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  1. 1. Rural/Urban
  2. 2. Terms <ul><li>Filtering – leaving poorer quality housing (in city centre), to move towards better quality housing in sub-urbs. </li></ul><ul><li>Gentrification – improvement and upgrading of older properties in inner city areas. Poor move out, rich move in. </li></ul><ul><li>Studentification – concentration of students in an area, usually close to a university. </li></ul>
  3. 3. Studentification <ul><li>Positives: </li></ul><ul><li>Regenerates poorer areas </li></ul><ul><li>Housing stock improved </li></ul><ul><li>Students spending improves local economy </li></ul><ul><li>Negatives </li></ul><ul><li>Property values increase </li></ul><ul><li>Students seem to care less about environment </li></ul><ul><li>Young may clash with older residents </li></ul>
  4. 4. Changes brought by studentification <ul><li>Retail – pubs concerted into theme bars </li></ul><ul><li>- increase in fast food restaurants </li></ul><ul><li>- diversification and upgrade of retail services </li></ul><ul><li>Housing – prices increase – demand greater than supply </li></ul><ul><li>- multi-occupancy </li></ul><ul><li>- unkempt gardens </li></ul><ul><li>- </li></ul>
  5. 5. Ghettos <ul><li>A portion of a city were members of a minority group live because of social, legal or economic pressures </li></ul><ul><li>Reasons why they are formed – when the majority uses force (violence, hostility) to force minorities into particular areas. When economic conditions make it difficult for minorities to live in non-minorities areas </li></ul>
  6. 6. Gated communities <ul><li>An area of wealthy private housing, these can have high walls and fences and may have controlled entrances for residents, visitors and their cars </li></ul><ul><li>Long history – royal palaces, monasteries </li></ul>
  7. 7. Case Study Cardiff CBD Characteristics <ul><li>Tall buildings, </li></ul><ul><li>Public buildings e.g. Cardiff town hall, </li></ul><ul><li>markets, </li></ul><ul><li>busy – many pedestrians, also nightlife, </li></ul><ul><li>Shopping centres, </li></ul><ul><li>very old buildings, historic/old street patterns, </li></ul><ul><li>very accessible – public transport and traffic management, </li></ul><ul><li>Entertainment - pubs. Restaurants, cinema </li></ul>
  8. 8. Causes of traffic problems in Cardiff <ul><li>CBD = Oldest part of the city, not able to cope with high traffic flows </li></ul><ul><li>Increased car ownership </li></ul><ul><li>Decline in rail service, more people on the road </li></ul><ul><li>More people travelling in for entertainment and work </li></ul>
  9. 9. Problems of Traffic <ul><li>Heavy traffic congestion makes people late </li></ul><ul><li>Slow moving traffic </li></ul><ul><li>High pollution levels </li></ul><ul><li>Lost working hours costs employers </li></ul><ul><li>Shortage of parking </li></ul><ul><li>Problems for emergency services </li></ul>
  10. 10. Solutions of Traffic problems <ul><li>Multi-story car parks </li></ul><ul><li>Cycle lanes and bus lanes </li></ul><ul><li>One way streets </li></ul><ul><li>Rising bollards </li></ul><ul><li>Public transport </li></ul><ul><li>Pedestrianised areas </li></ul>
  11. 11. Issues facing the CBD <ul><li>Land more expensive, build up or down, higher buildings </li></ul><ul><li>Movement of shops out of city </li></ul><ul><li>CBD oldest buildings </li></ul><ul><li>Decline in CBD – hole in doughnut </li></ul><ul><li>Online shopping </li></ul>
  12. 12. Rural-Urban fringe
  13. 13. Identify <ul><li>Large open spaces </li></ul><ul><li>Density of population is considerably lower </li></ul><ul><li>Distance between towns is greater </li></ul><ul><li>Agriculture more dominant </li></ul><ul><li>Less major roads </li></ul><ul><li>Levels of commuting decreases </li></ul><ul><li>Environmental quality higher </li></ul>
  14. 14. Recent changes in the rural-urban fringe <ul><li>Environmental: the built environment – often pay no attention to the existing rural environment </li></ul><ul><li>Communication: motorway junctions = more vehicles creating gas and noise pollution </li></ul><ul><li>Economic: smaller shops and services in small towns have to shut as they cant compete with bigger out of town shopping centres </li></ul><ul><li>Socio-political: urbanites now form the majority – may bring anti-social habits – graffiti ect. </li></ul>
  15. 15. Notes on rural-urban fringe <ul><li>Greenbelt prevents cities from growing </li></ul><ul><li>Pressure to greenbelt - shopping </li></ul><ul><li>- roads </li></ul><ul><li>- industrial estates </li></ul><ul><li>- housing </li></ul><ul><li>- stadium </li></ul><ul><li>Reasons for building – cheap </li></ul><ul><li>- easy to build on </li></ul><ul><li>- close to motorway </li></ul>
  16. 16. Counterurbanisation <ul><li>Urban-rural migration. Many retain their urban jobs by commuting </li></ul>
  17. 17. Urban population movement <ul><li>Phase 1 Urbanisation – core is dominant, providing jobs </li></ul><ul><li>Phase 2 – sub-urbanisation: increased affluence and better transport allowing people to move to the suburbs </li></ul><ul><li>Phase 3 – suburbanisation and counter-urbanisation are the dominant trends – UK and USA </li></ul>
  18. 18. Who's moving + Why <ul><li>The most affluent and mobile people </li></ul><ul><li>Families with children </li></ul><ul><li>Pull – rural dream, pleasant surroundings, quiet, estate agents and housing developers all encourage outward movement </li></ul><ul><li>Push of Urban – traffic congestion, pollution, fear of crime </li></ul><ul><li>Technological change – upgrades in technology lead to people working at home. TV, telephone, allows people to live rural but not in isolation </li></ul><ul><li>Improvements in road – make commuting easier </li></ul>
  19. 19. Consequences <ul><li>Negatives </li></ul><ul><li>House prices go up – local young people cannot afford property </li></ul><ul><li>Local resentment </li></ul><ul><li>Lack of appreciation of traditions by newcomers </li></ul><ul><li>Increase in population </li></ul><ul><li>Increased cars cause pollution and accidents </li></ul><ul><li>Positives </li></ul><ul><li>Improvements in service </li></ul><ul><li>support for some local facilities - pubs </li></ul>
  20. 20. Case Study: Llanwit Major <ul><li>Accessibility to Cardiff due to A48 + M4 </li></ul><ul><li>Services and facilities – a leisure centre, 2 supermarkets, several primary and comprehensive schools, a doctors surgery, library </li></ul><ul><li>Available Housing – many former barns have been converted, expensive, modern </li></ul><ul><li>Attractive local environment </li></ul><ul><li>Industrial estate close by provides many jobs, built on a Brownfield site – so cheap, trading, business + retail. Access is good. More pleasant working environment. </li></ul>