f:s kmf];{Ú / o;sf ;b:ox? / ;DalGwt
  36. 36. /fli6«o, If]lqo, cGt/fli6«o tyf ;+o'Qm /fi6«;+l3o lgsfo / k|sf]k Go'lgs/0fsf nflu …O{G6/ Ph]lG; ;]qm]6ofl/o6Úsf] tTjfjwfgdf, sfo{ ;+/rgf lgDg k|sf/n] sfof{Gjogsf nflu cg'/f]w ul/G5, tfTsflng k|0ffln tyf ;+:yfut k|s[ofsf ljifosf] lg0f{o cg'udg k|s[of k'/f ug] {. s_ o; sfo{ ;+/rgf cg'udgsf nflu e'ldsfsf] dfWod / ;xof]uL cleofg ljsf; ug]{ / o;df …6f:s kmf];{Úsf JolQmut ;b:ox? / cGo cGt/fli6«o ;fem]bf/ ;+:yfnfO{ ;xeflu u/fpg] . v_ k|efjsf/L tyf Plss[t sfo{sf nflu ;+o'Qm /fi6« ;+l3o lgsfo cGtu{tsf ; +:yfx? / cGo ;DalGwt cGt/fli6«o / If]lqo O{sfO{aLr logsf cfkmg} lgb]{zg cg';f/ ;+of]hgsf] ;xlhs/0f ug]{, sfo{ ;+/rgf sfof{Gjogsf nflu ;xof]u k'¥ofpg], sfof{Gjog kIfsf sdLx? Klxrfg ug]{, / ;DalGwt /fli6«o, If]lqo tyf cGt/fli6«o ljz]if1x?af6 k|To]s k|fyldstf If]qsf nflu lgb]{zs tyf gLlt tof/ ug{ d'Nof+sg k| sofsf] ;xlhs/0f ug]{ . u_ k|To]s /fi6«sf] pknAw ;|f]tnfO{ Wofgdf /flv ;fw/0f, e/kbf]{ / dfkg ug{ ;lsg] ;'rf+s ljsf;sf nflu ;DalGwt ;+o'Qm /fi6«;+l3o lgsfo tyf ;+u7gx?, If]lqo tyf ax' klIfo ;+:yfx? , k|fljlws tyf j}1flgs ;+:yfx?sf ;fy} O{R5f hgfpg] /fHox? tyf gful/s ;dfh;“u ;Nnfx lng] . oL ;'rsf+sx?n] /fHox?nfO{ sfo{ ;+/rgf sfof{Gjogdf pgLx?sf] k|ult d'Nof+sgsf nflu ;3fp k'¥ofp“5 . oL ;'rf+sx? nfO{ cGt/fli6«o :t/df dfGo ljsf;sf pB]Zo jf nIfx?;“u ldNg] x'g' k5{, h:t}M h'g nIfx? ;x;|flJb 3f]if0ffdf pNn]v 5g .
  37. 37. ha of] klxnf] r/0f k'/f x'G5, /fHox?nfO{ tL ;'rf+sx? /fli6«o:t/df ljsf; ug{ tyf To;nfO{ kl/l:ylt cg's'n agfpgsf nflu /fHox?n] cfkmg} k|sf]khGo vt/f Go'lgs/0f k|fyldstfsf cfwf/x?df cfTd;ft ug'{ k5{ . 3_ k|sf]k Go'lgs/0fsf nflu /fli6«o d~rx?nfO{ ;xof]usf] ;'lglZrttf ug]{, pgLx? sf] e'ldsf / To;n] a9fpg] dxTjsf ;fy} If]lqo ;+of]hgsf nflu, k|sf]k Go'lgs/0fsf nflu ;+of]lht If]lqo ;]jfx?af6 sfo{ ;+/rgfn] lgwf{/0f u/]sf ljljw hgjsfnt tyf gLltut cfjZostf / k|fyldstfnfO{ ;xof]u k'¥ofpg] . ª_ lbuf] ljsf; ;DalGw cfof]usf] ;lrjfno;“u ;+of]hg ul/ sfo{ ;+/rgf sfof{Gjogdf of]ubfg k'¥ofpg] ;DalGwt ;fem]bf/L ;+:yf o;sf] lbuf] ljsf; ;fem]bf/L … 8f6fa];Údf btf{ x'Gf] 5 eGg] ;'lglZrttf ug]{ . r_ k|sf]khGo vt/f Go'lgs/0fnfO{ o;s} Ifdtfdf cGt/fli6«o :t/sf] ;'rgf ;Dk|]if0f u[x agfpgsf nflu pNn]Vo cEof;x?, l;sfO{x?, pknAw k|ljlw tyf sfo{qmdx? sf] cfbfg k|bfg, ;+sng, ljZ]if0f, ;+If]lks/0f / ;Dk|]if0f ug{sf nflu k|]l/t ug'{ k5{ . /fHon] If]lqo tyf cGt/fli6«o ;fem]bf/L ;+:yf dfkm{t sfof{Gjog u/]sf sfo{qmd tyf cleofgx?sf] cg'udgsf nflu k|sf]k Go'lgs/0f ;DalGw ljZj ;'rgf d~rsf ;fy} …j]aÚdf btf{ ul/Psf] …kf]6{kmf]lnof]Ú Joj:yfkg ug]{ . 5_ sfo{ ;+/rgfsf pB]Zo tyf k|fyldstf cg'?k xfl;n x'“b} uPsf k|ultsf] cfjlws d'Nof+sg tof/ ug]{, k|s[of leqsf] kl/k|]Ifdf ;fw/0f ;efn] lgwf{/0f u/] cg';f/ ; +o'Qm /fi6« ;+l3o ;Dd]ngx?sf] Plss[t tyf ;+of]lht cg'udg tyf sfof{Gjog, k| ltj]bg tyf ;+If]lks/0f, cg'/f]w ul/Pdf jf cfjZos ePdf – ;ef tyf cGo /fi6«;+l3o lgsfox?nfO{ pknAw u/fpg] . /fli6«o d~r, If]lqo, cGt/fli6«o ;+u7gx? Tfyf
  38. 38. cGo kIfx?sf ;fy} k'j{ ;'rgf ;DalGw bf];|f] cGt/fli6«o ;Dd]ngsf k|:tfjx? sfof{Gjogsf nflu cg'udg ug]{ . r_ ;|f]t kl/rfng #$= cfkmgf] cfly{s Ifdtf leq /x]/, /fHox?n]– If]lqo tyf cGt/fli6«o ;+:yfx?, pko'Qm ax'klIfo, If]lqo / l4klIfo ;+of]hg ;+oGq lgdf{0f ul/ o; sfo{ ;+/rgf sfof{Gjog ug{ lgDg sfo{sf nflu cfjZos ;|f]tsf] kl/rfng ug'{ k5{ M s_ ;+o'Qm /fi6« ;+l3o k|0ffnL ;DalGwt /fli6«o, If]lqo tyf cGt/fli6«o lgsfosf] pko'Qm ;|f]t tyf IfdtfnfO{ lj:tf/ ug]{ . v_ k|sf]ksf] hf]lvddf /x]sf ljsf;f]Gd'v /fi6«x?df sfo{ ;+/rgf sfof{Gjogsf nflu l4 tyf ax'–klIfo ;+oGqsf] dfWodaf6 cfly{s / k|fljlws ;xof]u pknAw u/fpg], lbuf] /sd ;DalGw ;Daf]wg, kf/:kl/s ;xdltdf k|fljlw x:tfGt/0f, lglh– ;fj{hlgs ;fem]bf/L tyf k'j{–klZrd blIf0f–blIf0f ;xof]u sfof{Gjog ug]{ . u_ ax' tyf l4–klIfo ljsf; ;xof]usf ;fy} ul/lj Go'lgs/0f, k|fs[lts ;|f]t Joj:yfkg, ;x/ L ljsf; / df};d kl/jt{g;“u ;DalGwt sfo{qmddf k|sf]khGo vt/f Go'lgs/0f ljlwnfO{ d'nwf/df Nofpg] . 3_ ;+o'Qm /fi6« ;+l3o k|sf]k Go'lgs/0f sf]ifnfO{:jo+;]jL ?kdf oy]i7 cfly{s of]ubfg pknAw u/fpg], o; sfo{ ;+/rgfsf] cg'udg ultljlwsf nflu oy]i7 ;xof]usf] ;'lglZrttf ug]{ . clxn] cj:yfdf ePsf] k|of]u / o;sf] lj:tf/sf] ;DefJotf d'Nof+sg
  39. 39. ug]{ ty k|sf]ksf] vt/fdf /x]sf ljsf;f]Gd'v /fi6«x?sf] k|sf]khGo vt/f Go'lgs/0fsf nflu /fli6«o /0fgLlt agfpg ;xof]u k'¥ofpg] . ª_ hf]lvd 36fpg nfu' ul/g] of]hgfsf] ;fem]bfl/tf ljsf; ug]{, ljdfsf] km}nfj6nfO{ lj:tf/ ug]{ , k|sf]k kl5sf] k'glg{df0f / tyf k'g:yf{kgsf nflu lglh tyf ;fj{hlgs ;fem]bf/L ug]{ . ljsf;f]Gd'v /fi6«df ljdfsf] ;+:s[lt ljsf; ug]{ jftfj/0fnfO{ k|j4{g ug]{ . cg'R5]b k|sf]k Go'lgs/0f ;DalGwt s]xL jx'klIfo ljsf;x? o; k|ltj]bg;“u ;DalGwt ax' klIfo ;+/rgf / 3f]if0ffx? lgDg 5g M – ;fgf 6fk'af6 ag]sf ljsf;f]Gd'v /fHox?sf] lbuf] ljsf;sf nflu sfo{qmdsf] sfof{Gjog d'Nof+sgsf] cGt/fli6«o a}7s ;g @))%sf] hgjl/df dl/;;df ePsf] lyof], h;n] ;fgf 6fk'af6 ag]sf ljsf;f]Gd'v /fHox?sf] k|
  40. 40. sf]kaf6 ;'wf/ kfpg l;ldt Ifdtf ePsfn] ;+s6fljd'vtf Go'lgs/0f ug{ k| ltj4tfsf] dfu u/]sf] 5 . – Dffgljo sfo{sf nflu ?k /]vfnfO{ O{G6/g];gn sGkm/]G; ckm b /]8qm; /]8lqm;]G6n] ;g @))#sf] l8;]Dj/df canDag u/]sf] lyof] h;sf] pB]Zodf … k|sf]khGo vt/f / c;/ Go'g ug]{ / k'j{tof/L tyf ;Daf]wgdf ;'wf/ Nofpg]Ú . – ;g @))@df hf]xfg;ju{df ;DkGg lbuf] ljsf; ;DalGw ljZj ;Dd]ng of]hgf sfof{Gjogsf] #&cf}+ kl/R5]bdf o; sfo{sf nflu cg'/f]w ul/Psf] 5 …Ps Plss[t, ;+s6fljd'vtfnfO{ ;Daf]wg ug]{ ;dfj]lz cjwf/0ff, ax'–klIfo hf]lvd, vt/f, dNof+sg / k|sf]k Joj:yfkg, ;fy} /f]syfd, Iflt Go'g, k'j{ tof/L, p4f/ @!cf}+ ztflJbsf] ;'/lIft ljZjsf cfjZos tTj x'gÚ, h;n] k|sf]k Go'lgs/0f ;DalGw cGt/fli6«o /0fgLltsf] klxnf] sfo{ nfu' ug{ ;xof]u u/sf] 5 . …+ +;+s6fljd'vtf, vt/f Go'lgs/0f, / k|sf]k Joj:yfkgÚsf] lgZsif{nfO{ lbuf] ljsf; ;DalGw cfof]u @)!$–@)!%sf] ax' jlif{o sfo{qmddf hf]l8Psf] 5 . – ;g @))) ;]K6]Da/sf] ;x;|flJb 3f]if0ffn] …;+s6fljd'vtfdf /x]sfnfO{ ;'/lIft ug]{Ú / …xfd|f] ;femf jftfj/0fsf] ;'/IffÚsf] k|d'v pB]ZonfO{ klxrfg u/]sf] 5 h;n] …k|fs[lts tyf dfgj l;lh{t k|sf]ksf] ;+Vof tyf c;/ Go'g ug{sf nflu cfjZos ;xof]u kl/rfng ug]{Ú . – cfly{s tyf ;fdflhs kl/ifb / ;fw/0f ;efn] cGt/–lgsfo ;+/rgf / ;+oGq -OG6/ Ph]lG; 6f:s kmf];{ cg l8hf:6/ l/8S;g PG8 Pg O{G6/ Ph]lG; ;]qm]6]l/P6_4f/f k|sf]k Go'lgs/0f ;DalGw cGt/fli6«o /
  41. 41. 0fgLlt ;g @)))df ;'?jft ul/Psf] xf] . o;sf] pB]Zo ;+o'Qm /fi6« ;+l3o lgsfosf] k|d'v s]Gb| eO{ sfo{ ug]{ / o;sf] lgb]{zg cg';f/ hgr]tgf / k| ltj4tf k|j4{g ug]{, ;+hfn tyf ;fem]bf/Ltf lj:tf/ ug]{, k|sf]ksf] sf/0f af/] 1fg ;'wf/ ug]{ / vt/f Go'g ug{ j}slNks pkfo vf]Hg], of]sf]xfdf /0fgLlt / sfo{ of]hgfsf] lgdf{0f tyf k|fs[lts k|sf]k Go'lgs/0f ;DalGw cGt/fli6«o bzssf] cg'udg ug]{ . – ;g @))@df hf]xfg;ju{df ;DkGg lbuf] ljsf; ;DalGw ljZj ;Dd]ng of]hgf sfof{Gjogsf] df};d kl/jt{g ;DalGw cGt/ ;/sf/ :tl/o Kofgnn] cfu|x u/]sf] 5 …df};d kl/jt{gsf c;/x?sf] d'Nof+sgsf nflu k|ljlw tyf ljlwsf] ;'wf/ ug]{ / lt u+le/ c;/x?sf] lg/Gt/ d'Nof+sgsf nflu k|f]T;fxg ug]{=======Ú . To;}u/L, ;fw/0f ;efn] df};d kl/jt{g ;DalGw ;+o'Qm /fi6« ;+l3o dxf;GwL tyf Sof]6f] k|f]6f]snsf ;b:o /fi6«x?nfO{ df};d kl/jt{gn] kfg] { u+le/ c;/x?af/] lg/Gt/ ?kdf ;Daf]wg ug{ k|]l/t u/]sf] 5 . ;+o'Qm /fi6« dxf;+l3o dxf;efn] df};d kl/jt{g ;DalGw cGt/ ;/sf/ :tl/o KofgnnfO{ df};d kl/jt{gn] kfg]{ u+le/ ;fdflhs– cfly{s tyf ljsf;f]Gd'v /fi6«sf] k|fs[lts k|sf]k Go'lgs/0f k|0ffnLdf kfg]{ u+le/ c;/x?af/] d'Nof+sg ug{ k|]l/t u/sf] 5 . – k|sf]k Joj:yfkg tyf p4f/ sfo{sf nflu b'/;~rf/ ;|f]t pkof]u !((* ;DalGw 6ofDk/ ;dd]ng ;g @))%sf] hgj/L * b]lv nfu' eof] . – ;'/lIft ljZjsf nflu of]sf]xfdf /0fgLlt M Kf|fs[lts k|sf]k Joj:yfkg, k'j{tof/L tyf Iflt Go'lgs/0f / o;sf] sfo{ of]hgf lgb]{zgx? ;g !(($df ;DkGg k| fs[lts k|sf]k Go'lgs/0f ;DalGw ljZj ;Dd]ngaf6 canDag ul/psf] xf] . d/e'ld lj?4sf] ;+o'Qm /fi6« ;+l3o ;Dd]ng ljz]if ul/ clk|mls d'n'ssf]
  42. 42. u+le/ v8]/L / d?e'lds/0f, h+un km8fgLnfO{ lnP/ ;g !(($df :jLsfl/P klg ;g !((^b]lv o;nfO{ canDag ul/of] . To;}u/L h}ljs ljljwtf ;DalGw ; +o'Qm /fi6« ;+l3o cle;GwL ;g !((@df l:jsfl/P klg ;g !((#df o;nfO{ cjnDjg ul/of] . – ;g !((!df dxf;efn] hl6n cfktsflng k|fs[lts k|sf]k b'j}sf nflu ;+o'Qm /fi6« ;+3sf] cfktsflng tyf dfgljo ;xof]u ;+of]hg ;'b[l9s/0fsf nflu cg'/f]w u¥of] . o;n] k|fs[lts k|sf]k Go'lgs/0fsf nflu cGt/fli6«o bzssf] cGt/fli6«o ;+/rgf -!(*(_ sfo{sf] :d/0f u/fof] / dfgljo p4f/, k'j{tof/L, /f]syfd / pp4f/ b]v k'g:yf{kg / ljsf;Ddsf] lgb]{zs l;4fGtx? kfl/t u¥of] .

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