Ch 13 Sec 3,4,5


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Ch 13 Sec 3,4,5

  1. 1. Presidential Elections Chapter 13 Sections 3,4,5
  2. 2. Topics <ul><li>Original Provisions </li></ul><ul><li>The Nominating process </li></ul><ul><li>The Electoral College </li></ul><ul><li>Flaws of the Electoral College. </li></ul>
  3. 3. I. Original Provisions <ul><li>Why an electoral College? </li></ul><ul><li>Flaws with the Electoral college </li></ul><ul><li>The Election of 1800 </li></ul>
  4. 4. A. Why an electoral College? <ul><li>Who should elect the President? </li></ul><ul><ul><li>The People?? </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>The Country is too Big </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Masses are ignorant and unruly </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Congress?? </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Violates separation of powers </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>A Compromise: The Electoral college </li></ul><ul><ul><li>People voted for electors </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Electors cast 2 electoral votes. </li></ul></ul>
  5. 6. B. Flaws with the Electoral College <ul><li>Election of 1796 </li></ul><ul><ul><li>John Adams wins the Pres. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Jefferson gets the V.P. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>They are from different parties </li></ul></ul><ul><li>By 1800, Political Parties emerged </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Federalists vs. Democratic Republicans </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Election caused a tie between Burr and Jefferson </li></ul></ul>
  6. 9. C. The Election of 1800 <ul><li>Election demonstrated need for change </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Parties nominate for President and V.P. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Parties select electors, usually loyal ones </li></ul></ul><ul><li>The 12 th Amendment </li></ul><ul><ul><li>President and V.P. are selected separately </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Electors cast a vote for the President and one for the V.P. </li></ul></ul>
  7. 10. II. The Nominating process <ul><li>Convention Basics </li></ul><ul><li>Presidential Primaries </li></ul><ul><li>Primaries and counting the vote </li></ul><ul><li>Party caucus </li></ul><ul><li>The National Convention </li></ul>
  8. 11. A. Convention Basics <ul><li>Conventions are not in the constitution </li></ul><ul><li>State law and party rules fix the process for picking delegates </li></ul><ul><li>Factions within a party will compete </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Delegates are won at Primaries and caucuses </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Delegates will nominate a new Presidential candidate </li></ul></ul><ul><li>The purpose is for the party to select a candidate </li></ul>
  9. 13. B. Presidential Primaries <ul><li>Most common method. </li></ul><ul><li>Primary is an election in which a party’s voters: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Express a preference who they want to run as that party’s representative for president </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Select delegates to the national convention </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Closed Primary : only party members vote </li></ul><ul><li>Open Primary : all eligible voters </li></ul>
  10. 14. C. Primaries and counting the vote <ul><li>Two methods are used to select a nominee in the primary process: </li></ul><ul><li>Proportional representation </li></ul><ul><ul><li>each candidate gets the same proportion of delegates as the percentage of votes he or she garnered in the primary. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>winner-take-all : </li></ul><ul><ul><li>If candidate wins 51% of vote, they get all the delegates. </li></ul></ul>
  11. 15. D. Party caucus <ul><li>Used by few states </li></ul><ul><li>Party voters meet at precinct level </li></ul><ul><ul><li>delegates are chosen for the national convention </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Delegates pledge vote for a candidate </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Iowa always holds it caucus first </li></ul>
  12. 17. E. The National Convention <ul><li>Delegates meet at a national convention to select their party candidate for president. </li></ul><ul><li>National Conventions accomplish 3 main goals: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Name the party’s president and vice-presidential candidates. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Unite the party after all this division. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Adopt the party’s platform. </li></ul></ul>
  13. 18. III. The Electoral College <ul><li>Do the Electors matter? </li></ul><ul><li>Winner take all…. </li></ul><ul><li>Counting electoral votes </li></ul>
  14. 19. A. Do the Electors matter? <ul><li>When we vote for President, we actually vote for a slate of electors in our state who in turn votes for the President and Vice President. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Originally the Framers intended for these electors to use their best judgment in choosing the President. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Today these electors are merely rubber stamps for the majority vote of a particular state. </li></ul></ul>
  15. 21. B. Winner take all… <ul><li>The electors are chosen by popular vote in each state. </li></ul><ul><li>the candidate who receives the majority of votes in a state will get all of that states electors. </li></ul><ul><li>It is possible to win the electoral vote and not the Popular. </li></ul>
  16. 22. <ul><li>Electors Pop Vote Electoral College </li></ul><ul><li>Candidates A B </li></ul><ul><li>State A 10 6/4 10 </li></ul><ul><li>B 20 4/16 20 </li></ul><ul><li>C 15 8/7 15 </li></ul><ul><li>D 8 5/3 8 </li></ul><ul><li>Totals 23/30 33/20 </li></ul><ul><li>In other words candidate B received the most </li></ul><ul><li>popular votes but lost the electoral college. </li></ul>
  17. 24. C. Counting Electoral Votes <ul><li>The electors meet on the Monday following the second Wednesday in December and cast a vote for President and on second ballot the Vice President.` </li></ul><ul><li>If no candidate receives a majority of electoral votes (270/538) then the House of Representatives votes on who will become president. </li></ul>
  18. 25. <ul><li>This is done through state delegations, with each state having one vote so that 26 must vote for one candidate for that person to become President. (Two thirds of the states must be present to establish a quorum) In the case of no majority, then the person chosen to be Vice President shall be President. If no one is chosen to be Vice President, then the Senate shall choose a Vice President who in turn will become President. I kid you not. See the 12 th Amendment! </li></ul>
  19. 26. IV. Flaws of the Electoral College <ul><li>Winner take All problem </li></ul><ul><li>The Faithless elector </li></ul><ul><li>Issues with the House. </li></ul>
  20. 27. A. The Winner take all problem <ul><li>The biggest flaw in the electoral college is that the winner of the popular vote will not win the presidency. (ask Gore) </li></ul><ul><li>Also the electoral college calls into question the validity of our democracy. If a candidate can be elected who did not get the most votes, then is this truly a democracy </li></ul>
  21. 28. B. The faithless elector <ul><li>Electors are not required to vote for the candidate favored by the vote. </li></ul><ul><li>Faithless electors have changed their vote 9 times. </li></ul><ul><li>It has never affected the outcome of an election. </li></ul>
  22. 29. <ul><li>If the election goes to the House, votes are cast by state delegation. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>California = Wyoming </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Need a majority to win. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Third party could make it impossible to get a majority. </li></ul></ul>C. Issues with the House
  23. 31. Possible Reforms <ul><li>The District Plan </li></ul><ul><li>The Proportional Plan </li></ul><ul><li>Direct Popular Election </li></ul><ul><li>The National Bonus Plan </li></ul>
  24. 32. What we know… <ul><li>How does the electoral college work? </li></ul><ul><li>How did the 12 th amendment change the way presidents are elected? </li></ul><ul><li>How do primaries and caucuses differ? </li></ul><ul><li>What is the difference between proportional and a winner-take-all system? </li></ul><ul><li>What is a party platform? </li></ul><ul><li>Will the electoral college be reformed? </li></ul>
  25. 33. Terms <ul><li>Electors </li></ul><ul><li>Electoral college </li></ul><ul><li>12 th amendment </li></ul><ul><li>Primary </li></ul><ul><li>Caucus </li></ul><ul><li>Winner take all </li></ul><ul><li>Proportional representation </li></ul><ul><li>National convention </li></ul><ul><li>Platform </li></ul><ul><li>District plan </li></ul><ul><li>Proportional plan </li></ul><ul><li>Direct popular election </li></ul><ul><li>National bonus plan </li></ul>