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COGNITIVE FACTORS OF SLL
COGNITIVE FACTORS OF SECOND LANGUAGE LEARNING
1
COGNITIVE FACTORS OF SLL
ABSTRACT
In second language learning, some students progress rapidly while others struggle along ...
COGNITIVE FACTORS OF SLL
INTRODUCTION
Social psychologist argued that difference between individual learners is the most
c...
COGNITIVE FACTORS OF SLL
situations has been almost unanimously shown to be detrimental to successful learning. A related
...
COGNITIVE FACTORS OF SLL
It is common observation that students with good intelligence are able to do well in
second langu...
COGNITIVE FACTORS OF SLL
learning well and quickly, that’s why it is shown to be one of the strongest indicator of success...
COGNITIVE FACTORS OF SLL
CONCLUSION
Individual differences in intelligence, aptitude, and learning strategies have been fo...
COGNITIVE FACTORS OF SLL
REFERENCES
• Spada, N and P, M, Lightbrown. How languages are learned.
• Gardner and Macintyre (1...
COGNITIVE FACTORS OF SLL 9
COGNITIVE FACTORS OF SLL 9
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COGNITIVE FACTORS OF SECOND LANGUAGE LEARNING

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COGNITIVE FACTORS OF SECOND LANGUAGE LEARNING

  1. 1. COGNITIVE FACTORS OF SLL COGNITIVE FACTORS OF SECOND LANGUAGE LEARNING 1
  2. 2. COGNITIVE FACTORS OF SLL ABSTRACT In second language learning, some students progress rapidly while others struggle along making very slow progress. Some learners never achieve native like command of a second language. There are some individual characteristics that make one learner more successful than other, here the discussion of these internal characteristics make clear idea about which character seems most likely to be associated with success in second language learning. . 2
  3. 3. COGNITIVE FACTORS OF SLL INTRODUCTION Social psychologist argued that difference between individual learners is the most common factor that effect development of language. Second language learning even following a common developmental route but the degree of success learners achieved is always different from each other, and this is due to individual differences. LANGUAGE LEARNING FACTORS Second language refers to any language learned in addition to a person's first language. A number of factors influence anyone's success at mastering a new language. Such a complex process necessarily has many contributing causes and elements. Internal factors affecting second- language learning are those which stem from the learner's own mind. Some students learn a new language more quickly and easily than others. This simple fact is known by all who have themselves learned a second language or taught those who are using their second language in school. Clearly, some language learners are successful by virtue of their sheer determination, hard work and persistence. However there are other crucial factors influencing success that are largely beyond the control of the learner. These factors can be broadly categorized as internal and external. It is their complex interplay that determines the speed and facility with which the new language is learned. Gardner and Macintyre (1992, 1883) divide these internal factors into two groups • AFFECTIVE FACTORS • COGNITIVE FACTORS. Affective factors include learner's attitude to the learning process that has also been identified as being critically important to second-language acquisition. Anxiety in language-learning 3
  4. 4. COGNITIVE FACTORS OF SLL situations has been almost unanimously shown to be detrimental to successful learning. A related factor, personality, has also received attention. Social attitudes such as gender roles and community views toward language learning have also proven critical. Language learning can be severely hampered by cultural attitudes. Affective factors particularly include language attitude, motivation, language anxiety and willingness to communicate. But as far as this assignment is concern, the discussion will more about cognitive factors. COGNITIVE FACTORS The learner has a lot of information on his brain, as if it were the hard disk of our Computer. There are some mental factors or characteristics of an individual that make him more Successful than others these three characteristics seem most effective and important in success of Learning second language. These factors are: • INTELLIGENCE • LANGUAGE APTITUDE • LANGUAGE LEARNING STRATEGIES INTELLIGENCE Intelligence refers to mental abilities that are measured by an IQ (Intelligence quotient) test. Intelligence may be a strong factor when it comes to learning that involves language analysis and rules learning. On the other hand it may play a less important role in language learning that focuses more on communication and interaction. 4
  5. 5. COGNITIVE FACTORS OF SLL It is common observation that students with good intelligence are able to do well in second language learning at least in formal classrooms, but it varies from learners to learners but its difference does not matter. It is important to keep in mind that intelligence is complex and a person has many kinds of abilities and strengths. An individual with strong academic Performance does not necessarily mean that s/he is a successful second language learner, many students whose academic performance has been weak have experience success in second language learning. LANGUAGE APTITUDE Aptitude refers to potential for achievements. Language aptitude is very effective for second language learning, an aptitude test is designed to make a prediction about an individual future achievements. Aptitude for language learning usually composed of four different types of activities: • The ability to identify and memorize new sounds. • The ability to understand function of particular words in sentences. • The ability to figure out grammatical rules from language samples. • The ability to memorize new words. Successful language learners are not necessarily strong in all of components of aptitude some may have strong memory but only average ability to figure out grammatical rules. All learners do not share same aptitude, a child have right aptitude, they have chances of 5
  6. 6. COGNITIVE FACTORS OF SLL learning well and quickly, that’s why it is shown to be one of the strongest indicator of success (HARLEY AND HART, 1997). LANGUAGE LEARNING STRATEGIES Strategies are the implications that we apply, it have different levels. Those who are successful in second language learning are having more useful strategies, like: planning, monitoring, rehearsal, organization, etc. learners with high motivation to learn a language will likely use a variety of strategies. Learner’s preference for learning, whether due to their learning styles or to their beliefs about how language are learned, will influence the kind of strategies or implications they choose to learn new material. The more proficient learners employ strategies that are different from those used by the less proficient (Oxford and Crookall, 1989, quoted in Gardner and Macintyre, 1992, p.217). IMPLICATIONS FOR TEACHING • Teachers can select appropriate teaching approaches and activities based on learner’s intelligence and aptitude profiles to accommodate their differences and to create learning environment. • Teacher can use information about preference for learning to help learners in expanding their repertoire of learning strategies and thus develop greater flexibility in their second language learning. 6
  7. 7. COGNITIVE FACTORS OF SLL CONCLUSION Individual differences in intelligence, aptitude, and learning strategies have been found to be important determining factors in both rate of learning and eventual success in learning. It remain difficult to make precise prediction about how a particular individual characteristics influences his/her success as a language learner, because results of research are not entirely satisfactory, may be because of lack of clear methods for measuring the individual characteristics or may be because of complex interaction of those characteristics. 7
  8. 8. COGNITIVE FACTORS OF SLL REFERENCES • Spada, N and P, M, Lightbrown. How languages are learned. • Gardner and Macintyre (1992, 1993) views in Second language learning theories. • Skehan, p. 1991. Individual differences in second language learning. Studies in second language acquisition. • Spada, N. 1987. Relationships between instructional differences and learning outcomes: Applied linguistics. . . 8
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