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Gardners Model


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Gardners Model

  1. 1. Gardner’s early Socio-Educational Model <ul><li>Presented by Gardner in 1985 </li></ul><ul><li>Emphasis upon the need to appreciate and define the socio-economic and cultural characteristics of the contexts </li></ul><ul><li>According to Gardner: </li></ul><ul><li>Second languages unlike virtually any other curriculum topic, must be viewed as a central social psychological phenomenon. The rationale underlying this view is that most of other school subjects involve learning elements of the student’s own cultural heritage…the acquisition of knowledge and habits which are already part of the makeup of the culture with which the student identifies. Such is not the case with second languages, however. </li></ul>
  2. 2. <ul><li>Second language as a process of “acquiring symbolic elements of a different ethno-linguistic community” </li></ul><ul><li>Characteristics: vocabulary, grammar, pronunciation and other structural features </li></ul><ul><li>When the learner adopts these elements as his language reservoir, he seems to adopt the elements of another culture </li></ul><ul><li>As a result, learner’s harmony with his own cultural community and his willingness or ability to identify with other cultural communities become important considerations in the process </li></ul>
  3. 3. A Schematic representation of Gardner’s early Socio-Educational Model-1985 Social Milieu Individual Differences Contexts Outcomes Cultural Beliefs Intelligence Aptitude Motivation Situational Anxiety Formal Language training Informal Language Experience Linguistic Non-Linguistic
  4. 4. Modified Version: Gardner & MacIntyre (1993) Antecedent Factors Individual Differences Language Acquisition Contents Outcomes Language Intelligence Strategies attitudes motivation anxiety Formal Informal Linguistic Non-Linguistic Biological Experien tial
  5. 5. Role of Individual Differences <ul><li>Involvement of language skills or behavioral patterns, which form an integral part of another cultural community </li></ul><ul><li>The model comprises four parts </li></ul><ul><li>Socio-Cultural Milieu </li></ul><ul><li>Individual Differences </li></ul><ul><li>Language Acquisition Contexts </li></ul><ul><li>Learning Outcomes </li></ul><ul><li>Direct and broken lines in model represent different roles played by differences depending on the learning context </li></ul><ul><li>Direct lines link the cultural beliefs to four individual difference variables, which manifest that these beliefs can influence the extent to which variables mediate achievement in second language </li></ul>
  6. 6. <ul><li>Social Milieu </li></ul><ul><li>Suggests that SLA takes place in a particular cultural context </li></ul><ul><li>It affects the development of a series of attitudinal or motivational characteristics </li></ul><ul><li>It also suggests the extent to which these characteristics will be related to the achievement in SLL in different contexts </li></ul><ul><li>Also involves cultural expectations of learner’s cultural community </li></ul><ul><li>Influence child’s relative degree of achievement in SLA </li></ul>
  7. 7. Individual difference Variables <ul><li>Intelligence refers to a general class of abilities, which account for individual differences in the context to which learners understand the nature of any task to be learned </li></ul><ul><li>Language Aptitude refers to the capacity to learn languages, and is typically assessed in terms of student’s verbal abilities </li></ul><ul><li>Motivation refers to those affective characteristics which orient the student to try to acquire elements of the second language, and includes the desire the learner has for achieving a goal, and the amount of effort he expends in this direction </li></ul><ul><li>Anxiety refers to the reactions aroused in specific situations involving second language. However, situational anxiety should not be confused with general anxiety </li></ul>
  8. 8. <ul><li>In modified version, category of language attitudes is added </li></ul><ul><li>Motivation and Anxiety more dominant in informal situations </li></ul><ul><li>Both formal and informal have relevance to the development of language proficiency </li></ul><ul><li>Situational anxiety would be expected to influence the level of achievement in SLL in formal situation </li></ul>
  9. 9. Language learning context: Formal vs. Informal <ul><li>Formal Language Learning refers to that training which occurs in classroom situation </li></ul><ul><li>Informal refers to those situations where language is learnt without any instruction </li></ul><ul><li>In formal situation, individual differences will play primary role </li></ul><ul><li>In informal setting, affective factors, motivation and anxiety, will play direct role whereas cognitive factors such as intelligence and aptitude will play secondary roles, and later on determine the amount of input </li></ul><ul><li>Both formal and informal contexts affect the speed and level of performance </li></ul><ul><li>The context also determines the society’s reactions to language </li></ul>
  10. 10. Outcomes: Linguistic and Non-Linguistic <ul><li>Linguistic outcome refers to structural aspects of language and specified language skills </li></ul><ul><li>Non-linguistic outcomes refer to those aspects which are related more to second language culture, and the more positive attitudes of learners towards second language and its people </li></ul><ul><li>These attitudes are labeled in the model as outcomes and not as the factors or causes </li></ul>