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Paper 1 case studies WJEC Geog B GCSE

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Case studies for the WJEC B GCSE Geography Paper 1. Thanks to Mr Newman.

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Paper 1 case studies WJEC Geog B GCSE

  1. 1. Geography Revision 2016 Paper 1 Case Studies for Revision
  2. 2. Paper one case studies Theme 1 Case Study 1 – Housing in urban areas – Favelas in Rio. Case Study 2 - Retail Services – Change in Brighton and Hove Case Study 3 - Leisure and recreation services in Brighton Case Study 4 - Rural to urban migration: from the semi-arid region Caatinga in Northeast Brazil to Rio de Janeiro Case Study 5 – Planning issue – Housing in Rural areas – Mayfield Market Town Case Study 6 - Dawlish Warren: conflict in a rural area due to leisure use: Theme 2 Case Study 7 - Typhoon Haiyan: Case Study of an extreme low pressure weather event. or Case study 7: Hurricane Katrina New Orleans, USA Case Study of an extreme low pressure weather event. Case study 8 - An ecosystem: management -Amazon Rainforest - NW Brazil Case study 9 - Desertification: Sahel, south of the Sahara Desert, Africa CASE STUDY 10 - Regional scale River Flood:- Bangladesh - The causes and impacts of the September 1998 Flood Case study 11 – Local scale River Flood Management - River Adur Case Study 12 – Coastal Management – Start Bay
  3. 3. Case Study 1 -Housing in an urban area: tenure, access, opportunities, constraints, patterns: Rochina, Favela in Rio de Jaineiro, Brazil Problems with living in favelas. Quality of life is low . High infant mortality, low life expectancy, low adult literacy rate, high crime rate, lots of poverty etc. No security - squatter settlements are illegal, so no security (homes could be demolished/dwellers evicted at any time). Huge, overcrowded with a high population density due to lack of space. Homes are poorly built out of scrap material, not weather-proof. As housing is dense so fire and disease spreads quickly. Unhygienic (lack of clean water, poor sanitation due to shared pit latrines which overflow in rainy season - so diseases eg cholera spread). No garbage collection - smelly, and attracts vermin which spread disease. Have to queue to collect clean water. Lacking electricity, so at night the area is dark, unsafe, so crime is high and shops etc close early. Miles from CBD and jobs. High infant mortality rate. Frequent landslides. Schemes to improve squatter settlement Self Help Scheme - the government supplies materials so people can build their own homes Site and Service Scheme - people pay a low rent for a site and the money is used to provide basic services for the area. Housing Tenure: The wealthy can afford to rent or own decent housing and so live in well built, gated, tall, concrete & glass apartment blocks with electricity, drainage and piped water. These homes are weatherproof and secure, and close to the city centre. Migrants who have arrived from rural areas in search of work and a higher standard of living, are usually poor and usually cannot find well-paid work in the city, so can't afford to rent or buy decent housing, so they build a shelter illegally. This is informal housing and they are squatters who have no legal rights to live there. They could be evicted at any time off the land. These illegal settlements are called favelas. The largest is Rochina, on a steep hillside. Favelas spring up around the edge of cities or along transport links out of the city. Often on land unsuitable for development, such as the steep hillsides surrounding Rio.
  4. 4. Case Study 2 - Retail Services – Change in Brighton and Hove Local shopping parades 1. Easy access / walking/ limited on street parking / convenience shops and services. 2. Important community aspect. 3. Good for elderly, young families, young people. 4. Redevelopment of closed down pubs / banks into mini supermarkets – reduces need to travel, reduces traffic. Can damage trade for more local convenience shops though. • Out of Town retail – Holmbush – Shoreham (Tesco / M&S / Next) 1. Large supermarkets / stores. Edge of city / Rural urban fringe/ low land value. Next to A27. Less traffic congestion in town centres – improving air quality. 2. Flat land easy to build on / parking / expansion possible. 3. Good for car owners / elderly with free buses. Difficult for younger people to get to. 4. Bad for local shop keepers – loss of trade, liable to close down if in direct competition. Large stores often open long hours. 5. but loss of ‘greenfield site’ loss of countryside – displacing animals, loss of plant life. Town Centre – Churchill Square 1. Easy access / Transport hub / buses / trains / car parks. 2. Expensive land value, High order comparison shops. Leisure services. Lots of choices. 3. Expensive parking / busy roads. Congested. 4. Rebranded / renewed in 1998 as a result of decayed shopping precinct that had declined as a result of out of town retail. Now very successful – different shops. 5. Distinct areas in the centre – Churchill Square / North Laines / South Laines all provide different range of retail but many coffee shops / restaurants etc. 6. Covered or pedestrianised and Sunday trading increasing attractiveness of the area. Internet retail 1. Increasing rapidly with the development of broadband technology – Amazon / EBAY. Comparison shopping risen massively. 2. Online banking – reducing need for banks – local branches closing (now restaurants / bars / shops). 3. Less journeys made – reducing costs, traffic, time loss. 4. Supermarket online shopping and deliveries system increasing ASDA / Sainsbury / TESCO etc.
  5. 5. Case Study 3 - Leisure and recreation services in Brighton 1. Core area around the CBD, Theatre Royal / Dome / cinema / pubs / restaurants / clubs / Jubilee library and Prince Regent swimming pool. 2. Linear distribution along the coast – tourist and local / regional visitors, hub at the Marina / bars restaurants / cinema / casino / bowling. King Alfred in Hove – Closed. 3. Larger facilities at further away from city centre – Hove and Preston Parks, Hove cricket ground, Golf courses, Withdean, Greyhound track, Amex and Race course 4. Land value lower further from the city centre – location of larger facilities. 5. Access for Young people / elderly facilitated by good bus links - city centre hub. 6. Access for car users difficult for parking / congestion in town centre/ park and ride schemes in place. Local parks walkable, also good bus links. 7. Good train links to London helps access for visitors to centre and sea front / brings in important revenue / improves retail services as a result. 8. Lower income groups’ access reduced to outlying facilities / travel costs. 9. Local parks helpful for lower income groups 10. A27 good link to outlying facilities / reduces cross town /traffic congestion reduced/ journey time quicker.
  6. 6. Case Study 4 - Rural to urban migration: from the semi-arid region Caatinga in Northeast Brazil to Rio de Janeiro The impact of this rural-urban migration is both social and economic. Impact on the destination (city the migrants move in to e.g. Rio) – 1. Housing shortage - Growth of unplanned, illegal squatter settlements – such as Rocinha. 2. Increase in crime as migrants unable to gain employment/earn money legally in formal sector. - - 3. greater costs on .g. schools and hospitals, refuse collection etc - city cannot cope. – 4. overcrowded roads, railways and other infrastructure e.g. water supply, sewage system, electricity supply. 5. People tap into electricity illegally - electrocution and fires are common. – 6. spread of disease as so many are living in overcrowded, unhealthy conditions 7. BUT More workers to fill vacant jobs in the formal and informal economy. Impact on the areas of origin (rural area they leave behind eg the drought area of NE Brazil) – It is mostly males of working age who migrate to the city leaving women, the elderly, the disabled and children back in the village to try and farm the land. - Farms are less productive so possible a loss of agricultural exports. - More money may need to be spent on hospitals in poorer areas as the population is elderly. Over the last 25 years approximately 75,000 people have moved from the rural NE to the city of Rio. to improve their quality of life/standard of living Push factors - poor quality of life 1. Lack of work, or farm workers receive low wages. 2. No school in the area (so low adult literacy level /don't learn sills which lead to well paid jobs etc) 3. None or poor medical facilities (so .... illness.. ....high infant mortality/low life expectancy) 4. Unreliable water supply - frequent droughts ( crops fail/cattle die) so farming difficult 5. no piped water, electricity or sanitation ... so.. 6. Whole villages are destroyed for dam projects. Pull factors - improving their Quality of Life 1. More chance of an easier job or higher wages. 2. Money earned can be sent home to families in the village to improve living standards. 3. Better access to services. More schools belief that children will get a better education 4. More clinics, hospitals, - better health care 5. A reliable, clean water supply (so....) 6. Better transport links to other parts of Brazil 7. 'Bright lights', entertainment, things to do
  7. 7. Case Study 5 – Planning issue – Housing in Rural areas – Mayfield Market Town Where? Mid Sussex, between Henfield and Burgess Hill, close to Sayers Common What? 10,000 new homes with schools, shops and other facilities Meet the housing demands of the Mid Sussex District Who? Private developers - Mayfield Market Towns Ltd. When? 2015-20 Why? Significant pressure to increase housing stock in the UK, particualarly SE England Advantages 1. To ease housing pressure on numerous small villages in Mid Sussex 2. Reduce expansion of larger towns in the region, conserving countryside 3. Infrastructure and community benefits provided by one large development rather than many 'add ons’ 4. Increasing construction job opportunities. 5. Increasing local employment base with associated service industries – Retail, Health, Leisure, Education. 6. Site is low grade agricultural Land, so limited impact on agricultural output. 7. Relatively sparse populations for the area, so few people directly effected. Diasadvantages 1. Local parish Councils (eg. Henfield) and LAMBS (locals against Mayfield building sprawl) worried about loss of neighbouring communities and high street facilities. 2. Loss of countryside, habitats, ecosystem disruption to wider surroundings 3. Increased road / traffic noise. Air quality reduced. Mostly commuter traffic to Gatwick / Crawley. 4. Fear of Urban Sprawl as new town merges with existing settlements of Burgess Hill and Henfield
  8. 8. Case Study 6 - Dawlish Warren: Case Study of conflict in a rural area due to leisure use: How is conflict Managed? 1. - Zoned area – west end – leisure park and caravan parks with seasonal services – so this means that holiday visitors are less likely to disturb wildlife and therefore birdwatchers and walkers. 2. Golf course – clear paths and signage. – Golfers not interrupted and walkers and dog walkers have safe passage through the golf course. 3. Nature reserve – legal designations – SSSI (National)/ SAC (EU conservation)/ SPA (for birds)/ RAMSAR (wetland). Any damage caused by visitors can be legally followed up by park rangers. 4. Boardwalks – reduces trampling. Therefore the vegetation cover is maintained. This means there is les soil erosion, so blow outs don’t occur, further damaging the plant life. 5. kissing gates – manages flow of people and prevents gates being left open . This means that footpaths are less congested and less likely to widen causing more trampling. 6. information boards – educating people about the vegetation and animal life. Also the potential problems of fire . 7. By-laws to control dogs, cycling, camping, fires, barbeques- up to 20K fines. 8. Activities carefully zoned and bylaws enforced by the park rangers. Dog walking area, sea angling area, bird watching area. Popular leisure area: • Up to ½ million visitors per year to Dawlish Warren – mostly low budget caravan parks. 20k on summer bank holiday on beach. Most from midlands and Wales . Local visitors: • Sea angling very popular off the beach – • dog walkers • walkers • bird watchers. Why so popular? • Sand dune spit – beautiful area, sandy beaches. Good sea fishing off of the beach. Wetland area behind spit important for bird life attracts many visitors. Links golf course. Pleasant area for walking. • Sand dunes provide habitats for plant communities – Heather and rare ‘Petal Wort’ and for reptiles – Sand Lizard. • For people – sand beach and dunes good for families. • Provides site for golf course – links course. Conflict: 1. Issues of trampling and fire – damages grasses so areas need fencing off at times to allow regrowth and protection of dunes – if too much trampling sand dunes are lost. Blow outs if vegetation lost. 2. Barbeques problematic in dry summer months – cause fires – grasses and heather burn quickly. 3. Dog walkers, disturb bird life and sea anglers 4. Golfers disturbed by walkers straying from paths
  9. 9. Case Study 7 - Typhoon Haiyan: Case Study of an extreme low pressure weather event: Effects In numbers, 4,000 dead, 2.5 million in need of food aid, 544,606 people are displaced, 1215 evacuation centres are set up, 130,074 houses were destroyed and overall 11.5 million people were affected with the city of Tacloban being one of the most damaged areas. The Typhoon swept through many rural villages taking up to 90% of homes in each village. After the storm, a lack of shelter, contaminated water and poor medical facilities led to outbreaks of typhoid and cholera. Malaria outbreaks also occurred. Emergency aid (water / food / shelter / medical supplies) was slow to arrive due to the chaotic conditions and lack of basic transport and communication links. 1. 4,000 - Number of deaths 2. 11.5 million - Number of people affected 3. 2.5 million - Number of people in need of food aid 4. 130,000 - Number of homes destroyed 5. Disease spread - Dead bodies weren't removed from the streets 6. Contaminated water - A result of the destroyed water systems 7. Risk of malaria - A result of the mosquito outbreaks Causes Typhoon Haiyan originated from an area of low pressure several hundred kilometres east-southeast of Pohnpei in the Federated States of Micronesia on November 2, 2013. Moving generally westward, the system developed into a tropical depression the following day. After becoming a tropical storm and attaining the name Haiyan on November 4, the system began a period of rapid intensification that brought it to typhoon intensity on November 5, 2013. Haiyan is unofficially the fourth most intense tropical cyclone ever observed. • 2nd November 2013 - When it started to develop as a tropical depression • 195mph - The highest wind speeds • Super typhoon - What it eventually became because of high wind speeds • 5 metres - The highest storm surge
  10. 10. Case study 7 An extreme weather event: Low pressure - Hurricane Katrina, New Orleans, USA EFFECTS Much of the US coastline of the Southern states was devastated by Katrina. • New Orleans is built on low lying land, mostly below sea level. It’s surrounded by water. Engineers had protected the city by a system of levees, or concrete sea walls. But, when Katrina hit, the surges were too powerful, the levees broke and large parts of the downtown(poorer area) were flooded. DIFFERENT GROUPS of people ....... 1. WEALTHY PEOPLE Left New Orleans to save themselves. They survived. 2. POOR and ELDERLY people on low incomes with no transport, and no money for hotels stayed and suffered the most. 10,000 people sought refuge in the Superdome football stadium. • 1200 people drowned in flood waters. • 1 million people were made homeless. • Mass looting and crime while shop keepers /home owners were away. • Hotel owners suffered as tourism came to a halt for many months afterwards. • Millions of dollars worth of damage caused - It will take New Orleans years to recover • Katrina also had a global impact. Many offshore oil facilities were damaged. This pushed up the price of petrol in the US and the UK. Katrina caused $200 billion damage. RESPONSE • 30,000 National guardsmen were eventually sent in to rescue people and maintain law and order. • Aid in the form of clean water, food and medical assistance. • Location: Hurricane Katrina, SE coast of the USA, New Orleans, August 2005. • Causes: a TROPICAL STORM that developed between close to the equator during the summer months when surface sea temperatures reach 27 º. This caused massive, rapid evaporation. When the water vapour condenses into clouds, latent heat was released, adding to the storms power. • Weather features: winds over 140 mph, heavy rainfall, storm surges of over 6m
  11. 11. Case study 8 - An ecosystem: management -Amazon Rainforest - NW Brazil Impact of human activity • Trees are cut down to clear the land for mining( eg copper), farming,(cattle ranching or palm trees for bio-fuels), logging, building roads and settlements. Positive impacts - Money can be earned for the area from selling timber, mineral deposits farming, cattle and palm oil for bio-fuels. Also transport is improved as more roads are built across the rainforest. Negative impacts - as land is cleared, natural habitats are destroyed - creatures could become endangered/extinct, plants with curative powers could be destroyed before they have been tested, loss of soil by erosion, area becomes desertified as interfering with the water cycle and local climate, soil will lose its nutrients and become infertile. How might the ecosystems be managed in a sustainable way? Sustainable - the use of resources and environments in ways that benefit us but will allow them to be used in the future by future generations. Don't destroy them. 1. - selective logging methods eg; animals not machines to pull out the trees-and a limit placed on number of trees/species of trees that can be cut down. 2. national parks - are set up to protect the forest and its wildlife 3. Bio-sphere reserves- where people are allowed to live, but only the tribes live in the centre where they can continue living their traditional way of life. settlements are only allowed around the edges. 4. medical reserves- large pharmaceutical companies buy up large areas to prevent them being destroyed. Look for cures for diseases. 5. animal corridors - plant trees to link up remaining patches of forest - animals can migrate between them 6. agro-forestry – local farmers grow suitable crops between and under the trees so land doesn’t need to be cleared of trees but the farmers will have food to eat/sell 7. restrictions re the type of machinery that can be used in the forest 8. eco-tourism - Provides income from sustainable tourism The importance of the vegetation • Oxygen - photosynthesis-plants use sun's light energy to convert O2 and CO2 into glucose and oxygen -essential for animal/human life • Trees store water -between periods of rainfall, so reducing the risk of river floods • Roots help to stabilise the soil – preventing it from being eroded by heavy rain - especially in rainforest . • Leaves - shelters soil from i) drying out, crumbling & wind erosion. ii) protects the soil from direct rainfall & soil erosion and decomposing leaves provide nutrients to the soil (nutrient cycle) • Water cycle - transpiration from trees produces clouds and rainfall steady supply of clean water to rivers Economic benefits of the tropical rainforest • Providing natural materials such as timber , plants and drugs used in medicines, food stuffs such as honey, fruit and nuts. Has a huge bio-diversity -Plants and wild animals there may contain chemicals that might be useful to agriculture or medicine
  12. 12. Case study 9 - Desertification: Sahel, south of the Sahara Desert, Africa Physical causes - drought. The Sahel experiences a wet and dry season. But due to climate change there have been decreased amounts of rainfall and many years of drought (causing over 100,000 deaths in the 1980s.) Also because it is so hot here, the evapo-transpiration rates are high. Human causes -A shift from being nomads to being forced to settle down in one place; along with population increase has led to people removing the natural vegetation by 'slash and burn' so they can farm the land and they keep more grazing animals. As a result there has been over-grazing and along with deforestation for firewood; this has led to soil erosion (by wind or rain). Over-cultivation has led to the soil losing its nutrients. Either way; crops have failed leading to hunger, famine and deaths (mainly infants and the elderly result). The soil erosion has led to desertification. • Poor farming methods- e.g. farming steep hillsides has led to gullying. • Poverty -unable to invest in irrigation or chemical fertilizers. Solutions 1. Terrace the hillsides 2. Use compost and manure to increase the fertility of the soil 3. Harvest rainwater 4. Grow crops which are drought resistant or produce a higher yield. 5. Grow fast growing trees for firewood, and fruit trees to sell the fruit at market/eat 6. Construct bunds (lines of stones and rocks placed along the ground) to slow down soil erosion. 7. Rainwater harvesting. 8. Dig wells. Why is life so challenging for people in the Savannah? • Little water → thirsty → dehydration • No water for animals → may force farmers to move → some animals may die on journey • Vegetation is sparse → so food may be in short supply → this may lead to malnutrition / health problems / death / lower work productivity. • No water → cattle may have to be slaughtered → so no future breeding stock / meat (milk). • Lack of firewood → no fuel for cooking → so wider search area for fuel needed. Managing desertification • Most are LEDCs → so no money → resources available → countries like Kenya have other priorities such as dealing with urbanisation. • Climate change is a worldwide issue → some MEDCs not willing to change their ways in terms of cause of climate change → as it will cost them / slow their progress • Solutions are long term → so people will need support to change local traditions → many may be reluctant to change farming practice / education programmes run by NGOs and so impact will not reach out to all as NGO resources are limited. The Sahel is belt of land that lies between the Sahara desert and more fertile, wetter Savannah further south. The Sahel stretches across Africa from west to east. It has a population of 50 million people (most are farmers). The Sahel is rapidly turning from dry Savannah into a desert due to physical and human causes.
  13. 13. CASE STUDY 10 - Regional scale River Flood:- Bangladesh - The causes and impacts of the September 1998 Flood Bangladesh - Fact File • Is one of the world's most densely populated countries! • has a population of 125m inhabitants • is one of the poorest countries in the world with a GNP of $200 per head • has three of the world's most powerful rivers passing through its country - The Ganges, the Meghna & the Brahmaputra • contains virtually no raw materials or rock • experiences floods and tropical storms every year The 5 Physical Causes of the Floods 1. Most of the country consists of a huge flood plain and delta, 70% of the total area is less than 1 metre above sea level, 10% of the land area is made up of Lakes and Rivers. 2. Snowmelt from the Himalayas takes place in late spring & summer 3. Bangladesh experiences heavy monsoon rains, especially over the highlands 4. Tropical storms bring heavy rains and coastal flooding 5. The main cause was the above average & long period of heavy rain which caused all 3 rivers to have their peak flow at the same time!!! The 5 Human Causes of the Floods 1. Deforestation in Nepal and the Himalayas increases run off and adds to deposition and flooding downstream 2. Urbanisation of the flood plain has increased magnitude & frequency of floods 3. the building of dams in India has increased the problem of sedimentation in Bangladesh 4. Global warming is blamed for sea level rise, increased snow melt & increased rainfall in the region 5. Poorly maintained embankments (levees) leak & collapse in times of high discharge The Effects of the 1998 Floods – in bold – different groups of people • Over 57% of the land area was flooded • Over 1300 people were killed – Elderly and young children most vulnerable • 7 million homes were destroyed - Rural villagers, mostly poor families • 25 million people were made homeless • There was a serious shortage of drinking water & dry food – Water companies • Diseases spread such as bronchitis and cholera/diarrhoea - medical services • As the waters receded - it left fields of rotting crops, wrecked roads and bridges and destroyed villages – transport networks – any distribution services including aid agencies • 2 million tonnes of rice was destroyed - Farmers • 1/2 million cattle and poultry were lost - Farmers • Overall the floods cost the country almost $1 billion – Government
  14. 14. Case study 11 – Local scale River Flood Management - River Adur Background information River Adur – West Sussex. Sources – west – Burgess Hill, East – North of Henfield – confluence.. Flows past Bramber, Upper Beeding to mouth at Shoreham – spit divering flow eastwards to harbour. • Mainly rural catchment area, dairy and cereal farming. • Upper course very short, long middle and lower course – gentle gradient, wide flood plain, developed meanders. • Tidal up to Henfield. • Historically used for navigation of coastal trade up to Bramber – now too shallow as river silted up and boats got too large 1700s. • Urban areas in Lower course at risk of flooding – Upper Beeding, Bramber and significantly, Shoreham. Flood prevention: 1. Hard engineering - Embankments on River from middle course. Have been in place for several hundred years but have been improved and maintained by EA – increase channel capacity especially important in tidal reaches. 2. Soft engineering -Controlled Flood zones on the middle course and lower course – Sluice gates allow water to flood areas of the floodplain between Beeding and Henfield. 3. Mouth and estuary at Shoreham Dredged to allow efficient discharge to sea. 4. Careful upper and middle catchment monitoring – gauging stations on 4 weirs in upper course upstream of confluence Nr Henfield to operate sluice gates to control flooding and to provide flood warnings to downstream settlements. Groups of people effected by management strategies: • Protects village residents of Bramber, Upper Beeding, Shoreham. • Outlying rural farms and homes at risk during controlled flood events if extreme – Jan 2014, December 2000. • Farmers – floodplain used for dairy and sheep farming – fertile soils due to rich alluvial deposits from flood events. EA warning system in place for seasonal movement of livestock. • Road users - Local roads and bridges mostly protected by fllod management scheme – A281 (Henfield – Shoreham). • Shermanbury – Mockbridge A281 Henfield – Horsham flooded during extreme events. Sustainability • Environmental – Controlled flooding ,maintains wetland ecosystems and natural flood plain dynamics. Plant communities diverse, wetland bird species thrive particularly in the winter months. • Economic – key roads protected maintaining commercial traffic flow and therefore local businesses. Road users for business or pleasure see little disruption. Cost benefit therefore high. Local villages and town of Shoreham protected against flooding, preventing economic costs and ensuring insurance is still viable. Farming viable and benefits from seasonal alluvial deposits on grazing land. • Social – Local residents enjoy higher levels of security due to flood management. Homes most at risk have direct links to EA flood warning systems. Local business traffic not disrupted therefore businesses do not suffer and local employment not affected. Travel and transport systems able to operate freely most of the time – except Mockbridge north of Henfield. • Future issues – rising sea levels, therefore tidal flooding. Urbanisation of upper and middle catchement.
  15. 15. Case Study 12 – Coastal Management – Start Bay • Location – South Hams district, South Devon SW England. • Issue – An area vulnerable to Coastal flooding • Rural area with high levels of tourism as a consequence of its outstanding Natural beauty. • Historical issues – offshore removal of shingle led to destruction of Hallsands 1917. Major storm in 1979 lead to implementing hard defences now in place. • Onshore bar and beaches a result of onshore movement of material (marine transgression) no longer happening so natural beach replenishment stopped. • Local economy dependent on Tourism, Farming and fishing. • Key settlements of Beesands, Torcross, important honeypots for local tourist industry. • Management needs to consider protecting coastal communities and maintaining natural beauty and ecosystems of the area. • Slapton Sands and Ley are popular with birdwatchers and visitors due to the high level of diversity of bird life and the areas outstanding natural beauty. • Future threats – Rising sea levels due to global warming (eustatic change) and sinking land (isostatic realignment). Increasing frequency of intense storm events; Off shore removal of shingle must be controlled. Key strategy - Hold the line, achieved by use of hard engineering in village locations and soft engineering in AONB. Key locations : • Hallsands south village destroyed 1917, north village protected by Rip Rap and newer properties set back from the sea. Beach still reducing in width with lack of supply from offshore due to the net loss of shingle from dredging 100 years ago. • Beesands and Torcross- Village holiday homes, pubs, restuarants and fishing community protected by sea wall / rock amour. High Cost benefit. Economically and socially sustainable for next 50 years. Environmentally poor, due to aesthetics and disruption of natural processes - increases beach material removal. 2014 extreme event saw damage to waterfront homes and businesses. • Slapton Sands (Shingle Bar) – AONB / SSSI / National Nature Reserve (Ley). A379 main road link to coastal communities from neighbouring Dartmouth and Kingsbridge. Beach replenishment every 18 months moving material from the Northern end back to the southern end. Shingle bastions built up at key points near main car park (important for visitor revenue) and main road nearest the sea. 2014 saw significant flooding and erosion. Soft management to continue as the only option due to environmental sustainability. Costs is high for continued management but outweighed by the need to maintain the road link and the balance of the lagoon ecosystem (Slapton Ley)

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