Targeting oral cancer using gold nanoparticles


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Targeting oral cancer using gold nanoparticles

  1. 1. Done by: Dr. Mohamad Ghazi Kassem
  2. 2. What is Nanotechnology An engineered DNA strandtiny motor pRNA Semiconducting metal junction formed by two carbon nanotubes Nanotechnology is the creation of functional materials, devices and systems, through the understanding and control of matter at dimensions in the nanometer scale length (1-100 nm), where new functionalities and properties of matter are observed and harnessed for a broad range of applications.
  3. 3. What is Nanoscale Fullerenes C60 22 cm 12,756 Km 1.27 × 107 m 0.22 m 10 millions times smaller 0.7 nm 0.7 × 10-9 m 1 billion times smaller
  4. 4. What Are Gold Nanoparticles? • Gold nanoparticles (‘nanogold’) occur as clusters of gold atoms up to 100nm in diameter. Gold nanoparticle • Nanogold has unusual visible properties because the particles are small enough to scatter visible light. - in contrast, mass gold reflects light. 5nm gold clusters
  5. 5. • Gold nanoparticles appear yellow to deep red to in solution. - colour depends on size of nanoparticles • The distance between particles also affects colour - surface plasmon resonance is the term used by nanotechnologists to describe this effect.
  6. 6. Why Gold Nanoparticles Cancer is a difficult disease to treat, contain, and identify. There are many different ways for treating cancer such as surgery, chemotherapy, radiation and many others. These methods are effective if the cancer tumor is caught soon enough. However, these treatments are not effective enough because they do not only target the affected cells, they also affect healthy cells. But • Gold Nanoparticles are non toxic • With Gold Nanoparticles we can detecting cancer cells and even destroy them without affect healthy cells.
  7. 7. Mostafa A. El-Sayed Julius Brown Chair and Regents Professor; Director, Laser Dynamics Laboratory “Gold nanoparticles are very good at scattering and absorbing light,” said Mostafa El-Sayed, director of the Laser Dyanamics Laboratory and chemistry professor at Georgia Tech. “We wanted to see if we could harness that scattering property in a living cell to make cancer detection easier. So far, the results are extremely promising.”
  8. 8. Gold Nanoparticle Tumor Detection The common strategy to detect the tumor is the functionalization of the nanoparticle with an antibody specific to the tumor antigens, and then detect the nanoparticle by some spectroscopic technique B. Tumor photograph Imaging with gold nanoparticles as contrast agent
  9. 9. Many cancer cells have a protein, known as Epidermal Growth Factor Receptor (EFGR), all over their surface, while healthy cells typically do not express the protein as strongly. By conjugating, or binding, the gold nanoparticles to an antibody for EFGR, suitably named antiEFGR, researchers were able to get the nanoparticles to attach themselves to the cancer cells. Electrostatically + + + + - - - + + + - + -+ - - + + + + Covalently S S S S S S S S
  10. 10. Gold Nanoparticles Nanoshells
  11. 11. “If you add this conjugated nanoparticle solution to healthy cells and cancerous cells and you look at the image, you can tell with a simple microscope that the whole cancer cell is shining,” said El- Sayed. “The healthy cell doesn’t bind to the nanoparticles specifically, so you don’t see where the cells are. With this technique, if you see a well defined cell glowing, that’s cancer.”
  12. 12. The heated nanoparticles. Chemical therapy carried by nanoparticles.
  13. 13. Gold is a very good heat-conductor, so cells of cancer become hot much faster then healthy cells. Thereby, malignant tumor is destroyed.
  14. 14. Gold nanoparticles are able to be heated up by radio frequency (RF). The heated nanoparticles would in turn heat the cancer cell up which would destroy the cancer cell. These radio waves would not harm healthy cells. Infrared light waves can be used in place of radio waves to heat up the cancer cells for destruction.
  15. 15. Nanoparticles carrying chemical therapy show great promise in treating cancer patients. One type of chemical that the nanoparticles can carry is docetaxel which is currently used in treating cancer. The outside of these nanoparticles are coated with proteins that link directly to the cancer cells (antibody for EFGR) . The nanoparticles also contain polyethylene glycol molecules that help stop the internal defenses of a tumor cell. Although docetaxel is one type of chemical used, there are many more that can be used.
  16. 16. 1. Frens, G. Controlled nucleation for the regulation of the particle size in monodisperse gold suspensions. Nat. Phys. Sci., 241: 20–22, 1973. 2. NCI Web site: 3. 4. ruction 5. 6. • • • •