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Conceptual Framework and Key Messages


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Conceptual Framework and Key Messages

  1. 1. Conceptual Framework and Key Messages Ruth Meinzen-Dick and Agnes Quisumbing International Food Policy Research Institute Washington DC May 8, 2014
  2. 2. Source: Gender, Assets, and Agricultural Development Programs: A Conceptual Framework GAAP conceptual framework
  3. 3. Why focus on assets? • Access to, control over, and ownership of assets are critical components of well-being • Productive assets can generate products or services that can be consumed or sold to generate income • Assets are stores of wealth that can increase in value • Assets can act as collateral and facilitate access to credit, financial services, increase social status • Assets give individuals the capability to be and to act • Increasing control over assets enables more permanent pathways out of poverty compared to increased incomes or consumption alone
  4. 4. Assets •Natural •Physical •Financial •Human •Social •Political •Use •Control •Ownership
  5. 5. Assets •Natural •Physical •Financial •Human •Social •Political •Enable livelihoods •Resist shocks •Direct effect on well-being
  6. 6. Assets •Natural •Physical •Financial •Human •Social •Political •Enable livelihoods •Resist shocks •Direct effect on well-being
  7. 7. Jointness Women’s Men’s J O I N T
  8. 8. Jointness Women’s Men’s J O I N T
  9. 9. ♀Livelihood Strategies •What are the livelihood options available to women and men? •What assets do those livelihoods require? •Are women (or men) precluded from good livelihoods by lack of assets?
  10. 10. Shocks •What are the major shocks that affect women, men, and households? •How do women, men respond to shocks? •What role do assets play in responding to shocks?
  11. 11. ♀Full Income • Includes cash and direct consumption • What affects the income women and men earn? • What affects the control of income within the household?
  12. 12. ♀Consumption • Includes food and nonfood • How are women’s, men’s, and joint income used for different types of consumption by different family members? • What affects decisions on consumption? (Does control of assets play a role?)
  13. 13. ♀Savings/Investment • Feeds back to + or – asset accumulation •How are women’s, men’s, and joint income used for different types of investment by different family members? • What affects decisions on investment? • Are there enough mechanisms for women to build assets?
  14. 14. Well-Being •Health •Nutritional status •Time use •Stress •Empowerment •etc.
  15. 15. Project intervention approaches Partner Country Assets transferred Gender view of project BRAC Bangladesh Cattle, goats, poultry birds, or land for horticulture Gender aware CARE Bangladesh None Gender transformative Harvest Plus Uganda Orange Fleshed Sweet Potato (OFSP) vines Gender aware HKI Burkina Faso Hens, seeds Gender transformative Kickstart Kenya and Tanzania None Gender blind Landesa India Land titles, basic inputs (seeds) Gender aware Land O’Lakes Mozambique Improved dairy cows and training inputs Gender blind CGIAR CSISA India None Gender blind
  16. 16. Project Evaluation design GAAP contribution Landesa Propensity weighted regression Qual work (FGDs, KIIs, life histories); input into quant survey module BRAC CFPR-TUP Randomized controlled trial (RCT) Qual work; input into gender and assets modules in endline CARE-SDVC Propensity weighted regression Qual work; input into gender and assets modules, additional modules for endline LOL MSDDP Early vs. late livestock recipients Qual work (FGDs, KIIs, life histories); input into quant survey module HKI-EHFP RCT Qual work; input into gender and assets modules Harvest Plus REU RCT Qual work, including social network analysis; input into gender and assets modules CGIAR CSISA Econometric approaches; Experimental auction Qual and asset module in mid-line quant survey; Funding for analysis time to focus on social networks KickStart Early vs. late pump buyers Funding for qualitative work Project approaches to evaluation
  17. 17. Two main findings that cut across projects  Gendered use, control, and ownership of assets affect the take-up of agricultural interventions  Agricultural interventions affect the gendered use, control, and ownership of assets
  18. 18. ―if you build it, they will come‖  ―If you have a good intervention, people will participate‖…not necessarily  For example, dairy value chain projects require having a cow!  Different approaches to this:  Target households that already have cows: CARE- Bangladesh  Transfer cows: BRAC-Targeting Ultra Poor  Transfer cows and provide training: LandOLakes Mozambique  Other projects (e.g. Kickstart treadle pumps) have market driven approaches—no subsidy on pump buying  Dissemination of seeds, new varieties, assume use or control rights over land (even if not ownership)
  19. 19. Who gets to come? In LandOlakes program, training was initially given only to men. But women are heavily involved in dairy: cows suffered. Training expanded to 2 members per household.
  20. 20. Who within the household decides what to grow? See presentation by Dan Gilligan and Neha Kumar!
  21. 21. Do men and women have equal control of resources that enable adoption? Kickstart: Adoption of treadle pumps by women buyers was much lower than that of male buyers, owing to women’s limited financial resources.
  22. 22. Projects often propose solutions to the ―need asset to adopt‖ problem Landesa • West Bengal allocation of microplots: • Allocate microplots to households, prioritize female- headed households and widows • Joint titling to primary male and female adult • Odisha government land titling programs • Grant title to households already occupying government land • Distribute individual title to households residing on previously communally-titled land. • Make sure woman’s name on patta Burkina HKI Enhanced Homestead Food Production project • Make land available for community gardens through agreements with land owners
  23. 23. Agricultural interventions can affect the gendered use, control, and ownership of assets In HKI’s E-HFP, adoption of home gardens was high among participants and women maintained control over vegetable and chicken production, however men took over goats
  24. 24. Landesa’s Nijo Griha, Nijo Bhumi (NGNB) program in West Bengal increased women’s perceived tenure security as compared to control households where women’s names were not on titles (Santos et al 2013).
  25. 25. The Landesa West Bengal study found that where the woman’s name was on the land title, she was more likely to report participating in household food purchase and consumption decisions. Photo credit: Supriya Chatterjee, Landesa
  26. 26. Preliminary conclusions  Projects that unambiguously benefit households may have mixed effects on individuals within those household, especially women (BRAC-TUP)  Many projects succeeded in increasing women’s assets, but narrowing the gender asset gap is harder  Strengthening women’s control of assets can enhance their participation in decisions about how assets are used (Landesa)
  27. 27. Preliminary conclusions  Assets and related livelihood strategies can increase demands on time, especially for women (CARE-BD)  Women have a hard time maintaining control of income from assets (most)  Intangible benefits, especially related to norms, are important for women and may signal longer term changes (CARE-BD, BRAC, HKI)