Production of melanin is stimulated by DNA damage induced by UVB-radiation, and it leads to a delayed development of a tan. This melanogenesis-based tan takes more time to develop, but it is long-lasting.The endothelium is the thin layer of cells that lines the interior surface of blood and lymphatic vessels, forming an interface between circulating blood and lymph in the lumen and the rest of the vessel wall. The cells that form the endothelium are called endothelial cells.
CARBON NANOTUBES:Carbon nanotubes (CNTs) are allotropes of carbon with a cylindricalnanostructure. Nanotubes have been constructed with length-to-diameter ratio of up to 132,000,000:1,Nanotubes are members of the fullerene structural family, which also includes the spherical buckyballs, and the ends of a nanotube may be capped with a hemisphere of the buckyball structure.
Fullerenes are closed hollow cages consisting of carbon atoms interconnected in pentagonal and hexagonal rings. Each carbon atom on the cage surface is bonded to three carbon neighbors therefore is sp2 hybridized. C60 is most studied fullerene due to its availability, high symmetry and low price. Functionalizing the fullerene C60 molecule increases its solubility in organic solvents and also enhances its processability.
The few of the applications of fullerenes are-A. Artificial photosynthesisB. Non-linear opticsC. In cosmetics.D. In surface coatingsE. Bio logical applications
It is a powerful antioxidant, reacting readily and at a high rate with free radicals, which are often the cause of cell damage or death. It behaves like a "radical sponge," as it can sponge-up and neutralize 20 or more free radicals per fullerene molecule. It possess a novel ability of selectively entering oxidation-damaged cerebral endothelial cells rather than normal endothelial cells and then protecting them from apoptosis.
UV Whitening Cream containsFullerene RS™, a patented Nobel Prizetechnology, which is a superior radicalscavenger with unparallel anti-oxidation effect that eliminates freeradicals and inhibits UVA-Inducedmelanin formation.
Fullerenes hold great promise also in non- physiological applications where oxidation and radical processes are destructive (food spoilage, plastics deterioration, metal corrosion).
Factors That need to be kept in mind ! Compatibility Degree of its Usage in the body Target Area Effect after a Pre-Specified Time
Fullerenes form an interesting system for Drug Delivery. They are Strong Drug Adsorbents. Water soluble Fullerene Derivatives which were localized closely to Mitochondria gave a new perspective on the use of Fullerenes in drug delivery systems. Nakamura and co-workers designed a Fullerene that is used to condense p-DNA
Composite coatings based on inorganic fullerene-like material (IFLM) Nanosphere powders are being developed to reduce friction and improve wear resistance in parts where there are rolling and sliding contacts, such as: Ball bearings Chains Gears Pumps Screws Artificial joints
When IFLM are incorporated into a matrix, the particles allow independent control of friction and wear, with consistent tribological performance. Tribology is the science and engineering of interacting surfaces in relative motion.
The coatings produced are divided into three main groups: 1) Metal matrix 2) Polymer matrix 3) Matrix-less
Produced using materials such as nickel and cobalt by suspending IFLM powder in a plating bathing solution. Offer hard coatings for high load applications Based on aqueous coating techniques [galvanic process], they can accommodate large parts, but these components need to be able to withstand being immersed in the solution’.
Suitable for more intermediate load-bearing applications due to the softer matrix Polyketone Polypropylene Polyethylene Nylon
Continuous fullerene films (85% C60, 15% C70) of thickness ∼10 nm have been sublimed on a metallic substrate previously coated with a 1‐nm‐thick Ge sublayer. The films show no surface potential variations when scanned with a Kelvin probe of 1 mV and 1 mm potential and spatial resolutions. Transmission electron microscopy reveals the fullerene films to be amorphous.
Antibacterial fullerene-based particles, termed nC60, were coated onto a polystyrene surface to evaluate their ability to prevent biofilm formation by Pseudomonas mendocina. If the surface is conducting, then it actually promotes biofilm formation The electronic properties of fullerenes and their apparent ability to encourage biofilm formation has potential for microbial fuel cell applications.
Fullerenes act as ‘radical sponges’ scavenging around 20 free radicals per molecule of fullerene. This action is due to the electron deficient alkene nature of fullerenes which take up the electrons and scavenge the radicals. The efficiency of these entities goes up to around 100 times the leading antioxidants. Oxidation causes cell death & damage and also deterioration of plastics, food spoilage and metal corrosion and so the application of fullerene based on this property .
There are rejuvenated creams based on vitamin C60 which had replaced vitamin E (released by nano-c in japan). Also other fullerene derivatives like PEG modified fullerene, hydroxy fullerene and isostearate mixed fullerene act as great radical scavengers similar to ascorbic acid or its 2-o-phosphorylated derivative and are also used in similar other applications. C60, vitamin E, and three C60 derivatives have been shown to prevent lipid peroxidation induced by superoxide and hydroxyl radicals and on these lines we have a product called oilfresh 1000, which is used in restaurants for deep frying machines and gives crispier, better tasting and better consistency deep fried foods.
Another application is the Zelen Fullerene C60 Day Cream which incorporates nanoscale C60 Fullerene and it turns out that the material has remarkable antioxidant properties. Zelens claims its newly released day cream is the first to harness the power of Fullerene C-60 carbon for cosmetics applications. That helps to explain the products £150 ($250) price tag.
Fibers and Fabrics with Carbon Nanotubes-CNTs Fibers spun of pure Carbon Nanotubes (CNTs) have recently been demonstrated and are undergoing rapid development, along with Carbon Nanotubes (CNTs) composite fibers. Such super-strong fibers will have many applications including body and vehicle armor, transmission line cables, woven fabrics and textiles.