Elections, voting, and voter behavior


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Elections, voting, and voter behavior

  1. 1. Elections, Voting, and Voter Behavior<br />
  2. 2. Outline<br />Nominating Candidates<br />Caucuses & Conventions<br />Primary Elections<br />Petition<br />Nominating Presidential Candidates<br />Elections and Campaigns<br />Regulating Elections<br />Financing Elections<br />Hard & Soft Money<br />Presidential Elections<br />Voting Rights and Voting Laws<br />History<br />Laws<br />Voter Behavior<br />Influences on Voting Decisions<br />Voters and Nonvoters<br />
  3. 3. Nominating Candidates<br />Nominate: select a candidate to run for office<br />4 methods for being on the ballot:<br />Caucus<br />Convention<br />Direct primary<br />petition<br />
  4. 4. The Caucus & Convention<br />Caucus: party leaders meet and decide who will run for office<br />Nominating convention: public meeting of party members to choose candidates<br />Party bosses: influential party leaders<br />
  5. 5. Primary Election<br />Direct primary election: several candidates from the same party run against each other for the nomination<br />Two types of primary:<br />Closed primary: limited to registered members of political parties<br />Open primary: any registered voter<br />
  6. 6. Nomination by Petition<br />Petition: piece of paper that states a person wishes to run for office, a number of signatures is required to be considered.<br />The more important the office, the more signatures needed<br />
  7. 7. 2008 Presidential Primaries<br />General Election<br />
  8. 8. Elections & Campaigns<br />Right to vote=basic to democracy<br />Election Day<br />Regulating Elections:<br />State v. Federal laws<br />Election dates (1st Tuesday, following the 1st Monday in November)<br />Help America Vote Act (2002)<br />
  9. 9. Financing Elections<br />Campaigns require lots of money:<br />Offices<br />Campaign workers<br />Advertisements<br />Websites<br />Where does the money come from?<br />Private donors (expect favors)<br />Public money ($3 contribution on income tax)<br />
  10. 10. Campaign Finance Laws<br />Political Action Committee (PAC): a political organization formed by special interest groups such as companies and labor and professional organizations. <br />Examples: National Rifle Association (NRA), The American Medical Association (AMA), etc. <br />
  11. 11. Hard & Soft Money<br />Hard Money<br />Regulated by laws<br />Money raised and spent by candidate themselves<br />Soft Money<br />No real laws<br />Money raised and spent on “party building” activities<br />2002 Bipartisan Campaign Reform Act: The goal was to ban soft money, however, the result was that by the 2004 election, politicians had found a loophole by setting up Section 527 organizations. Much like PACs except these groups were not regulated. <br />
  12. 12. Presidential Elections<br />Electoral College<br />January 6th (Congress counts votes)<br />Election night news coverage<br />Popular vote: total number of votes cast by citizens<br />Electoral vote: number of votes that states have in the electoral college<br />
  13. 13. Electoral College Map<br />
  14. 14. Voting Rights<br />African Americans were not considered citizens until 1868<br />Women couldn’t vote until 1920<br />Native Americans were not granted citizenship until 1924<br />Youth vote was extended in 1971<br />Suffragist: people who supported the right to vote for women<br />
  15. 15. Voting Rights Laws<br />Law<br />Fifteenth Amendment<br />Voting Rights Act of 1965<br />Twenty Fourth Amendment<br />Interference<br />Grandfather clause<br />Literacy test<br />Poll tax<br />
  16. 16. Voter Behavior<br />Registered Voters<br />Why do some citizens vote in every election and some never vote?<br />
  17. 17. Voter Generalizations<br />Democratic<br /><ul><li>Younger voters
  18. 18. African-Americans
  19. 19. High school graduates
  20. 20. Women (slightly more)
  21. 21. Catholics
  22. 22. Jews
  23. 23. Immigrants
  24. 24. Urban areas</li></ul>Republican<br /><ul><li>High income
  25. 25. College graduates
  26. 26. Protestants
  27. 27. Some Latinos
  28. 28. Suburbs, rural areas</li></ul>Straight-ticket voting: voting only for a party’s candidates<br />
  29. 29. Voters & Nonvoters<br />Voters<br />College graduates<br />Higher income<br />Over 45<br />64+ highest voting rates<br />Women more than men<br />Married people<br />Don’t move around<br />Religious attendees<br />Nonvoters<br />High School graduates or less<br />Low income<br />Youth<br />Single people<br />People who move around<br />Political efficacy: the idea that a person can influence government by voting.<br />
  30. 30. Why don’t people vote?<br />Don’t meet residency requirements<br />Never registered<br />Feel little will change<br />Happy with the status-quo<br />No sense of political efficacy<br />Average nonvoter= male, under 35, single, low level of education, works at unskilled jobs<br />