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The Judicial Branch


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The Judicial Branch

  1. 1. The Judicial Branch INTERPRETS LAWS
  2. 2. The Federal Court System <ul><li>Organization of the Federal Courts </li></ul><ul><ul><li>The Lower Federal Courts </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Constitutional Courts </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Special Courts </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Appointing Federal Judges </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Judicial Jurisdiction and Power </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Jurisdiction of Federal Courts </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Power of Judicial review </li></ul></ul>
  3. 3. Organization of the Federal Courts <ul><li>Lower courts set up by Congress </li></ul><ul><li>Federal courts deal with: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Cases involving the Constitution </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Federal Laws </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Certain, other issues </li></ul></ul><ul><li>States have their own system of courts </li></ul>
  4. 7. Your Supreme Court Justices Anthony Kennedy John Paul Stevens Chief Justice John Roberts Antonin Scalia Clarence Thomas Samuel Alito Ruth Bader Ginsberg Stephen Breyer Sonia Sotomayor
  5. 8. Presidential Appointments Chief Justice John Roberts (2005-Present) George W. Bush John Paul Stevens (1975-Present) Gerald Ford Antonin Scalia (1986-Present) Ronald Reagan Anthony Kennedy (1988-Present) Ronald Reagan Clarence Thomas (1991-Present) George H. W. Bush Ruth Bader Ginsberg (1993-Present) Bill Clinton Stephen Breyer (1994-Present) Bill Clinton Sonia Sotomayor (2009-Present) Barack Obama Samuel Alito (2006-Present) George W. Bush
  6. 9. Judicial Jurisdiction and Power <ul><li>Jurisdiction: authority to hear only certain cases </li></ul><ul><li>Original jurisdiction: first time case </li></ul><ul><li>Appellate jurisdiction: appeals </li></ul><ul><li>Judicial Review: landmark supreme court case declared federal law unconstitutional. Court took for itself the power to review acts of Congress. </li></ul><ul><li>Marbury v. Madison (1803): </li></ul><ul><ul><li>ruled Judiciary Act of 1789 unconstitutional. Established Judicial Review. </li></ul></ul>Landmark Supreme Court Case
  7. 11. The Supreme Court at Work <ul><li>How the Court Process Works </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Getting on the Court’s Calendar </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>The Decision-Making Process </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Influences on the Supreme Court </li></ul><ul><ul><li>The Basic Guides </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>The Justices </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>United States Society </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>The Executive and Legislative Branches </li></ul></ul><ul><li>The Supreme Court and National Policy </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Judicial Review and Interpreting the Law </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Reversing Past Decisions </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Limits on the Supreme Court </li></ul></ul>
  8. 12. How the Court Process Works <ul><li>Justices hear cases from October to May </li></ul><ul><li>Oral Arguments: presentations lawyers make before the justices. </li></ul><ul><li>Conferences: make decisions/rulings, pick new cases </li></ul><ul><li>Law Clerks: do legal research (students) </li></ul>
  9. 14. Getting on the Calendar <ul><li>Writ of Certiorari: legal request for hearing </li></ul><ul><li>Rule of Four: Need 4 justices to agree to take the case </li></ul><ul><li>Why do justices take cases? </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Raises an important constitutional or legal question </li></ul></ul>
  10. 15. The Decision Making Process <ul><li>Brief: documents with legal arguments for a side </li></ul><ul><li>Precedent: similar case that has already been decided </li></ul><ul><li>Amicus Curiae Brief: friend of the court </li></ul><ul><li>Swing Vote: decides a tie </li></ul><ul><li>Opinion: legal reasons for a decision </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Unanimous opinion </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Majority opinion </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Concurring opinion </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Dissenting opinion </li></ul></ul>
  11. 16. Influences on the Supreme Court <ul><li>Backgrounds of Justices </li></ul><ul><li>Public Opinion </li></ul><ul><li>Interpretations </li></ul><ul><li>Views/philosophies </li></ul>Liberal Conservative Loose Constructionist Strict Constructionist Moderate
  12. 17. Limits on the Judicial Branch <ul><li>Court Packing </li></ul><ul><li>Impact Laws </li></ul><ul><li>Amendments </li></ul><ul><li>Appointments </li></ul><ul><li>Senate Judiciary Committee </li></ul><ul><li>Senate Confirmation/Refusal </li></ul><ul><li>Impeachment </li></ul><ul><li>Lack of enforcement power </li></ul>
  13. 18. National Public Policy <ul><li>Judicial Review has struck down 150 federal laws and over 1,000 state & local laws </li></ul><ul><li>Reversing: overturn a previous decision </li></ul><ul><li>How does this affect public policy? </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Congress tends not to pass similar laws </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Affects how laws are executed ( Miranda ) </li></ul></ul>
  14. 19. Segregation 1954 Brown v. Board of Education Women & the Draft 1981 Rostker v. Goldberg Drug Testing of Students 1995 Vernonia School District v. Acton Separation of Powers 1974 U.S. v. Nixon Right to Privacy 1973 Roe v. Wade Voting Age 1970 Oregon v. Mitchell Rights of the Accused 1966 Miranda v. Arizona Right to Counsel 1963 Gideon v. Wainwright School Prayer 1962 Engel v. Vitale