RURAL HOUSING CONTEXT• There are divergent views on what constitutes “rural areas”, where rural “ends” and urban “begins”. There is no universally accepted definition and it may be useful to adopt the approach of UN Habitat in viewing urban and rural as a continuum of settlements and emphasize the linkages between urban areas and rural areas.• Such linkages often take the form of flows of capital, labor and goods between urban and rural areas. E.g. urban areas are dependent on the import of food from rural areas which are in turn dependent on the urban manufacturing base for goods and high order services.
“RURAL AREAS” - CHARACTERISTICS• Rural areas are often referred to as those areas outside of the city or urban boundary or periphery where populations are spatially dispersed.• Agriculture is the main economic activity that provides job opportunities. In these areas opportunities for socio-economic development are often perceived as limited, leading to the migration of able bodied individuals to the “bright city lights” and leaving a residual of generally vulnerable, under educated, aged and very young population.• These households are often largely dependent on social grants and remittances from family members working in the cities.
“RURAL HOUSEHOLDS” - CHARACTERISTICS• Their income is constrained as the rural economy is not sufficiently vibrant to provide them with jobs or self – employment opportunities.• Women form the majority of the rural population and female- headed households are particularly disadvantaged.• Their cost of living is high because they spend relatively more on basic social services such as food and water, shelter, energy, health and education, and transport and communications services.• The poorest households also have low levels of literacy and education.
“RURAL – URBAN” - CONNECTIONS• Rural housing has been marginalized both in wider policy discussions as well as within the debate on rural issues because rural housing needs are generally subordinated to urban housing needs in policy priority.• The important difference between rural and urban contexts is the level of income needed to avoid poverty is the key difference.• In urban areas there is a very high proportion of income going toward non-food items such as rent, public transport, payment to water vendors and for pay-as-you use public toilets, keeping children at school, health care/medicines, and informal payments to stop homes being demolished or to be allowed to sell goods on the street.
“RURAL – URBAN” - CONNECTIONS Rural UrbanLivelihoods drawn from agriculture, livestock, forestry Livelihoods drawn from labour markets within non-or fishing (i.e. key for livelihood is access to natural agricultural production or making/selling goods orcapital) servicesAccess to land for housing and building materials Access to land for housing very difficult; housing andnot generally a problem land markets highly commercialisedMore distant from government More vulnerable to >bad= governance Access to infrastructure and services difficultAccess to infrastructure and services limited (largely because of high prices, illegal status and poorbecause of distance/low density?) governanceLess opportunities for earning cash; more for self Greater reliance on cash for access to food, water,provisioning sanitation, employment, garbage disposal....... Greater reliance on house as an economic resource (asset, location for production, income-earner)Urban characteristics in rural locations (e.g. Rural characteristics in urban locations (urbanprosperous tourist areas, mining areas, areas with agriculture, >village= enclaves, access to land forhigh value crops and many local multiplier links ) housing through non-monetary traditional forms)
DEMOGRAPHIC TRENDS AND HOUSING NEEDS• Estimated population in India in 2001 was 1029 million, a growth of 18.1 per cent from 1991.• Nearly 72 per cent of the Indian population lives in rural areas. The total number of households in rural India is 143 million (Census, 2001).• Two trends, which will have significant impact on the rural population are (i) declining fertility and (ii) increasing urbanization.
HOUSING SUPPLY AND ACCESS• A measure of housing construction activity, in rural India, is the number of new housing completions.• During 1991– 2001, 34.56 million new houses were added to the stock. During this period 25.61 million new households were formed.• Translating these figures into number of houses completed per thousand people indicates that while in 1971–81, 3.66 houses were completed per 1000 persons and the figure for 1991–2001 is 4.65. The number of new house construction, at 4.65 houses per 1000 persons, is still quite low compared to urban areas where new completions are around 7 housing unit per 1000 persons.
TENURE• Home ownership is the dominant form of tenure in rural India with more than 95 per cent households owning their homes (Table 10.3). The percentage of rental tenure is 4.6 per cent. These are mainly the houses rented to farm workers by landlords.
HOUSING CONDITIONS• Mismatch between housing stock and the number of households represents only one aspect of housing inadequacy. The other aspect of housing inadequacy is reflected in the mismatch between desired and actual housing quality.• In rural India, mismatch between required and available housing stock is not as stark as urban areas but the quality of house leaves much to be desired.• The first measure of Housing quality is by type of structure.• The second measure is the number of rooms per house.
HOUSING CONDITIONSTYPE OF STRUCTURE•Based on building materials used for construction of structure,houses have been classified as•pucca (building materials used for construction are brick andmortar and other permanent materials),•semi-pucca (building materials used for part of theconstruction of either the roof or the walls are mud or thatch)•kutcha (materials used for construction are mud and thatch).
HOUSING CONDITIONSNUMBER OF ROOMS PER HOUSE•In 2001, 39.8 per cent of rural households lived in one-roomhouses, 68.5 per cent of households were living in houses withone or two rooms.•Though there has been progress, the average size of ruralhomes is disproportionately small compared to the average sizeof households.•For an average household size of 5.2, the sizes of homes aresmall. Overcrowding in existing homes is the main cause of newhousehold formation and this is driving the demand for newhouses in the rural areas.
NUMBER OF ROOMS PER HOUSETYPE OF STRUCTUREThe trend indicates that the share of puccahouses in total has increased from 18.5 percent in 1971 to 35.4 per cent in 2001.
HOUSING CONDITIONSSTRUCTURAL CONDITION•According to Census (2001),•only 45 per cent (58.10 million) of residential and 42.2 per cent (2.52million) of nonresidential houses are in good condition.•48.7 per cent (62.81 million) of residential and 53.3 per cent (3.2million) of nonresidential houses have been classified as livable.•6.3 per cent (8.14 million) of residential and 4.5 per cent (0.27 million)of non-residential houses are in dilapidated condition.•Replacement needs for dilapidated and a part of livable houseswould add to the demand for housing in rural areas in the future.
HOUSING CONDITIONSPRESENCE OF EXCLUSIVE AMENITIES such as drinking water, toiletand electricity.• According to Census (2001), nearly 80.5 per cent of households had access to safe drinking water in 2001. There has been steady progress in access to safe drinking water over the two decades preceding 2001. In 1981, only 26.3 per cent of households had access to safe drinking water.
HOUSING CONDITIONSPRESENCE OF EXCLUSIVE AMENITIES such as drinking water, toiletand electricity.• The situation of access to exclusive toilet is shabby and in 2001, only 21.9 percent of households had access to toilet facilities. As for electricity connection, only 43 per cent of houses had electricity connection in 2001, though this proportion has increased from 14 per cent in 1981.
HOUSEHOLD ASSET AND LIABILITY STRUCTURENEED•Understanding of asset holding andliability structure of households isimportant for understanding theirwealth status and debt leveragingpotential.•A popular criticism is that formalinstitutions perceive the creditworthiness of the borrowers in ruralareas as significant risk.•Among rural households, a cultivatorhousehold, on an average, ownedassets of 3.73 lakh, which was threeand half time that owned by a non-cultivator2 household (1.07 lakh).
HOUSE CONSTRUCTION ACTIVITY IN RURAL AREAS• During the five year period 1997–2002 reports that about 25 per cent rural households had initiated some form of construction activity.• Among the initiated constructions, 82 per cent were completed during the five years.
APPROPRIATE RURAL HOUSING TECHNOLOGIESTECHNOLOGIES FOR WALLING•Precast Stone Masonry Block Walling Scheme•Solid Concrete Block Masonry Scheme•Concrete Block Making Machine•Solid/ Hollow Concrete Blocks•Concrete Block- Shaker Machine•Rat Trap Bond Masonry•An Improved Hand Molding for Building Bricks•Thin Precast RCC Lintels in Brick Walls•Non- erodible Mud Plaster for Mud Walls•C Brick Technology•Stabilized Mud Blocks
APPROPRIATE RURAL HOUSING TECHNOLOGIESTECHNOLOGIES FOR ROOFING•Precast R.C. Plank Flooring/Roofing Scheme•Precast Channels Units•Precast R.C. Coed Units•L-Pan Roofing Schemes•Prefab Brick Panel System for Flooring/Roofing•Unreinforced Pyramidal Brick Roofs•Precast Concrete Funicular Shells for Roofs and Floors•Precast R.C. Waffle Units for Floors and Roofs•Micro Concrete Roofing Tiles•Country Roofing Tiles•Improved Method of Making Durable and Fire Retardant thatch Roof
APPROPRIATE RURAL HOUSING TECHNOLOGIESFERROCEMENT PRODUCTS•Ferro-Cement Products and Applications•Ferro-Cement Door Shutters•Ferro-Cement Cupboards, Trusses & Rafters•Ferro-Cement Water Tanks•Ferro-Cement Toilet Slab•Ferro-Cement Dual Pit Water Seal Latrines
APPROPRIATE RURAL HOUSING TECHNOLOGIESRURAL BUILDING & ENVIRONMENT•Low Cost Sanitation•Concrete Skeleton System•Timber Skeleton System•Balli Skeleton System•Pedestal Pile• Kedar Kuti•Gauri Kuti•Improved Smokeless Chullah•Waste Water Disposal System
APPROPRIATE RURAL HOUSING TECHNOLOGIESSAFETY FROM NATURAL CALAMITY•Earthquake Resistant Design and Construction of Building•Cyclone Resistant House for Coastal Areas•Earthquake Resistant Construction –A Simple guide•Disaster Resistant Features for Non engineered housePROCESSES MACHINERY•Precast Concrete Door/Window Frames•Ferro-Cement door shutter Making Machine•Ferro-Cement Concrete Beam (Rafter) Machine•Machine for Ferro-cement Roofing Channels
APPROPRIATE RURAL HOUSING TECHNOLOGIESPROCESSES MACHINERY•Technology for Manufacture of Fly-Ash Bricks•MCR Tiles Machine•Energy Efficient Gypsum Calcinatory.•Heavy Duty Brick Extrusion Machine•Concrete Block Maker•Lime Hydrating Machine•Pollution Control System for Lime Kilns•Mini Climbing Crane•Semi- mechanized Brick Making Machine•Clay Tiles•CBRI High Draught Brick Kiln•Manufacture of Country Tiles from Alluvial, Black/Red Soils of India•Project for RCC Planks & Joist
APPROPRIATE RURAL HOUSING TECHNOLOGIESCOMFORTS & DURABILITY•Guidelines for Designing Airy•Building•Practical Lessons in Quality Control for•Building Construction•Seepage Problems (Waterproofing)PRODUCTS FROM AGROINDUSTRIAL WASTES•Fly-ash•Local Materials & Environment-friendly•Technologies
GOVERNMENT HOUSING INITIATIVES• The government has formulated various initiatives targeted towards rural housing but a comprehensive rural housing policy,• The Ministry of Rural Development has formulated an Action Plan for Rural Housing that consists of the following programs: • 1. Provision for upgrading unserviceable kutcha houses under the Indira Awas Yojana (IAY) in addition to the new construction. • 2. Credit cum subsidy scheme for rural housing. • 3. Innovative scheme for rural housing and habitat development. • 4. Setting up of rural building centers. • 5. Samagra Awas Yojana. • 6. Enhancement of equity contribution by the Ministry of Rural Development to HUDCO. • 7. National Mission for Rural Housing and Habitat. • 8. Two Million Housing Programme.
GOVERNMENT HOUSING INITIATIVESIndira Awas Yojana (IAY)IAY is being implemented since 1985–6. The focus of this scheme is to provideassistance to rural households who are economically classified as belowpoverty line or belong to schedule caste/scheduled tribe or are freedbonded labourers.The scheme has also been extended to families of ex-servicemen killed inaction. Three per cent of total houses are reserved for physically andmentally challenged persons who are below poverty line.Since inception Rs 13,840 crore have been spent under this scheme. A totalof 10.34 million units have been constructed/upgraded under this scheme upto 2003–4 (NHB, 2004 and NHB, 2005).
GOVERNMENT HOUSING INITIATIVESCredit-cum-Subsidy SchemeThis was a means tested scheme initiated in 1999 targeting households withannual income of less than Rs 32,000. Assistance was in the form of loan andsubsidy. The subsidy component was less than Rs 10,000 and maximumpermissible loan amount was Rs 40,000.District Rural Development Agencies (DRDAs) were responsible for making loanarrangements for the beneficiaries through commercial banks, RRBs, and housingfinance institutions.The subsidy part of the scheme was funded through shared allocation fromcentre and state contributing in the ratio of 75:25. Since its inception, the schemefunded 85,564 houses incurring an expenditure of Rs 77.79 crore. From the year2002–3, the scheme has been merged with IAY (NHB, 2004).
GOVERNMENT HOUSING INITIATIVESInnovation Scheme for Rural Housing and Habitat DevelopmentThis scheme was launched in 1999–2000 with the objective ofpromoting cost effective, environmentally sound constructiontechnologies.Potential beneficiaries under this scheme include recognizededucational/technical institutions, corporate bodies, government,autonomous societies, development institutions, and credible non-government organizations with proven record in the field of ruralhousing.Maximum limit for assistance for non-government organizations is Rs20 lakh and for government institutions the limit is Rs 50 lakh. Nearly125 projects have been approved for funding under this scheme(NHB, 2004).
GOVERNMENT HOUSING INITIATIVESSetting up of Rural Building Centre Government provides an assistance of Rs 15 lakh to set uprural building centres. Objective of rural building centres is toprovide technology transfer and information dissemination,skill enhancement, and to produce cost effective buildingmaterials.Since 2002–3, ninety-four project proposals for setting up ofrural building centres have been approved (NHB, 2004 andNHB, 2005).
GOVERNMENT HOUSING INITIATIVESSamagra Awaas YojanaThis scheme was launched in 1999–2000 and is aimed at comprehensivedevelopment of shelter, sanitation, and drinking water facilities.In its first phase, one block each from twenty-five districts of twenty-four statesand one union territory was identified for implementing the scheme. A centralassistance of Rs 25 lakh was provided for each block to undertake overallhabitat development, information, education, and communication activitieswith the requirement that 10 per cent contribution should come from people.During 2002–3, thirty-three proposals were approved and an amount of Rs 0.43crore released (NHB, 2004).
GOVERNMENT HOUSING INITIATIVESNational Mission for Rural Housing and HabitatThis mission has been set up by the Ministry of Rural Development tofacilitate the induction of science and technology inputs on a continuousbasis to provide affordable shelter for all in rural areas within a specifiedtime frame through community participation.A Working Group was formed to specify the aims and objectives,formulate a road map for private capital to flow in housing developmentin rural areas, and shortlist agencies that could undertake the task ofpreparing techno-legal regime for rural planning (NHB, 2004).
GOVERNMENT HOUSING INITIATIVESTwo Million Housing ProgrammeAs part of this programme, primary lending institutions are expected tofinance an additional 2 million houses annually with a focus oneconomically weaker and low income group housing. Of the 2 millionhouses, 1.3 million are to be financed annually in rural areas.During 1998–2004, HUDCO has sanctioned loans for 3.3 million houses inrural areas (NHB, 2005). It is difficult to exactly state the number of housesfinanced by other lending institutions during this period.A report by NHB (2004) indicates that during 2000–3, primary lendinginstitutions (excluding HUDCO) financed around 5.44 lakh houses (NHB,2004).
GOVERNMENT HOUSING INITIATIVESGolden Jubilee Rural Housing Finance Scheme In order to improve access to institutional finance in the rural areas, NHBlaunched the Golden Jubilee Rural Housing Finance Scheme in 1997. Thescope of the scheme was for construction of new houses or improvementof existing rural houses.This is essentially a refinance scheme, wherein institutions making loan forhousing construction in rural areas to the extent of Rs 10 lakh (now thelimit has been enhanced to Rs 15 lakh) could be refinanced by NHB. Therefinance is also available for improvements in existing homes.Since 2004, NHB offered 0.5 per cent concession on normal refinancerates for lending to rural areas. As part of the scheme, 1.1 million houseshave been financed during 1997–2004 (NHB, 2005).
“ARANYA”- LOW COST HOUSING T , INDORE The Indore housing in India, designed at B. V. Doshis Vastu-Shilpa,represents in many ways a classic architectural approach to largescale,low-cost dwellings for the poor: the professional designer responded tothe public client (IDA) with a concrete project, thoroughly researchedand conceived. What is different, however, is that a "sites and services“approach has been rifined (while remaining flexible, attentive toindividual resources and spontaneity) to include models for futuredwellers, house-types, suggested materials, steps for implementation.This proposal searches a middle ground, betwen a house with no rooms(i.e. sites-services) and totally non-participatory, public housing schemesby architects alone.
“ARANYA”- LOW COST HOUSING T , INDOREBRIEFIn order to meet the acute shortage of housing for the economically weakersection (EWS) of the society, Indore Development Authority had initiated aproject of a new township.The site, largely rectangular in plan on the outskirts of the city measures 214acres. The proposed township on this flat land is to provide for about 6500residential plots ranging in size from 35 sq.mts. For EWS housing to 475 sq.mts.For high income groups.65% of the total of 6500 plots are allocated to the EWS category. A fullyserviced plot is to be allocated to each EWS household with the basic buildingcare (wash, wc and a room which can be extended by the occupants at theirown pace and resources). Basic amenities such as schools, health carecentres, shops and utilities are to be provided for the whole community