Chapter 7: Electoral Process


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Chapter 7: Electoral Process

  1. 1. Chapter 7: The Electoral Process <ul><li>Section 1: The Nominating Process </li></ul>
  2. 2. A Critical First Step <ul><li>NOMINATION is the naming of those who will seek office and is critically important. </li></ul><ul><li>General Elections - </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>REGULARLY scheduled elections at which voters make the final selection of officeholders </li></ul></ul></ul>
  3. 3. 5 ways they are made <ul><li>SELF ANNOUNCEMENT - oldest form of the nominating process. A person who wants to run simply announces their intentions. Usually used by someone who failed to win a regular party nomination. </li></ul>
  4. 4. <ul><li>The Caucus - A CAUCUS is a group of like-minded people who meet to select the candidates they will support in an upcoming election. </li></ul><ul><li>The Convention </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Party members meet in a local caucus to pick candidates for office. Big party where they decide on a candidate. </li></ul></ul></ul>
  5. 5. <ul><li>DIRECT PRIMARY - is an intra-party election. It is held within a party to pick that party’s candidates for the general election. Law closely regulates them. </li></ul>
  6. 6. <ul><li>Closed Primary - </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>27 states and D.C. party nominating election in which only declared party members can vote. Party membership is established by registration </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>Open Primary </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>any qualified voter can take part only in 23 states. They ask for the ballot of the party that they want to participate in. </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>Blanket Primary </li></ul>
  7. 7. <ul><li>Blanket Primary - </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Lists every candidate regardless of party. Voters may participate how they choose. </li></ul></ul></ul>
  8. 8. <ul><li>Arguments favoring closed primaries </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>It prevents one party from raiding the others </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>It helps make candidates more responsive to the party, platform and members </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>It helps make voters more thoughtful because they have to pick a party </li></ul></ul></ul>
  9. 9. <ul><li>Arguments favoring OPEN PRIMARIES </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Voters do not have to make their party preferences known in public </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Does not exclude independents as much. </li></ul></ul></ul>
  10. 10. <ul><li>Runoff Primary - </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>if no one wins a majority in a race a runoff primary is held. Top two vote getters participate </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>Non partisan primary </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>elections in which candidates are not identified by party labels </li></ul></ul></ul>
  11. 11. <ul><li>Petition </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Candidates for public office are nominated by means of petitions signed by a certain required number of qualified votes in the election district. Found most widely on the local level, chiefly for nonpartisan school posts and municipal offices. </li></ul></ul></ul>
  12. 12. <ul><li>Administration of Elections - </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Extent of federal control - </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>most election law is state, not federal, law but there is a body of federal election law. Example restrictions: time, place, manner, required secret ballots, and use of voting machine restrictions. </li></ul></ul></ul></ul></ul>Section 2: Elections
  13. 13. <ul><li>WHEN ELECTIONS ARE HELD - most states hold their elections to fill State offices on the same date Congress has set for national elections. In NOVEMBER of every even-numbered year. Usually the “Tuesday after the first Monday” </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Virginia, though, elects State officials in November of odd-numbered years </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>City and county elections vary from state to state </li></ul></ul></ul>
  14. 14. <ul><li>Early Voting </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Absentee </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Voting by those unable to get to their regular polling places on election day. 1. ill or disabled 2. those away (business trip, college) 3. those in the armed forces </li></ul></ul></ul>
  15. 15. <ul><li>Coattail Effect </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>A strong candidate running for an office at the top of the ballot helps attract voters to other candidates on the party’s ticket. </li></ul></ul></ul>
  16. 16. <ul><li>Precinct - </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>voting district, state laws restrict their size to 500-1,000 qualified voters </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>POLLING PLACE </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>the place where the voters who live in a precinct actually vote </li></ul></ul></ul>
  17. 17. <ul><li>BALLOT - a device by which a voter registers choice in an election </li></ul><ul><li>Australian Ballot - </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>printed at public expense, lists the names of all candidates in an election, given out only at the polls, one to each person, and it is marked in secret </li></ul></ul></ul>Casting the Ballot
  18. 18. <ul><li>Office Group Ballot </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>original form of Australian ballot. Candidates for office are grouped together under the title of the office </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>Party Column Ballot </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>lists each party’s candidates in a column under the party’s name. Encourages straight ticket voting </li></ul></ul></ul>
  19. 19. <ul><li>Sample Ballots </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>practice. help voters prepare for election </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>Bed Sheet Ballots </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>frequently lists so many offices, candidates and ballot measures that even the most well-informed voters have a difficult time marking it intelligently, longest are found at the local level </li></ul></ul></ul>
  20. 20. <ul><li>Voting machines and innovations </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>pulling a lever, the voter enclouses himself or herself within a three sided curtain, and the machine itself becomes the fourth side of the voting booth </li></ul></ul></ul>
  21. 21. <ul><li>Electronic Vote Counting - </li></ul><ul><li>first applied in the 1960s. Punch card counted by computers </li></ul><ul><li>Vote by Mail Elections - </li></ul><ul><li>mail ballots back, get them in mail, confined to the local level because they are controversial </li></ul>
  22. 22. <ul><li>ONLINE VOTING - </li></ul><ul><li>e-voting, or casting ballots on the Internet will likely become widespread, perhaps even commonplace, in the next few years or so. Many people fear a digital “disaster.” </li></ul>
  23. 23. <ul><li>Two sources of funding...public and private </li></ul><ul><li>Small Contributors - $5 to $10. This is 10% of voting aged people </li></ul><ul><li>Wealthy individuals </li></ul><ul><li>Candidates - incumbents and challengers </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Ross Perot spent 65 million out of pocket </li></ul></ul></ul>
  24. 24. <ul><li>Various non-party groups, such as PACs </li></ul><ul><li>Temporary organizations, groups developed for the short term pupose of campaign fund raising </li></ul><ul><li>Benefits </li></ul><ul><li>Subsidy - a grant of money, from the federal or state treasuries </li></ul>
  25. 25. <ul><li>Regulations are found in detailed laws </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Federal Election Campaign Act (FECA) </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>FECA Amendments </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Bipartisan Campaign Reform Act of 2002 </li></ul></ul></ul>Regulating
  26. 26. FEC <ul><li>Federal Election Commission administers all federal law dealing with campaign finance </li></ul><ul><li>Established in 1974 as an independent agency in the executive branch. </li></ul>
  27. 27. <ul><li>What they do...make sure you have.. </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>timely disclosure of campaign finance data </li></ul></ul></ul>
  28. 28. <ul><li>Place limits on contributions </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>an individual can give no more than $2,000 to a single, federal candidate. </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>No person can give more than $2,000 to a federal candidates general election campaign </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>A person can give no more than $5,000 to a PAC </li></ul></ul></ul>
  29. 29. <ul><li>A person can give no more than $25,000 to a national party committee </li></ul><ul><li>Total contributions can be no more than $95,000 in an election cycle </li></ul>
  30. 30. <ul><li>Place limits on campaign expenditures </li></ul><ul><li>Provide public funding (subsidies) for several parts of the presidential election process </li></ul>
  31. 31. <ul><li>Hard money </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>money raised and spend to elect candidates for Congress and the White House </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>Soft money </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>funds given to party organizations for such “party building activities” as candidate recruitment, voter registration get out the vote drives </li></ul></ul></ul>
  32. 32. <ul><li>BiPartisan Campaign Reform Act of 2002 - McCain Feingold Bill - </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>aimed at the soft money problem. Bans soft money contributions to political parties, in particular, to their national and congressional campaign committees </li></ul></ul></ul>
  33. 33. <ul><li>Political Action Committees </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>There are 4,000 PACs registered </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Distribute money to those candidates who </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>are sympathetic to its goals </li></ul></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>have a reasonable chance of winning </li></ul></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>No PAC can give more than $5,000 to any one federal candidate in an election, or $10,000 per election cycle </li></ul></ul></ul>
  34. 34. <ul><li>There is no overall limit on PAC giving to candidates (they can give how ever many candidates they want $5,000 each) </li></ul><ul><li>Can contribute up to $15,000 a year to a political party </li></ul><ul><li>PACs put an estimated $400 million into the presidential and congressional campaigns in 2000 </li></ul>