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Gardners Early Soci Educational Model


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Gardners Early Soci Educational Model

  1. 1. Gardner’s early Socio-Educational Model [1985] <ul><li>Socio-Psychological model works as a base for Socio-Educational model. </li></ul><ul><li>Stress is on socio-economic and cultural characteristics of the contexts </li></ul><ul><li>According to Gardner: </li></ul><ul><li>Second languages unlike virtually any other curriculum topic, must be viewed as a central social psychological phenomenon. The rationale underlying this view is that most of other school subjects involve learning elements of the student’s own cultural heritage…the acquisition of knowledge and habits which are already part of the makeup of the culture with which the student identifies. Such is not the case with second languages, however. </li></ul>
  2. 2. <ul><li>Second language acquisition is a process of “acquiring symbolic elements of a different ethno-linguistic community” </li></ul><ul><li>Characteristics: vocabulary, grammar, pronunciation and other structural features </li></ul><ul><li>When the learner adopts these elements as his language reservoir, he seems to adopt the elements of another culture </li></ul><ul><li>As a result, learner’s harmony with his own cultural community and his willingness or ability to identify with other cultural communities become important considerations in the process </li></ul><ul><li>The model explains L2 lear ning in classroom setting, in particular the foreign language classroom. </li></ul>
  3. 3. <ul><li>Direct and broken lines in model represent different roles played by individual differences depending on the learning context </li></ul><ul><li>Direct lines link the cultural beliefs to four individual difference variables, which manifest that these beliefs can influence the extent to which variables influence the second language learning achievements. </li></ul>
  4. 4. A Schematic representation of Gardner’s early Socio-Educational Model-1985 Social Milieu Individual Differences Contexts Outcomes Cultural Beliefs Intelligence Aptitude Motivation Situational Anxiety Formal Language training Informal Language Experience Linguistic Non-Linguistic
  5. 5. <ul><li>Social Milieu </li></ul><ul><li>Particular cultural context </li></ul><ul><li>Affects the development of attitudinal or motivational characteristics </li></ul><ul><li>It determines the learner’s beliefs about language + culture. Monolingual, Britain + US. Bilingual, Canada. </li></ul><ul><li>Suggests the extent to which these characteristics will influence language learning, in different contexts </li></ul><ul><li>Also involves cultural expectations of learner’s language community </li></ul><ul><li>Influence child’s relative degree of achievement in SLA </li></ul><ul><li>Cultural Beliefs+ individual differences influence the performance </li></ul><ul><li>[Learning a second language is difficult] </li></ul>
  6. 6. Individual difference Variables <ul><li>Intelligence refers to a general class of abilities, which account for individual differences in the context to which learners understand the nature of any task to be learned </li></ul><ul><li>how well and how quickly…. </li></ul><ul><li>Language Aptitude refers to the capacity to learn languages, and is typically assessed in terms of student’s verbal abilities </li></ul><ul><li>Motivation refers to those affective characteristics which include the desire the learner has for achieving a goal, and the amount of effort he expends in this direction and the effect. </li></ul><ul><li>Anxiety refers to the reactions aroused in specific situations involving second language. However, situational anxiety should not be confused with general anxiety. </li></ul>
  7. 7. Language learning context: Formal vs. Informal <ul><li>Both formal and informal contexts affect the speed and level of performance </li></ul><ul><li>The context also determines the society’s reactions to language </li></ul>Context Formal Context Informal Context 1. Classroom training Error correction, Drills 2. Individual differences play a primary role <ul><li>Society </li></ul><ul><li>Without instructions </li></ul><ul><li>2. Cognitive factors play a </li></ul><ul><li>direct role </li></ul>
  8. 8. Outcomes: Linguistic and Non-Linguistic <ul><li>These attitudes are labeled in the model as outcomes and not as the factors or causes </li></ul>Outcomes Linguistic Non-linguistic Structural aspects of language and specified language skills. Second language proficiency Aspects which are related more to second language culture, and the more positive attitudes of learners towards second language and its people
  9. 9. Modified Version: Gardner & Macintyre (1993) Antecedent Factors Individual Differences Language Acquisition Contents Outcomes Language Intelligence Strategies attitudes motivation anxiety Formal Informal Linguistic Non-Linguistic Biological Experien tial
  10. 10. <ul><li>In modified version, categories of language attitudes and Strategies are added </li></ul><ul><li>Strategy: “a plan designed for a particular purpose”. A plan/ strategy which the learners use to acquire the second language. </li></ul><ul><li>Motivation and Anxiety more dominant in informal situations </li></ul><ul><li>Both formal and informal have relevance to the development of language proficiency </li></ul>
  11. 11. <ul><li>These models provide the basis for the new researches, which are carried out for improvement. </li></ul><ul><li>Change emerges because of criticism </li></ul><ul><li>Social values, mind sets of the people, their attitude/ behavior changes with the passage of time </li></ul><ul><li>Both of the models are inter related which view second language learning as a socio-psychological process. The word socio is used in both… </li></ul><ul><li>Although these models look at language learning from different perspectives, they share the common view that second language acquisition involves goal-directed, purposeful behavior. </li></ul><ul><li>Different variables of these models are of different important, as individual differences and language learning context </li></ul><ul><li>Researchers are very much attracted towards the Individual Differences </li></ul>