Linguistically Diverse Education


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Linguistically Diverse Education

  1. 1. denvert Study GuideSUMMARY OF LANGUAGE DEVELOPMENTLinguistic processes consist of the subconscious aspects of language development, an innate abilityall humans possess f or acquisition of oral language, as well as the metalinguistic, conscious, f ormalteaching of language in the school and acquisition of the written system of language.This includes the acquisition of the oral and written systems of the students f irst and secondlanguages across all language domains, such as phonology, vocabulary, morphology, syntax, semantics,pragmatics and discourse.To assure cognitive and academic success in a second language, a students f irst language system,oral and written, must be developed to a high cognitive level at least through the elementary schoolyears.The learner needs:expectations of success;the conf idence to take risks and make mistakes;a willingness to share and engage;the conf idence to ask f or help; andan acceptance of the need to readjust.The teacher needs:respect f or and interest in the learner’s language, culture, thought and intentions;the ability to recognize growth points, strengths and potential;the appreciation that mistakes are necessary to learning;the conf idence to maintain breadth, richness and variety, and to match these to the learner’s interestsand direction;to stimulate and challenge; anda sensitive awareness of when to intervene and when to leave alone.***TIPS ON ANSWERING TEST ITEMS***1) Always pick the answer that builds on student/parent strengths 2)Match the proficiency level with your answer 3) Always pick theinteractionist answer over the behavioristYOU WILL NEED TO KNOW: (History of legal issues)click on this link..**Timeline of Important Legal IssuesConnected to English Learners (2010)**DOWNLOAD…
  2. 2. English Language Development powerpoint – (Good to Review)COLORADO PLACE 17 STUDY GUIDE, FROM STATESecond language acquisition stagesView more PowerPoint f rom damarisescobar1911Second Language Acquisition Theories (SLA)- BehavioristBehaviorist Theory dominated both psychology and linguistics in the 1950′s. This theory suggests thatexternal stimuli (extrinsic) can elicit an internal response which in turn can elicit an internal stimuli(intrinsic) that lead to external responses.The learning process has been described by S-R-R theorists as a process f orming stimulus-response-reward chains. These chains come about because of the nature of the environment and thenature of the learner.The environment provides the stimuli and the learner provides the responses. Comprehension orproduction of certain aspects of language and the environment provide the reward.The environment plays a major role in the exercise of the learner’s abilities since it provides the stimulithat can shape responses selectively rewarding some responses and not others.- Functionalist Theory- Nativist Theory (THE THEORY VIEWS LANGUAGE ACQUISITION AS INNATELY DETERMINED) click on…***MINDMAP OF NATIVIST THEORY***Communicative Competence ~Canale and Swain (1983)1) grammatical OR (linguistic) competence2) sociolinguistic competence3) discourse competence4) strategic competenceGrammatical competence means understanding the skills and knowledge necessary to speak andwrite accurately. Grammatical competence includes: vocabulary, word f ormation, meaning, sentencef ormation, pronunciation, spellingSociolinguistic competence involves knowing how to produce and understand the language indifferent sociolinguistic contexts, taking into consideration such factors as: the status of theparticipants, the purpose of the interaction, the norms or conventions of the interaction.Discourse competence involves the ability to combine and connect utterances (spoken) and sentences(written) into a meaningf ul whole. Discourse ranges f rom a simple spoken conversation to long written texts.Strategic competence involves the manipulation of language in order to meet communicative goals. Itinvolves both verbal and non-verbal behaviors. Speakers employ this competence f or two main reasons: 1) tocompensate f or breakdowns in communication such as when the speaker f orgets or does not know a term andis f orced to paraphrase or gesture to get the idea across; 2) to enhance the ef f ectiveness of communication
  3. 3. such as when a speaker raises or lowers the voice f or ef f ect.McNeill (1966) described the LAD as consisting of four innatelinguistic properties:1. the ability to distinguish speech sounds f rom other sounds inthe environment;2. the ability to organize linguistic events into various classesthat can be ref ined later;3. knowledge that only a certain kind of linguistic system ispossible and that other kinds are not; and4. the ability to engage in constant evaluation of the developinglinguistic system in order to construct the simplest possiblesystem out of the linguistic data that are encountered.Nativists have contributed to the discoveries of how the system of child language works. Theoristssuch as Chomsky, McNeill, and others helped us understand that a child’s language, at any given point, isa legitimate system in its own right.Cummin’s Second Language FrameworkCummin’s makes a distinction between social language and academic language.Social language ref ers to the everyday conversational language which is supported by the use ofillustrations, realism, demonstrations, etc. (Context Embedded). Studies show that language learnersacquire social language in approximately two years.Social language deals with the here-and-now language, theref ore second language learners tend toacquire it f aster.Academic language is the language of school tasks which is more abstract and decontextualized(Context Reduced).*Some second language learners who develop f luent spoken English have dif f iculties in reading and writingbecause they may be at dif f erent levels of prof iciency while they are moving f rom social language (BICS) toacademic language (CALP). It takes between f ive to seven years f or second language learners to acquireacademic language.Krashen’s Monitor ModelCategories: Teacher Exam Study Guides | Tags: Elementary Linguistically Diverse Education, English LanguageDevelopment study guide, English Language Learners, LDE study guide, Linguistically Diverse EducationEndorsement, Linguistically Diverse Education Standards, PLACE Exam in Linguistically Diverse Education,Secondary Linguistically Diverse Education, Teaching English Language Learners in the classroom | Permalink