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The Project Management Process - Week 6 Leadership

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a presentation on leadership in the context of project management

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The Project Management Process - Week 6 Leadership

  1. 1. Project Management 6. Leadership
  2. 2. week 6
  3. 3. <ul><li>Develop and facilitate leadership, </li></ul><ul><li>team building, </li></ul><ul><li>performance management, </li></ul><ul><li>conflict management skills </li></ul><ul><li>in an IT environment. </li></ul>
  4. 4. <ul><li>Gray & Larson, 2006, Ch 10. </li></ul>
  5. 5. <ul><li>Leadership and Management </li></ul><ul><li>Managing Project Stakeholders </li></ul><ul><li>Influence as Exchange </li></ul><ul><li>Commonly Traded Organizational Currencies </li></ul><ul><li>Social Network Building </li></ul><ul><li>Ethics and Project Management </li></ul><ul><li>Contradictions of Project Management </li></ul><ul><li>Qualities of an Effective Project Manager </li></ul><ul><li>Suggestions for Project Managers </li></ul>
  6. 6. <ul><li>Leadership and Management </li></ul><ul><li>Managing Project Stakeholders </li></ul><ul><li>Influence as Exchange </li></ul><ul><li>Commonly Traded Organizational Currencies </li></ul><ul><li>Social Network Building </li></ul><ul><li>Ethics and Project Management </li></ul><ul><li>Contradictions of Project Management </li></ul><ul><li>Qualities of an Effective Project Manager </li></ul><ul><li>Suggestions for Project Managers </li></ul>
  7. 7. management
  8. 8. <ul><li>management is about people </li></ul>
  9. 9. <ul><li>Management is the process of achieving organizational goals through engaging in the four major functions of planning, organizing, leading and controlling (Bartol et al, 1998). </li></ul>What is Management?
  10. 10. <ul><li>planning is the process of setting goals and deciding best way to achieve them </li></ul>planning
  11. 11. <ul><li>organizing is the process of allocating and arranging human and other resources </li></ul>organising
  12. 12. <ul><li>leading is the process of influencing others </li></ul>leading
  13. 13. <ul><li>What is controlling about? </li></ul>controlling
  14. 14. <ul><li>Management is the process of achieving organizational goals through engaging in the four major functions of planning, organizing, leading and controlling (Bartol et al, 1998). </li></ul>Management planning organising leading controlling
  15. 15. Figure 1.1 The functions of management ( Bartol et al, 1998 , p7)
  16. 16. <ul><li>Management is the process of achieving organizational goals through engaging in the four major functions of planning, organizing, leading and controlling (Bartol et al, 1998). </li></ul>What is Leadership?
  17. 17. <ul><li>The process of influencing others to achieve organizational goals </li></ul><ul><li>(Bartol et al, 1998). </li></ul>
  18. 18. <ul><li>People accept a leader’s influence because leaders have power </li></ul>
  19. 19. <ul><li>Where does power come from? </li></ul>
  20. 20. <ul><li>legitimate power </li></ul><ul><li>reward power </li></ul><ul><li>expert power </li></ul><ul><li>information power </li></ul>
  21. 21. <ul><li>legitimate power </li></ul><ul><li>reward power </li></ul><ul><li>expert power </li></ul><ul><li>information power </li></ul>An example
  22. 22. <ul><li>legitimate power </li></ul><ul><li>reward power </li></ul><ul><li>expert power </li></ul><ul><li>information power </li></ul>An example I am your manager
  23. 23. <ul><li>legitimate power </li></ul><ul><li>reward power </li></ul><ul><li>expert power </li></ul><ul><li>information power </li></ul>An example I have the authority to give you a performance bonus
  24. 24. <ul><li>legitimate power </li></ul><ul><li>reward power </li></ul><ul><li>expert power </li></ul><ul><li>information power </li></ul>An example I have the authority to give you a performance bonus
  25. 25. <ul><li>legitimate power </li></ul><ul><li>reward power </li></ul><ul><li>expert power </li></ul><ul><li>information power </li></ul>Another example
  26. 26. <ul><li>legitimate power </li></ul><ul><li>reward power </li></ul><ul><li>expert power </li></ul><ul><li>information power </li></ul>Another example I can also know how to do the job pretty well, and you want to learn
  27. 27. <ul><li>legitimate power </li></ul><ul><li>reward power </li></ul><ul><li>expert power </li></ul><ul><li>information power </li></ul>Another example I can also know how to do the job pretty well, and you want to learn
  28. 28. Leaders Managers Managers who are not leaders Leaders who are not managers People who are both managers and leaders
  29. 29. <ul><li>leader and manager are often used interchangeably </li></ul>Leaders Managers
  30. 30. <ul><li>but the two should be distinguished </li></ul>Leaders Managers
  31. 31. <ul><li>Some managers function as leaders, and this fits with the definition of management </li></ul>leaders Managers
  32. 32. <ul><li>Other managers do not function as leaders, </li></ul>leaders Managers
  33. 33. <ul><li>and not all leaders are managers </li></ul>leaders Managers
  34. 34. Innovates Administers
  35. 35. Innovates Administers An original A copy
  36. 36. Innovates Administers An original A copy Develops new things Maintains existing things
  37. 37. Innovates Administers An original A copy Develops new things Maintains existing things People focus System and structure focus
  38. 38. Innovates Administers An original A copy Develops new things Maintains existing things People focus System and structure focus Inspires trust controls
  39. 39. Innovates Administers An original A copy Develops new things Maintains existing things People focus System and structure focus Inspires trust controls Long term Short term
  40. 40. Innovates Administers An original A copy Develops new things Maintains existing things People focus System and structure focus Inspires trust controls Long term Short term Asks what and why? Asks how and when
  41. 41. Innovates Administers An original A copy Develops new things Maintains existing things People focus System and structure focus Inspires trust controls Long term Short term Asks what and why? Asks how and when Eye on the horizon Eye on the bottom line
  42. 42. Innovates Administers An original A copy Develops new things Maintains existing things People focus System and structure focus Inspires trust controls Long term Short term Asks what and why? Asks how and when Eye on the horizon Eye on the bottom line Does the right thing Does the thing right
  43. 43. Leaders Managers Innovates Administers An original A copy Develops new things Maintains existing things People focus System and structure focus Inspires trust controls Long term Short term Asks what and why? Asks how and when Eye on the horizon Eye on the bottom line Does the right thing Does the thing right
  44. 44. Leaders Managers Innovates Administers An original A copy Develops new things Maintains existing things People focus System and structure focus Inspires trust controls Long term Short term Asks what and why? Asks how and when Eye on the horizon Eye on the bottom line Does the right thing Does the thing right <ul><ul><li>(Bennis cited in Tozer, 1997). </li></ul></ul>
  45. 45. <ul><li>http://www.slideshare.net/tommyland/management-vs-leadership-on-linkedin </li></ul>Leadership and Managers are not the same thing
  46. 46. <ul><li>Do projects need leaders or managers? </li></ul>
  47. 47. <ul><li>A project manager has many roles and responsibilities </li></ul>
  48. 48. <ul><li>Managing projects is managing complexity </li></ul>
  49. 49. <ul><li>Formulate plans and objectives </li></ul>
  50. 50. <ul><li>Monitor results </li></ul>
  51. 51. <ul><li>Take corrective action </li></ul>
  52. 52. <ul><li>Expedite activities </li></ul>
  53. 53. <ul><li>Solve technical problems </li></ul>
  54. 54. <ul><li>Serve as peacemaker </li></ul>
  55. 55. <ul><li>Make tradeoffs among time, costs, and project scope </li></ul>
  56. 56. <ul><li>Recognize the need to change to keep the project on track </li></ul>
  57. 57. <ul><li>Initiate change </li></ul>
  58. 58. <ul><li>Provide direction and motivation </li></ul>
  59. 59. <ul><li>Innovate and adapt as necessary </li></ul>
  60. 60. <ul><li>Integrate assigned resources </li></ul>
  61. 61. <ul><li>Formulate plans and objectives </li></ul><ul><li>Monitor results </li></ul><ul><li>Take corrective action </li></ul><ul><li>Expedite activities </li></ul><ul><li>Solve technical problems </li></ul><ul><li>Serve as peacemaker </li></ul><ul><li>Make tradeoffs among time, costs, and project scope </li></ul><ul><li>Recognize the need to change to keep the project on track </li></ul><ul><li>Initiate change </li></ul><ul><li>Provide direction and motivation </li></ul><ul><li>Innovate and adapt as necessary </li></ul><ul><li>Integrate assigned resources </li></ul>
  62. 62. <ul><li>Leadership and Management </li></ul><ul><li>Managing Project Stakeholders </li></ul><ul><li>Influence as Exchange </li></ul><ul><li>Commonly Traded Organizational Currencies </li></ul><ul><li>Social Network Building </li></ul><ul><li>Ethics and Project Management </li></ul><ul><li>Contradictions of Project Management </li></ul><ul><li>Qualities of an Effective Project Manager </li></ul><ul><li>Suggestions for Project Managers </li></ul>
  63. 63. <ul><li>What are stakeholders? </li></ul>
  64. 64. <ul><li>You can’t do it all and get it all done </li></ul>
  65. 65. <ul><li>Projects usually involve a vast web of relationships </li></ul>
  66. 66. <ul><li>Hands-on work is not the same as leading </li></ul>
  67. 67. <ul><li>More pressure and more involvement </li></ul>
  68. 68. <ul><li>More pressure and more involvement </li></ul><ul><li>will reduce your effectiveness as a leader </li></ul>
  69. 69. <ul><li>What’s important to you </li></ul>
  70. 70. <ul><li>What’s important to you </li></ul><ul><li>likely </li></ul>
  71. 71. <ul><li>What’s important to you </li></ul><ul><li>likely </li></ul><ul><li>isn’t as important to someone else </li></ul>
  72. 72. <ul><li>Different groups have different stakes </li></ul>
  73. 73. <ul><li>Different groups have different stakes </li></ul><ul><li>(responsibilities, agendas, and priorities) </li></ul><ul><li>in the outcome of a project. </li></ul>
  74. 74. <ul><li>Remember </li></ul>
  75. 75. <ul><li>Remember </li></ul><ul><li>Project management is tough, exciting, and rewarding . </li></ul>
  76. 76. <ul><li>Remember </li></ul><ul><li>Project management is tough, exciting, and rewarding . </li></ul><ul><li>so persevere </li></ul>
  77. 77. http://www.betterprojects.net/2007/05/introduction-to-stakeholder-management.html
  78. 78. Figure 10.1 Network of stakeholders ( Gray & Larson, 2006 , p314)
  79. 79. <ul><li>Project team </li></ul><ul><li>manages and completes the project work. Most participants want to do a good job, but they are also concerned with other obligations and how their involvement will contribute to their personal goals and aspirations </li></ul>
  80. 80. <ul><li>Project managers </li></ul><ul><li>naturally compete with each other for resources and support top management. At the same time, they have to share the resources and exchange information. </li></ul>
  81. 81. <ul><li>Functional managers </li></ul><ul><li>depending upon how the project is organised can play minor or major role toward the project success, for example providing technical input etc. </li></ul>
  82. 82. <ul><li>Top management </li></ul><ul><li>approves funding of the project and establishes the priorities within the organization. They define success, rewards for the successful completing of the project. Significant adjustments in scope, time and cost </li></ul>
  83. 83. <ul><li>Project sponsors </li></ul><ul><li>champion of the project and use their influence to gain approval of the project. Their reputation is tied to the success of the project </li></ul>
  84. 84. <ul><li>Customers </li></ul><ul><li>define the scope of the project, and ultimate project success rests in their satisfaction. Project managers need to be responsive to changing customer needs and requirements and to meeting their expectations </li></ul>
  85. 85. <ul><li>Administrative groups </li></ul><ul><li>such as human resources, information systems, purchasing agents, maintenance etc. provide valuable support service. </li></ul>
  86. 86. <ul><li>Government agencies </li></ul><ul><li>Place constrains on project work. Permits need to be secured </li></ul>
  87. 87. <ul><li>Contractors </li></ul><ul><li>may do the actual work with team members </li></ul>
  88. 88. <ul><li>Leadership and Management </li></ul><ul><li>Managing Project Stakeholders </li></ul><ul><li>Influence as Exchange </li></ul><ul><li>Commonly Traded Organizational Currencies </li></ul><ul><li>Social Network Building </li></ul><ul><li>Ethics and Project Management </li></ul><ul><li>Contradictions of Project Management </li></ul><ul><li>Qualities of an Effective Project Manager </li></ul><ul><li>Suggestions for Project Managers </li></ul>
  89. 89. <ul><li>Leadership and Management </li></ul><ul><li>Managing Project Stakeholders </li></ul><ul><li>Influence as Exchange </li></ul><ul><li>Commonly Traded Organizational Currencies </li></ul><ul><li>Social Network Building </li></ul><ul><li>Ethics and Project Management </li></ul><ul><li>Contradictions of Project Management </li></ul><ul><li>Qualities of an Effective Project Manager </li></ul><ul><li>Suggestions for Project Managers </li></ul>
  90. 90. TABLE 10.1 Task-related currencies Resources Lending or giving money, budget increases, personnel, etc. Assistance Helping with existing projects or undertaking unwanted tasks. Cooperation Giving task support, providing quicker response time, or aiding implementation. Information Providing organizational as well as technical knowledge. Position-related currencies Advancement Giving a task or assignment that can result in promotion. Recognition Acknowledging effort or abilities. Visibility Providing a chance to be known by higher-ups or significant others in the organization. Network/contacts Providing opportunities for linking with others. Source: Adapted from A. R. Cohen and David L. Bradford, Influence without Authority (New York: John Wiley & Sons, 1990). Reprinted by permission of John Wiley & Sons, Inc.
  91. 91. TABLE 10.1 (cont’d) Inspiration-related currencies Vision Being involved in a task that has larger significance for the unit, organization, customer, or society. Excellence Having a chance to do important things really well. Ethical correctness Doing what is “right” by a higher standard than efficiency. Relationship-related currencies Acceptance Providing closeness and friendship. Personal support Giving personal and emotional backing. Understanding Listening to others’ concerns and issues. Personal-related currencies Challenge/learning Sharing tasks that increase skills and abilities. Ownership/involvement Letting others have ownership and influence. Gratitude Expressing appreciation.
  92. 92. <ul><li>Leadership and Management </li></ul><ul><li>Managing Project Stakeholders </li></ul><ul><li>Influence as Exchange </li></ul><ul><li>Commonly Traded Organizational Currencies </li></ul><ul><li>Social Network Building </li></ul><ul><li>Ethics and Project Management </li></ul><ul><li>Contradictions of Project Management </li></ul><ul><li>Qualities of an Effective Project Manager </li></ul><ul><li>Suggestions for Project Managers </li></ul>
  93. 93. <ul><li>Mapping Dependencies </li></ul><ul><li>for social networks </li></ul>
  94. 94. <ul><li>Project team perspective </li></ul><ul><li>Whose cooperation will be needed? </li></ul><ul><li>Whose agreement or approval will we need? </li></ul><ul><li>Whose opposition would keep us from accomplishing the project? </li></ul>
  95. 95. <ul><li>Stakeholders’ perspective </li></ul><ul><li>What differences exist between the team and those on whom the team will depend? </li></ul><ul><li>How do the stakeholders view the project? </li></ul><ul><li>What is the status of our relationships with the stakeholders? </li></ul><ul><li>What sources of influence does the team have relative to the stakeholders? </li></ul>
  96. 96. Figure 10.2 Dependencies for financial software installation project ( Gray & Larson, 2006 , p320)
  97. 97. <ul><li>Characteristics of Effective Project Managers </li></ul><ul><li>initiate contact with key players </li></ul><ul><li>anticipate potential problems </li></ul><ul><li>provide encouragement </li></ul><ul><li>reinforce the objectives and vision of the project </li></ul><ul><li>intervene to resolve conflicts and prevent stalemates </li></ul>
  98. 98. <ul><li>Management by Walking Around (MBWA) </li></ul><ul><li>A management style that involves managers spending the majority of time outside of their offices in face-to-face interactions with employees building cooperative relationships </li></ul>
  99. 99. <ul><li>Managing Upward Relations </li></ul><ul><li>Project Success = Top Management Support </li></ul><ul><li>appropriate budgets </li></ul><ul><li>responsiveness to unexpected needs </li></ul><ul><li>a clear signal to the organization of the importance of cooperation </li></ul><ul><li>Motivating the Project Team </li></ul><ul><li>influence top management to favor team by </li></ul><ul><li>withdrawing unreasonable demands </li></ul><ul><li>providing additional resources </li></ul><ul><li>recognizing the activities of team members </li></ul>
  100. 100. Figure 10.3 The significance of a project sponsor ( Gray & Larson, 2006 , p324)
  101. 101. <ul><li>Leading by Example </li></ul><ul><li>Highly visible, interactive management style which allows building and sustaining cooperative relationship and modeling project managers behavior </li></ul>
  102. 102. <ul><li>6 aspects of leading by example </li></ul><ul><li>Priorities </li></ul><ul><li>Urgency </li></ul><ul><li>problem solving </li></ul><ul><li>standards of performance </li></ul><ul><li>Ethics </li></ul><ul><li>Co-operation </li></ul>
  103. 103. Figure 10.4 Leading by example ( Gray & Larson, 2006 , p326)
  104. 104. <ul><li>Leadership and Management </li></ul><ul><li>Managing Project Stakeholders </li></ul><ul><li>Influence as Exchange </li></ul><ul><li>Commonly Traded Organizational Currencies </li></ul><ul><li>Social Network Building </li></ul><ul><li>Ethics and Project Management </li></ul><ul><li>Contradictions of Project Management </li></ul><ul><li>Qualities of an Effective Project Manager </li></ul><ul><li>Suggestions for Project Managers </li></ul>
  105. 105. Industry ethical guidelines <ul><li>www.pmi.org </li></ul>
  106. 106. <ul><li>Ethical dilemmas </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Situations where it is difficult to determine whether conduct is right or wrong </li></ul></ul>
  107. 107. <ul><li>lagging of cost and time estimations </li></ul><ul><li>falsely assuring customers that everything is fine </li></ul><ul><li>being pressured to alter status reports </li></ul><ul><li>falsifying cost accounts </li></ul><ul><li>compromising safety standards to accelerate progress </li></ul><ul><li>approving poor work </li></ul>
  108. 108. <ul><li>Leadership and Management </li></ul><ul><li>Managing Project Stakeholders </li></ul><ul><li>Influence as Exchange </li></ul><ul><li>Commonly Traded Organizational Currencies </li></ul><ul><li>Social Network Building </li></ul><ul><li>Ethics and Project Management </li></ul><ul><li>Contradictions of Project Management </li></ul><ul><li>Qualities of an Effective Project Manager </li></ul><ul><li>Suggestions for Project Managers </li></ul>
  109. 109. Contradictions of Project Management
  110. 110. Contradictions of Project Management Innovator! Maintain stability!
  111. 111. Contradictions of Project Management Innovator! Maintain stability! Individuals! Teamwork!
  112. 112. Contradictions of Project Management Innovator! Maintain stability! Individuals! Teamwork! Flexible! Determined!
  113. 113. Contradictions of Project Management Innovator! Maintain stability! Individuals! Teamwork! Flexible! Determined! Team loyalty! Organisational loyalty!
  114. 114. <ul><li>Leadership and Management </li></ul><ul><li>Managing Project Stakeholders </li></ul><ul><li>Influence as Exchange </li></ul><ul><li>Commonly Traded Organizational Currencies </li></ul><ul><li>Social Network Building </li></ul><ul><li>Ethics and Project Management </li></ul><ul><li>Contradictions of Project Management </li></ul><ul><li>Qualities of an Effective Project Manager </li></ul><ul><li>Suggestions for Project Managers </li></ul>
  115. 115. Qualities of an Effective Project Manager <ul><ul><li>Systems thinker </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Personal integrity </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Proactive </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>High tolerance for stress </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>General business perspective </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Good communicator </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Effective time management </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Skillful politician </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Optimist </li></ul></ul>
  116. 116. <ul><li>Leadership and Management </li></ul><ul><li>Managing Project Stakeholders </li></ul><ul><li>Influence as Exchange </li></ul><ul><li>Commonly Traded Organizational Currencies </li></ul><ul><li>Social Network Building </li></ul><ul><li>Ethics and Project Management </li></ul><ul><li>Contradictions of Project Management </li></ul><ul><li>Qualities of an Effective Project Manager </li></ul><ul><li>Suggestions for Project Managers </li></ul>
  117. 117. Leaders:
  118. 118. References <ul><li>Bartol, K. et al. (1998). Management – A pacific rim focus (2 nd ed.). Roseville, NSW: McGraw-Hill. </li></ul><ul><li>Greenberg, J. & Baron, R. (1993). Behavior in organizations (4 th ed.). Syd., NSW: Allyn and Bacon. </li></ul><ul><li>Tozer, J. (1997). Leading initiative – Leadership, teamwork and the bottom line. Port Melb., Vic: Butterworth-Heinemann. </li></ul>
  119. 119. Next Week <ul><li>Gray & Larson, 2006, Ch. 11 . </li></ul>Reading: Managing Project Teams Topic:
  120. 120. http://flickr.com/photos/lumaxart/2137729430/ http://flickr.com/photos/lukemontague/257339079/ http://flickr.com/photos/dunechaser/2019456693/ http://flickr.com/photos/shadows_and_light/2072085898/sizes/sq/ http://flickr.com/photos/mjthomas43/289435126/sizes/sq/ http://flickr.com/photos/trvr3307/127632207/sizes/sq/ http://flickr.com/photos/imranchaudhry/2208102635/sizes/sq/ http://flickr.com/photos/soldiersmediacenter/397708723/sizes/sq/ http://flickr.com/photos/beija-flor/52292046/sizes/sq/ http://flickr.com/photos/maniya/2731402919/sizes/sq/ http://flickr.com/photos/skistz/398429879/sizes/sq/ http://flickr.com/photos/jeffbelmonte/8228640/sizes/sq/ http://flickr.com/photos/craigwbrown/118034346/sizes/sq/ http://flickr.com/photos/cindy47452/2479210076/sizes/sq/ http://flickr.com/photos/gadl/366202554/sizes/sq/ http://flickr.com/photos/cmbellman/2775956184/sizes/sq/in/photostream/
  121. 121. http://flickr.com/photos/cmbellman/2772343336/sizes/sq/ http://flickr.com/photos/ppdigital/2327873620/sizes/sq/in/set-72157603263059146/ http://flickr.com/photos/jenicra84/2174260506/sizes/sq/ http://flickr.com/photos/eticas/2282480520/sizes/sq/ http://flickr.com/photos/worldeconomicforum/374706891/sizes/sq/ http://flickr.com/photos/meredithfarmer/315541970/sizes/sq/
  122. 122. BetterProjects.net <ul><li>Title page pic care of lumaxart & CC @ Flickr </li></ul><ul><li>http://flickr.com/photos/lumaxart/2137729430/ </li></ul>

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