Making visible what is currently not visible: Experiences on generating evidence based results on integrating gender issues in projects
Making Visible what is currently not Visible:Experiences on generating Evidence based Results on Integrating Gender Issues in Projects. Dr. Petra Saghir (AWARD Fellow) Poverty Gender and Innovation ILRI, Nairobi, 18 May 2012
IntroductionInstitutional changes for Capacity Building and Partnerships• integral part of the world’s strategy for agricultural development• produce the much needed skills to provide leadership, catalyze and facilitate agricultural development process• constitute a miniature of society and its structural inequalities• historical, socio-cultural, socioeconomic and structural/institutional categories• encourage more girls and women to engage in agricultural sciences, research, innovations and technological development• lead to increased numbers of female and male agricultural professionalsIn 2008, less than 25% of agricultural researchers and less than 15% of theleaders of agricultural institutions were women.
AWARD• < 1 in 4 agricultural researchers is a woman, and <1 in 7 of the leaders of agricultural institutions is a woman• career development program that strengthens the scientific and leadership skills of African women in agricultural research• help to remove any ‘glass ceiling’, ‘sticky floors’ and ‘revolving doors’• contribute more effectively to poverty alleviation and food security• women are underserved throughout the agricultural value chain.• current leadership for agricultural research is small in number, almost exclusively male, and on the verge of retirement• leadership will be all the more effective when women are highly represented in technical competence to generate
AWARD Impact Assessments• 80% experienced a significant increase in their self- awareness and confidence; 48% received awards and scholarships e.g. Global Conference on women in Agric.• 83% improved their scientific skills and access to resources = significant increase in their scientific outputs, on average 2 peer-reviewed journal publications in two years• 78% felt better equipped to overcome constraints; experienced a growing positive reputation & just under half were promoted, career change• two-thirds made their work even more responsive to the needs of women farmers• hundreds of examples of effective solutions for agricultural development like the two you heard here today.
Objectives of Research Attachment• Further capacities strengthening and sustainable utilization of skills• Networking, partnership, mentoring, innovative methods & approaches and practical experience• Contribute to the improvement of the lives of the disadvantaged and enhancing their opportunities• Transform gender awareness within the academia into gender transformative development to change/challenge orthodoxies• Analytical skills needed to understand the complexity of gender issues
Activities Profile• (a) CGP project: Integrating Dairy Goat and Root Crop Production for Increasing Food, Nutrition and Income Security of Smallholder Farmers in Tanzania supported by International Development Research Centre (IDRC) and Canadian International Agency for Development (CIDA) in collaboration with Sokoine University of Agriculture, Tanzania (SUA) and University of Alberta, Canada• (b) IFPRI/ ILRI: Gender and Agriculture Assets Project (GAAP) in Bangladesh, Burkina Faso, Mozambique, Kenya, Tanzania, India and Uganda in collaboration with IFPRI supported by Bill and Melinda Gates Foundation• (c) FORD FOUNDATION Project: Evaluating the Impacts of Livestock and Aquaculture Microcredit and Value Chain Programs on Women’s Empowerment, Eastern Africa –The International Livestock Research Institute supported by Ford Foundation.• (d)ACIAR Gender-Climate project: Australian Center for International Agric. Research (ACIAR)-Gender and climate Risk consideration for research (crop/livestock) in Africa
CGP TanzaniaIntroduction and Objectives• Domestic livestock and root crops are important components of the agricultural sector in Tanzania, with goats ranking second to cattle in contribution of livestock.• Low growth rates of livestock and low milk production among small-scale farmers limit food and nutritional benefits.• The project seeks to improve food security and human nutrition through an integrated program of dairy goat cross-breeding/cassava and sweet potato production for food and feed.
Qualitative StudyStudy Area• Two districts: Mvomero and Kongwa representing 4 communities - Wami Luhindo, Kunke, Masinyeti and IhandaMethodology• Purposive selection: Communities practiced mixed crop/livestock systems. total of 12 GDs were conducted involving 224 men and womenQualitative data: Gender disaggregated and mixed—men andwomen—Group DiscussionsTools: Ranking, Pairwise ranking, proportion pilling and Venndiagrams.Data Analysis: Descriptive measures such aspercentages, tables, pie, bar charts, proportion pilling, Venndiagram and Verbal quotes
ResultsCommunity wealth and classification• Poor (45%), Average (37%) and Rich (18%)• On average, Male HHs (62%) FHHs (28%) and 10% CHHs• The female & child HHs and HIV HHs were more vulnerable to: i) poverty, ii) food insecurity iii) having undisciplined children.• 35% of the population is affected by HIV/AIDS and 65% do not know their status• 10 – 70% of HHs are food insecure• On & Off farm Livelihoods activities• Rich women produce crops & rich men, average wealth produce livestock• Casual labour is off farm activity by poor men and women engage in sale of charcoal and firewood less remunerative• Men makes bricks, do small businesses eg grocery stores & sale of grains• Community cohesion/collective responsibilities (Venn Diagram)
Gender issues in livestock/crop productionOwnership, Management and decision making in relation togoats• Men owned all the goats and made related decisions; Single women or through inheritance• Ownership affected by patriarchal tradition• Women were by far less likely than men to own not only goats, but also livestock in generalOn management: associated with gender• rural–urban migration influence management increases women’s workloadOn decision-making over goats, women have limited control oversale and use of incomesCrops ownership: depends on market prices and yield• Men own cash crops/crops for cash; women own subsistence or food crops for home consumption.
Perception of men and women• Varied Perceptions of women and men• Men perceived value addition resulting from owning dairy goats & attendant increase in income• anticipated increase in men’s real income could come about either through men accessing women’s income• women using their earnings to substitute men’s expenditure on household needs and children’s education.• Women perceived change in status quo and increase workload resulting from stall goat management activities.• Output: Discussion Paper entitled NO: 21 ‘Integrating improved goat breeds with new varieties of sweet potatoes and cassava in the agro-pastoral systems of Tanzania: A gendered analysis’ and Gender Strategy for CGP, Tanzaniahttp://mahider.ilri.org/handle/10568/16959
Gender and Agriculture Assets Project (GAAP) IFPRI/ILRIEvaluating the Impacts of Agricultural Development Programming onGender Inequalities, Asset Disparities, and Rural LivelihoodsPurpose• To reduce the gap between men’s and women’s control and ownership of assets, by evaluating how and how well agricultural development programs build women’s assets• Three-year project, supported by the Bill and Melinda Gates Foundation• Development partners Moz., Kenya&Tanz. Bangladesh, Burkina Faso and Eastern India, )Why assets?• Control over and ownership of assets is a critical component to well-being• Increasing control/ownership of assets help create pathways out of poverty more than measures that aim to increase incomes or consumption alone• Different types of assets matter to both men and women
Why look at control of assets?• Households do not pool resources nor share the same preferences• Who receives resources determines impact of policy• Evidence from many countries that increasing resources controlled by women improves child health and nutrition, agricultural productivity, income growth – how to target women with development interventions – how to improve participation – what to do to increase the chances that they will benefit from agricultural development projects• Deliverable/Output:A report on the Qualitative Gendered Assessment ofGAAP / Land O Lakes – Mozambique Smallholder DairyDevelopment Project (MSDDP)
FORD FoundationIntroduction: Evaluating the impacts of livestock and aquaculture microcreditand value chain programs on women’s empowerment Women’s right and their economic opportunities projects are rarely conducted together although they might have a chance of ensuring greater change towards women empowerment Increasing opportunities for earnings for women does not guarantee empowerment Making women aware of their rights minus financial resources does not guarantee empowerment A shift from human rights universal views on women rights that neglect corresponding ability to exercise rights on economic issues Main Objective: To improve the impacts of livelihood programs on women and their households through the integration of women’s rights into economic development projectsCase study approach: East Africa Dairy Development Project, JuhudiKilimo, Kenya Women Holding Aquaculture project, KARI Value chains project
Women’s Empowerment in Agriculture (EWAI) & Gender Parity Index• WEAI captures Women’s empowerment and inclusion level in the agricultural sector e.g. in ownership & control of assets, workload, leisure, leadership quality, decision making, achievement etc.• The purpose of the index is to understand why women in developing countries face persistence obstacles and economic constraints despite their contributions to agric growth
Output:Kitale, Eldoret and Malindi to collect data Weighted Empowerment score Income Decision ACCESS CREDIT ACCESS TO PRODUCTION CAPITAL Income decision making Productive decision making Earn More than HH head Leadership Index
ACIAR• Australian Center for International Agric. Research (ACIAR)- Gender and climate Risk consideration for research (crop/livestock) in Africa• Gender Integration in Climate Change and Crop/Livestock• Different varying multiple and simultaneous effects on females, males and their households• Women are change agents and custodians of climate resilience & mitigation• Workshop (Facilitated) 2nd -5th May 11 countries• A Framework for Integrating Gender and Climate Change Considerations into Crop-Livestock Research
Why women?• Media, Activists and Politicians; wrong approaches & methodologies• Existing ideologies (beliefs/ideas onto which actions are based) socialization = gender identity• legal and customary rights of formal & informal Institutions rules• Labor overload (production, reproduction)• Identities determined by gender and socio-economic status.• different entitlements right from birth e.g. land, commercialization, migration & capital leading to constraints; Unequal terms of marriage• Society socially exclude and, or unfavorably include (“unequal” terms of social participation) opportunities for advancement. Limit & undermine the capacity to take up opportunities• male resistance and silencing = vulnerability; no research recognition Affect women agency (= oppression & insubordination)
In reality…………• Women shapes the totality of production, processing, distribution and consumption• Closing the gender gap in agriculture leads to gains not only for the agriculture sector but for the society as well (FAO, 2011)• 40-60% of farmers in Sub Saharan Africa are women• Female membership in agricultural marketing cooperatives is generally low despite their major role in the agriculture sector• Different impacts of interventions• Treating the HH as a unit decrease the effectiveness of development interventions• A focus on gender can increase the productivity of agriculture and livestock systems, and improve food security and nutrition• increase farm yields by 20-30%; increase agricultural output by 2.5-4%, reducing the number of hungry people by 12-17% such gains could reduce the number of hungry people by between 100-150 million
• Lesson Learnt Gender mainstreaming in CRPs• These attempts so far have elicited important lessons that must be used to move forward to ensure continuity• A positive attitude created in both the management and few scientists• lack of accountability leaves gender incorporation as an individual initiative rather than organizational or program commitment• Generating and utilizing gender disaggregated dataset is crucial to enhance the success of research and development endeavors• external donor based projects and this has contributed to gender being viewed as a foreign concept• One/5 time training is not adequate to influence attitudes of researchers and development practitioners; conscious effort• The fact that most of the people involved are female has given researchers the impression that gender equals women• mainstreaming gender analysis in agricultural technology development and transfer will not be achieved if: – awareness and sensitization of gender perspectives are not carried out at all levels within the institution
Challenges• Donor driven gender agenda• Misconceptions on gender and feminism• Inadequate understanding and importance of gender mainstreaming among the technical and physical scientists• Limited dedication of the management body is also a challenge in gender mainstreaming in all the countries
opportunities• PGI: technical expertise to conduct gender integration research-specialists• Monitoring, & Evaluation and looking for impact assessment on gender in projects• Increase awareness for agriculture & rural development project planning• Gender strategy – Integration into project components/activities – Integration into project implementation approaches – Specific gender activities and gender research – Gender integration in CRPs
Conclusion Non gender integration = Project failure, create backlash andnegative outcomes‘Often when we talk about miserable women, we alwaysforget that they are actually married to miserable men andgives birth to miserable children too’!Acknowledgement• AWARD• ILRI• PGI• Dr. Jemimah NjukiAsante Sana!