Settlement Yr 11 Revision Class For Ocr Spec A


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Settlement Yr 11 Revision Class For Ocr Spec A

  1. 1. SETTLEMENT: What do you need to know? <ul><li>LEDCS: </li></ul><ul><li>Rural to urban migration </li></ul><ul><li>MEDCS: </li></ul><ul><li>Land use zones </li></ul><ul><li>Improving quality of life in urban areas </li></ul><ul><li>Provision of services in urban/rural areas </li></ul><ul><li>Changes in rural areas </li></ul>
  2. 2. Rural to urban migration in LEDCs
  3. 3. Causes <ul><li>Push factors in the rural areas </li></ul><ul><li>e.g. poor quality housing, overpopulation due to high birth rates, lack of job opportunities, lack of education, health and welfare facilities </li></ul><ul><li>Pull factors of the cities </li></ul><ul><li>e.g. jobs in factories pay more than farming , better standards of education for children, expectations of improved housing conditions </li></ul>
  4. 5. Consequences <ul><li>Problems of LEDC cities </li></ul><ul><li>Reality of life - poor migrants end up in squatter housing areas (favelas, bustees, shanty towns) e.g. Rocinha (Rio) </li></ul><ul><li>These housing areas are usually illegally built in low land value parts of the city e.g. by railtracks, on hill slopes, etc. </li></ul><ul><li>Conditions are cramped, with little or no facilities e.g. running water, sanitation, services </li></ul><ul><li>Diseases are common, and life is stressful </li></ul>
  5. 6. Solutions? <ul><ul><li>Rapid rate of growth means cities cannot cope </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Planning for growth is difficult </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Solutions seen to be with ‘Self Help Schemes’ and city/government aided schemes e.g. Favela-Bairio programme (Rio) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>LEDCs do not have the resources nor the money to cater for the problems </li></ul></ul>
  6. 7. You need to know a case study of rural to urban migration in an LEDC <ul><li>e.g. Dhaka, Bangladesh </li></ul><ul><li>Rio de Janeiro, Brazil </li></ul><ul><li>Where are people moving from? </li></ul><ul><li>Why are they moving? - push and pull factors </li></ul><ul><li>Problems of depopulation in rural areas </li></ul><ul><li>Problems in squatter settlements </li></ul><ul><li>Improvements to the squatter settlements </li></ul>
  7. 8. Something must be done!
  8. 9. Land use zones in MEDCs <ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Central Business District </li></ul></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Inner zone </li></ul></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Suburbs </li></ul></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Rural-urban fringe </li></ul></ul></ul></ul></ul>
  9. 10. Central Business District (C.B.D.) <ul><li>Where is it in the city? </li></ul><ul><li>What is it like? </li></ul><ul><li>What sort of facilities/services are found here? </li></ul><ul><li>What is being done to improve C.B.D.s? </li></ul><ul><li>Case study example e.g. Swansea </li></ul><ul><li>Key words : </li></ul><ul><li>Accessible </li></ul><ul><li>Peak land value </li></ul><ul><li>Effective area </li></ul><ul><li>High order goods </li></ul><ul><li>Pedestrianised areas </li></ul>
  10. 11. Inner zone <ul><li>Where is it in the city? </li></ul><ul><li>What is it like? </li></ul><ul><li>What sort of facilities/services are found here? </li></ul><ul><li>What is being done to improve inner zone areas? </li></ul><ul><li>Case study example e.g. Swansea </li></ul><ul><li>Key words : </li></ul><ul><li>Terraced housing </li></ul><ul><li>High rise flats </li></ul><ul><li>Urban rejuvenation </li></ul><ul><li>Brownfield sites </li></ul><ul><li>Shopping parades/small convenience store </li></ul>
  11. 12. Convenience store Graffiti Terraced housing
  12. 13. Suburbs <ul><li>Where is it in the city? </li></ul><ul><li>What is it like? </li></ul><ul><li>What sort of facilities/services are found here? </li></ul><ul><li>What is being done to improve suburban areas? </li></ul><ul><li>Case study example e.g. Swansea </li></ul><ul><li>Key words : </li></ul><ul><li>Residential estates </li></ul><ul><li>Semi-detached and detached housing </li></ul><ul><li>Shopping parades/neighbourhood centres </li></ul>
  13. 14. Rural urban fringe <ul><li>Where is it in the city? </li></ul><ul><li>What is it like? </li></ul><ul><li>What sort of facilities/services are found here? </li></ul><ul><li>What is being done to improve/develop this area? </li></ul><ul><li>Case study example e.g. Swansea or South Downs/Brighton area </li></ul><ul><li>Key words : </li></ul><ul><li>Green belts </li></ul><ul><li>Greenfield sites </li></ul><ul><li>Out-of-town shopping centres </li></ul><ul><li>Business parks </li></ul>
  14. 15. Traffic management in an urban area <ul><li>Case study : </li></ul><ul><li>e.g. Glasgow or Cambridge </li></ul><ul><li>What is the problem? </li></ul><ul><li>What is being done to solve the problem? </li></ul><ul><li>Key words : </li></ul><ul><li>Congestion </li></ul><ul><li>Pollution </li></ul><ul><li>Ring roads </li></ul><ul><li>Traffic calming </li></ul><ul><li>Integrated public transport </li></ul><ul><li>Park and ride </li></ul><ul><li>Rising bollards </li></ul><ul><li>Designated bus lanes </li></ul><ul><li>Cycle routes </li></ul>
  15. 16. Integrated transport systems
  16. 17. HIERARCHY of SETTLEMENTS <ul><li>This is a system of grades where one is above another in importance or size. Can be simply stated as the rank order of settlement </li></ul>
  17. 18. Size and Number <ul><li>Primate/capital city </li></ul><ul><li>Conurbation </li></ul><ul><li>City </li></ul><ul><li>Large Town </li></ul><ul><li>Small Town </li></ul><ul><li>Accessible/large village </li></ul><ul><li>Remote/small village </li></ul><ul><li>Hamlet </li></ul><ul><li>Isolated dwelling/farmstead </li></ul><ul><li>Decreasing in number, increasing in size </li></ul>
  18. 19. Provision of Services <ul><li>As settlements increase in size, the provision of services also increases </li></ul><ul><li>This is linked to the sphere of influence of a settlement </li></ul><ul><li>Any settlement or service can have a sphere of influence e.g. a town, village or an out-of-town shopping centre </li></ul><ul><li>Case study example: an out-of-town shopping centre (e.g. Holmbush) </li></ul><ul><li>Key words : </li></ul><ul><li>High order goods </li></ul><ul><li>Low order goods </li></ul><ul><li>Sphere of influence </li></ul><ul><li>Threshold population </li></ul>
  19. 20. Village services Would you build on this?
  20. 21. Urban to rural migration in MEDCs <ul><li>What are the causes of this movement? </li></ul><ul><li>What are the consequences of this movement, both in the rural area and the urban area? </li></ul><ul><li>Case study : North Worcestershire (or Sayers Common) </li></ul>
  21. 22. Causes <ul><li>Rapid urbanisation during Industrial Revolution </li></ul><ul><li>Push factors e.g. expensive housing, traffic congestion, air pollution, crime </li></ul><ul><li>Pull factors e.g. cleaner air, safety for children, affordable housing, less stressful life </li></ul><ul><li>Key words : </li></ul><ul><li>Urbanisation </li></ul><ul><li>Counter-urbanisation </li></ul><ul><li>Commuting </li></ul><ul><li>Increased car ownership </li></ul>
  22. 23. Consequences <ul><li>Changing character of villages: </li></ul><ul><li>e.g. increasing house prices, changing demographic structure </li></ul><ul><li>Key words : </li></ul><ul><li>Dormitory settlements </li></ul><ul><li>Second homes </li></ul><ul><li>Gentrification </li></ul>
  23. 24. Remember: <ul><li>There are 5 case studies for the Settlement Unit: </li></ul><ul><li>Rural to urban migration in an LEDC </li></ul><ul><li>Urban zones in an MEDC city (and ways to improve them) </li></ul><ul><li>Traffic management in an MEDC city </li></ul><ul><li>An out-of town shopping centre in the UK </li></ul><ul><li>Urban to rural migration in an area of the UK </li></ul><ul><li>You must know one place specific piece of information for each one </li></ul>