Individual Differences and CALL

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Individual Differences and CALL

  1. 1. INDIVIDUAL DIFFERENCES AND CALL ?Home Material Evaluation Profile References By Ikhfi Imaniah, S.Pd
  2. 2. INDIVIDUAL DIFFERENCES AND CALL ?Home Material Evaluation Profile References By Ikhfi Imaniah, S.Pd
  3. 3. INDIVIDUAL DIFFERENCES AND CALL ?Home Material Evaluation Profile References By Ikhfi Imaniah, S.Pd
  4. 4. INDIVIDUAL DIFFERENCES AND CALL ? 3rd GROUP PRESENTATION Ikhfi Imaniah, Sri Haryati, Ika INDIVIDUAL DIFFERENCES AND CALL ?Home Material Evaluation Profile References By Ikhfi Imaniah, S.Pd
  5. 5. INDIVIDUAL DIFFERENCES AND CALL ? INDIVIDUAL DIFFERENCES Individual Differences play an important role in language teaching and learning. What is the relationship between individual differences and language learning???Home Material Summery
  6. 6. INDIVIDUAL DIFFERENCES AND CALL ?There is a belief abroad that children and some adultslearn a second language spontaneously, without makinga deliberate effort to learn the mechanics of the newlanguage--just the way they learned their first language.On the other hand, most adults would seem to needguidance, tutoring, teaching, and concentrated attentionon the form of the language rather than merely on itssubstance (meaning, communicative value). Not alllinguists and teachers agree with this premise. Onething, though, is certain: there is to date no stronglyentrenched theory to explain how people learn a secondlanguage. The only demonstrable and empirical fact isthat different people seem to learn differently. Home
  7. 7. INDIVIDUAL DIFFERENCES AND CALL ? • Second/ foreign language theories: There are two models of second/ foreign language teaching related to individual outcomes: Independent Learner Interdependent Learner Variables VariablesHome
  8. 8. INDIVIDUAL DIFFERENCES AND CALL ? Models with Independent Learner Variables The ‘Good Language Learner’ Model Monitor Model Model Develop by Brown and Fraser Levin’s ModelHome
  9. 9. INDIVIDUAL DIFFERENCES AND CALL ? Models with Interdependent Learner Variables Gardner‟s Skehan‟s Educational Model Model Spolsky‟s ModelHome
  10. 10. INDIVIDUAL DIFFERENCES AND CALL ? Teaching The Learning Out Comes Learners The Context Figure 1 :The Good Language Learning Model Figure A The good language-learner model (Naiman, Frohlich, Todesco, & Stern, 1978) In the model, Naiman et al. attempt to represent all the variables that interact in the teaching/learning of a language to speakers of other languages (hereafter referred as second language acquisition). There are three independent variables –– the learner, the context, and teaching –– that interact among themselves and two dependent variables that result from this interaction –– learning and outcome.Home
  11. 11. INDIVIDUAL DIFFERENCES AND CALL ? Materials Syllabus Teaching Resources MethodologyHome
  12. 12. INDIVIDUAL DIFFERENCES AND CALL ? Personality Cognitive style Intelligence The Motivation Learners Aptitude Attitude AgeHome
  13. 13. INDIVIDUAL DIFFERENCES AND CALL ? Opportunities for use EFL/ESL The Context Social milieuHome
  14. 14. INDIVIDUAL DIFFERENCES AND CALL ? Learning Unconscious Process Conscious Process Generalizations Transfer strategies SimplificationHome
  15. 15. INDIVIDUAL DIFFERENCES AND CALL ? Out Comes Listening Proficiency Speaking Reading Errors Writing Interlanguage Affective reactionsHome
  16. 16. INDIVIDUAL DIFFERENCES AND CALL ? Monitor Theory Monitor theory, as defined by Krashen, states that adult learners have two systems to enable them to develop their language ability: subconscious acquisition and conscious learning, with acquisition being more important. Conscious learning is only available as a "monitor", i.e. learners can consciously edit their output (utterances or written work) to make themselves more fluent or comprehensible, based on what they have formally learned about the second language. Monitor theory comprises five hypotheses about second language acquisition (SLA) developed by Stephen Krashen: the acquisition-learning hypothesis; the monitor hypothesis; the natural order hypothesis; the input hypothesis; and the affective filter hypothesis. Five hypotheses about second language acquisition (SLA) developed by Stephen KrashenHome
  17. 17. INDIVIDUAL DIFFERENCES AND CALL ? Cognitive INPUT Affective Filter MONITOR OUTPUT Organizer Figure 2: The monitor theory (Dulay, Burt, and Krashen 1982) Attitude Affective Motivation Filter Self Confidence NOTE: Affective filter may cause the quality of acquisition (output) to be higher or lower.Home
  18. 18. INDIVIDUAL DIFFERENCES AND CALL ? Model Develop by Brown and Fraser Situation Scene Participant Setting Purpose Individual Relationship between individuals Qua Member Individual of a Social categoryHome Figure 3: situational variables (based on Brown and Fraser, 1979 in Ellis, 1989:8
  19. 19. INDIVIDUAL DIFFERENCES AND CALL ? Levin’s Model He proposed two major stages in analyzing individual differences: 1. Diagnostic 2. Prescriptive Levin’s Model INPUT OUTPUT Figure 4: Levin Schematic ModelHome
  20. 20. INDIVIDUAL DIFFERENCES AND CALL ? Gardner‟s Educational Model • Socio-Psychological model works as a base for Socio- Educational model. • Stress is on socio-economic and cultural characteristics of the contexts • According to Gardner: Second languages unlike virtually any other curriculum topic, must be viewed as a central social psychological phenomenon. The rationale underlying this view is that most of other school subjects involve learning elements of the student’s own cultural heritage…the acquisition of knowledge and habits which are already part of the makeup of the culture with which the student identifies. Such is not the case with second languages, however.Home
  21. 21. INDIVIDUAL DIFFERENCES AND CALL ? Social Individual Contexts Outcomes Milieu Differences Intelligence Formal Language Linguistic training Aptitude Cultural Beliefs Motivation Informal Language Non-Linguistic Situational Experience AnxietyHome Figure 5: Gardner‟s (1979) schematic representation of theoretical model
  22. 22. INDIVIDUAL DIFFERENCES AND CALL ? Social Milieu  Particular cultural context  Affects the development of attitudinal or motivational characteristics  It determines the learner‟s beliefs about language + culture. Monolingual, Britain + US. Bilingual, Canada.  Suggests the extent to which these characteristics will influence language learning, in different contexts  Also involves cultural expectations of learner‟s language community  Influence child‟s relative degree of achievement in SLA  Cultural Beliefs+ individual differences influence the performance  [Learning a second language is difficult]Home
  23. 23. INDIVIDUAL DIFFERENCES AND CALL ? Individual difference Variables • Intelligence refers to a general class of abilities, which account for individual differences in the context to which learners understand the nature of any task to be learned how well and how quickly…. • Language Aptitude refers to the capacity to learn languages, and is typically assessed in terms of student’s verbal abilities • Motivation refers to those affective characteristics which include the desire the learner has for achieving a goal, and the amount of effort he expends in this direction and the effect. • Anxiety refers to the reactions aroused in specific situations involving second language. However, situational anxiety should not be confused with general anxiety.Home
  24. 24. INDIVIDUAL DIFFERENCES AND CALL ? Language learning context: Formal vs. Informal Context Formal Context Informal Context 1. Classroom training 1. Society Error correction, Drills Without instructions 2. Individual differences 2. Cognitive factors play a play a primary role direct role Both formal and informal contexts affect the speed and level of performance The context also determines the society‟s reactions to languageHome
  25. 25. INDIVIDUAL DIFFERENCES AND CALL ? Outcomes: Linguistic and Non-Linguistic Outcomes Linguistic Non-linguistic Aspects which are related Structural aspects of more to second language language and specified culture, and the more positive language skills. attitudes of learners towards Second language second language and its proficiency people These attitudes are labeled in the model as outcomes and not as the factors or causesHome
  26. 26. INDIVIDUAL DIFFERENCES AND CALL ? Skehan‟s Model Skehan‟s model appears to be a modification of the „Good Language Learner (GLL)‟. Skehan argued that the GLL is a good model but requires improvement. The Learner Classrooms and materials Opportunities Learning Outcome for TL use Social Context Figure 6: Skehan’s (1989:120) influences on language learningHome
  27. 27. INDIVIDUAL DIFFERENCES AND CALL ? Opportunities for target language use: 1.Access to NS • In class • Out of the class 1.Opportunities for communication language use 2.Opportunities for negotiationHome
  28. 28. INDIVIDUAL DIFFERENCES AND CALL ? Spolsky‟s Model He presumes that there is a restriction inherent in second language learning which permits a concentration not on the universality that is the concern of first language acquisition study, but on the explanation of individual difference which is the focus of second language learning research. Four features summarized as follows: 1. Combining in a single theory all aspects of second language learning 2. A restriction to specific domain of second language learning and focus on individual differences 3. A spirit eclecticism seems to underlie Spolsky’s model 4. Recognizes the importance and existence of ‘social context’ as an important domain affecting learning outcomes.Home
  29. 29. INDIVIDUAL DIFFERENCES AND CALL ? Social Context CONDITIONS Social Context: Motivation 1. Condition of both a small social environment (family or home) and, 2. Larger one (community) Age Personality Capability Previous Knowledge Community plays an important role in the Learning process of learning Opportunities second (foreign) (formal or informal) language in the sense that: 1. It influence a learner’s attitude which in turn Linguistic and non linguistic outcomes leads to the for the learners development of a learner’s motivation in learning Figure 7: Spolsky’s (1989:28) 2. It provides opportunities Model of second language learning for the learners to practice and use language.Home
  30. 30. INDIVIDUAL DIFFERENCES AND CALL ? There are two points that note from Spolsky’s model of language learning and its underlying features: 1. Spolsky’s (1989) model appears to be promising, as a parameter for identifying variations in learner variables. 2. The second point relates to the fourth feature underlying Spolsky’s model. The feature of eclecticism clearly implies that his model can be modified and adjust according to learning conditions (context)Home
  31. 31. INDIVIDUAL DIFFERENCES AND CALL ? AGE LANGUAGE ATTITUDES USED INTERACTION WITH NATIVE SPEAKER INDIVIDUAL DIFFERENCES MOTIVATION FAMILIRITY WITH INTELLIGENCE COMPUTERS PREVIOUS LANGUAGE KNOWLEDGE APTITIDEHome
  32. 32. INDIVIDUAL DIFFERENCES AND CALL ? INDIVIDUAL DIFFERENCES Age : A number of writers assume that the age of learners learning a second or foreign language affects their achievements. Attitude : One of learner variables that needs to be taken into account because it may affect the learner‟s interaction and language learning achievement in general. Motivation (Deci, 1975): 1. Intrinsic, motivation is one of which comes from the learner‟s own personal and „not because they lead to an extrinsic reward. 2. Extrinsic, motivation coming from outside and beyond the individual. Intelligence : Various empirical studies examining the relationship between Intelligence Quotient (IQ) and language learning achievementHome
  33. 33. INDIVIDUAL DIFFERENCES AND CALL ? Language Aptitude : language learning aptitude refers to the “prediction of how well, relative to other individuals, an individual can learn a foreign language in a given amount of time and under given conditions. Previous Knowledge : plays an important role in a further process of language learning, in terms of language learning achievement. Familiarity with Computers : reflects a learner‟s experience in using computers in using a computer. Interaction with Native Speakers of English : it can enhance language learning achievement. Language Used for Interaction with the Community : No matter what language they use more frequently, a question that may arise is “Does the frequency of using the target language (English) affect language learning outcomes?”Home
  34. 34. INDIVIDUAL DIFFERENCES AND CALL ? Summary Despite the fact that no all studies on the relationship between individual-related variables and language learning achievement have related similar findings, the majority of studies indicate that these variables significantly affect language learning achievement. Some other variables have been included such as attitudes toward computers, familiarity with computers, and time spent learning English via self-access computer mediated language learning program are on account of the consideration that these variables are relevant to the learning treatment set up in this study, namely CALL environment.Home

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