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What the Cows Told Us: Measuring Women's Empowerment in a Dairy Value Chain


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What the Cows Told Us: Measuring Women's Empowerment in a Dairy Value Chain

  1. 1. What the Cows Told Us: Measuring Womens Empowerment in a Dairy Value ChainKakuly Tanvin, SDVC Project Manager, G&TNurul Amin Siddiquee, SDVC Team Leader Shreyas Sreenath, Fulbright Fellow Strengthening the Dairy value Chain Project
  2. 2. AgendaProject Overview Gender Approach Results & Lessons Measuring Gender Impact The Road Ahead
  4. 4. Goal of the Project35,000 targeted landless and smallholding households in North and NorthwesternBangladesh (50% women) have increasedincomes and more sustainable livelihoodsthrough incorporation into a strengthened milk value chain (2007-2011)Objectives of the Project Improve the milk collection system in rural and remote areas Increase production by improving access to inputs, markets, and services by mobilizing groups of poor producers and input service provider. Improve the breeding/Artificial Insemination (AI) network Ensure access to quality animal health services at the producer level Improve the policy environment.
  5. 5. Stats Total Number (# ofParticipants Women % women)Producer organized & trained 36400 (29745) 82%Producer Groups formed 1162 (524) 45%Farmer Leader trained 3425 (2443) 71%Milk Collector trained 308 (28) 9%Livestock Health Worker 201 (45) 22%trainedAI Technicians Trained 52 (5) 10%Dairy Input Shop 170 (31) 19%
  6. 6. Our Target Beneficiaries: A Case Study• Hamida Begum is married, has three children, works as a day laborer and tends her family’s two cows• Average Household: – Very poor – Own 0.75 acres of land – $25 monthly income – 1-3 cows 6
  7. 7. SDVC Theory of Change
  8. 8. Why Dairy?Economic Rationale Gender Rationale• Growing demand in urban markets • Women’s current role and relative abilityfor fresh milk to engage – low barriers to entry• Growing investment in infrastructure • Proximity to HH and relatively low laborand processing capacity across requirementsprivate sector • Potential to build on cultural legacy that• High # of poor households already valued women’s engagement in dairy asinvolved in dairy an economic activity – combating current norms and trend toward male dominance• Potential for doubling income for as dairy sector maturesimpact groups. Other Factors * Nutritional value * Supportive enabling environment * Potential for Scale
  10. 10. Activity Area Intended OutcomeTarget women Increase women’s knowledge, skills, social capital, financialproducers to join inclusion, access to inputs and markets, leadershipproduction groups capacity, productive capacity, incomesIdentify and promote Improve incomes of most destitute women, challengeopportunities for traditional gender norms, improve women’s access towomen to take on services tailored to their needs (women for women)roles traditionallydominated by menEngage men and Increase women’s mobility, promote more balanced homepower holders work balance, increase women’s control over assets andthrough sensitization incomesPromote gender- Improve private sector understanding of women’s needsresponsive services and preferences as clients and business partners tofrom other market improve women’s inclusion in the dairy sectoractorsOverarching strategy Use cattle keeping as a platform to instigate positive change in the daily lives of poor women. Redefine societal beliefs of what is appropriate work for men and women to do.
  11. 11. RESULTS
  12. 12. Group Gender Composition and Income• Overall, Households within Learning Groups with Female Leaders have incomes that are 3-6% higher.• Learning Groups with Female Leaders do relatively better as the Phase progresses
  13. 13. Group Leader Gender & Group Composition• Group composition plus leader gender affects income from milk• Learning Groups with a high percentage of women producers with a female group leader perform the best overall.• Learning Groups with a high percentage of women producers and a male group leader perform the least well.• Learning Groups with a high percentage of men producers do moderately well regardless of group leader gender.
  14. 14. Gender, Groups, Ownership & Income• Households where women own cattle do about 10% better in earning money than do households where women do not own cattle. However, this relationship is complex and is changing over timeHouseholds in which women own cattle and women make the cattle sellingdecisions are more likely to sell cattle and are more likely to have higher incomesoverall.
  15. 15. • Female LHW with basic trainingachieve a 33% higher incomeincrease than men• Female LHW with advanced trainingachieve a 22% higher incomeincrease than men• Female LHW with both basic andadvanced training achieve a 17%higher income increase than men• Female LHW with loans have a 35%higher increase in income than men• Female LHW without loans have a24% higher increase than men
  16. 16. How we got here Targeted women farmers, trained farmers leaders, & serviceproviders Built the leadership capacity of women farmers’ groups andinformed them about fair prices, animal husbandry and farmmanagement practices. Included spouses and other family and community membersduring the selection process and in other activities throughsensitization sessions Developed barrier checklists, followed up the results withinterventions in the household and community level Engaged men to explore their perspectives & to ensure theirparticipation in sharing the labor that is put into cattle rearing. Facilitated network and linkage building for women groups inparticular with private sector and government service providers
  18. 18. M&E System Components Evaluation Gender, Assets & Agriculture Project - Partnered with IFPRI & Data - Partnered with IFPRI - Baseline / Midline / Endline -Focus on enhancing qualitative -Multiple Control Groups to understanding of change incapture both spillover in SDVC women’s empowerment communities and maintaincounterfactual in ‘like’ areas w/o - To explore and examine the activity sustainable impacts on women and men’s asset acquisition, - Sex disaggregated data asset ownership, and related impacts on household and - Explicit questions on women’s community gender dynamicsinclusion, changes in Agency and Relations -Multi-method approach and tools
  19. 19. The Tools We Used Tools Purpose Tool typeFGD Explore women’s access to asset ownership, to Research and M&E mkt & credit and project impact on WELife History Analysis Explore project impact and WE process Research and M&EPPT Group performance assessment (ranking) by Research and M&E members & develop improvement planGroup Progress Regular monitoring on milestones including Research and M&ESurvey genderGender equity format To aware on gender discrimination and Gender Awarenessanalysis importance of equity24 hr clock analysis To reduce women’s workload Gender AwarenessAsset ownership To aware on importance of asset ownership Gender Awarenesspattern analysis and access to incomeWomen barrier Follow up on barriers for women in DVC Gender Awareness,Checklist research /M&EBarrier Tree analysis To aware on barrier, its cause, consequences Gender AwarenessPeer review To assess men and women’s perception on Gender Awareness, their need and document project impact on the research and M&E change
  20. 20. Select Key Findings Economic interventions have high spillover ratio, empowermentinterventions do not – IFPRI MTE Change at agency level fosters an increase in asset ownership( 7.4% increase in cattle owner ship) Cattle keeping can be used to empower women to step into newspaces traditionally closed off by ensuring participation in variousparts of the value chain. (GAAP baseline study)
  21. 21. THE ROAD AHEAD
  22. 22. What we learned/Road Ahead• Women are likely to be empowered when livelihood activities that they already participate in (i.e. cattle keeping) are strengthened through an agricultural intervention, but there are two caveats: – First, women are empowered from cattle keeping because it is close to the spaces they interact with, and SDVC has to make sure the infrastructure it builds stays close to women. – Second, if SDVC wants to continue empowering women to participate further up the value chain, it should also use the leverage that cattle keeping activities have to help women participate in new spaces.• SDVC recognizes that there are challenges to women’s participation when they are exposed to increased production and commercialization of the dairy value chain, as men are more likely to control activities at this level. – So, it will use the two points above as a framework to help women producers enter commercial markets while continuing to empower them. – It will also engage men’s perspectives and participation in designing & implementing policies targeted towards women’s empowerment.
  23. 23. Thank You Learn more at email: Nurul Amin Siddiquee Kakuly Tanvin Shreyas Sreenath