4 Urban Processes


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4 Urban Processes

  1. 1. Urban Processes
  2. 2. Urbanisation Suburbanisation Counter -urbanisation Re - urbanisation Urban Processes Darwell 2006 Sustainable city?
  3. 3. Reasons for Urbanisation <ul><li>Countries reach stage 2/3 of DTM </li></ul><ul><li>Natural increase in population </li></ul><ul><li>Rural to urban migration (push/pull factors, obstacles/barriers, Stepwise model, Zelinsky’s model, Lee’s Model, Turners model) </li></ul><ul><li>Industrialisation </li></ul>Definition – Urbanisation is the increase in the percentage of a population living in settlements which could be classified as urban areas.
  4. 4. Urbanisation <ul><li>Leads to urban growth (the expansion of cities) </li></ul><ul><li>Primate cities </li></ul><ul><li>“ Centres of production” </li></ul><ul><li>Need for housing, and other urban services </li></ul><ul><li>Informal sector, public housing </li></ul><ul><li>Now mainly LEDCs and NICs </li></ul>Definition – Urban growth is the growth of cities in terms of size of land area and population.
  5. 5. Reasons for suburbanisation <ul><li>Rapid urban growth leads new residential areas being built in suburbs </li></ul><ul><li>Social problems and overcrowding in inner city areas cause richer people to move to suburbs </li></ul><ul><li>Improving public transport </li></ul><ul><li>Linked to de-industrialisation such as shipbuilding, warehouses or factories closing </li></ul>
  6. 6. Suburbanisation <ul><li>Urban sprawl </li></ul><ul><li>Separate smaller settlements merge into larger multi-centric conurbations </li></ul><ul><li>Pressure on rural/urban fringe </li></ul><ul><li>Increased segregation </li></ul><ul><li>A vicious circle of decline in inner city areas. “Donut cities” </li></ul>
  7. 7. Reasons for counter-urbanisation <ul><li>Increased car ownership </li></ul><ul><li>Increased wealth </li></ul><ul><li>De-industrialisation </li></ul><ul><li>Desire for safe, pleasant environment, the rural ideal/utopia </li></ul><ul><li>Perception of urban areas as dangerous, high levels of crime, racial/ethnic problems </li></ul><ul><li>Change in tenure from public/renting to private ownership. Sell property and move out. </li></ul>
  8. 8. Counter-urbanisation <ul><li>People move to satellite settlements within the city’s sphere of influence </li></ul><ul><li>Increased numbers of people commuting to work in the city </li></ul><ul><li>Increased car use </li></ul><ul><li>Transport triangle becomes bigger </li></ul><ul><li>Rural areas become suburbanised </li></ul><ul><li>Rural areas can become commuter /dormitory settlements </li></ul><ul><li>Rural areas within a city’s sphere of influence can develop </li></ul>
  9. 9. Transport triangle WORK HOME LEISURE
  10. 10. Reason for re-urbanisation <ul><li>Parts of urban areas which have declined but still have an intrinsic value because of centrality or quality of housing stock attract people </li></ul><ul><li>Government sees urban decline as a problem and invests money to regenerate an area </li></ul><ul><li>Prestige project – Olympics </li></ul><ul><li>Tertiary sector increases, restaurants, nightclubs and retailing attracting people </li></ul>
  11. 11. Re-urbanisation <ul><li>Cities become “centres of consumption” </li></ul><ul><li>Gentrification – Richer people moving into poorer areas </li></ul><ul><li>Run-down derelict parts of cities can be redeveloped </li></ul><ul><li>Increased economic activity within cities </li></ul><ul><li>Cities reinvent themselves as exciting vibrant places to live </li></ul>
  12. 12. Sustainable city <ul><li>Maintain population, particularly economically active people. Develop human resources. </li></ul><ul><li>Economic growth. </li></ul><ul><li>Infrastructure and urban services. </li></ul><ul><li>Quality of life. </li></ul><ul><li>Environmental impact. Ecological footprint. </li></ul><ul><li>Circular metabolism. </li></ul><ul><li>Green design and architecture. </li></ul><ul><li>Energy efficiencies. Carbon neutral city. (Masdar) </li></ul>