LEARNING OUTCOMES• To select & practice suitable ways to maintain a healthy cardiovascular system
CARDIOVASCULAR DISEASE• The dysfunctional conditions of the heart & blood vessels that supply oxygen to vital organs (brain, heart). The organs & tissues will die if oxygen does not arrive.• CD is the biggest killer in Malaysia• Atherosclerosis, hypertension, thrombosis, embolism, angina, arrhythmia, heart attack, stroke
R IS K F A C T O R S• High levels of blood cholesterol often associated with the diet rich in saturated fats & cholesterol• Family history (genetic)• Age – older people are more at risk• Obesity• Cigarette smoking – increase the risk of atherosclerosis & thrombosis• Sedentary lifestyle – poor blood circulation
Suitable Ways to Maintain a Healthy Cardiovascular System• Proper nutrition – Limit intake of high cholesterol foods (fatty meat, organ meat, lard, butter, cheese, egg yolk, prawns, squids) – Limit total fat intake : reduce deep fried & oily foods – Minimise sodium intake : raise blood pressure (table salt, soy sauce, MSG) – Eat more soluble-fibre foods (oats, barley, legumes)
– Eat more fruits & vegetables – rich in antioxidants (vit. A, C & E) – Include omega-3 fatty acids in diet – reduce the risk of cardiovascular diseases (mackerel, tuna & salmon)• Healthy lifestyle – Do not smoke : nicotine constricts blood vessels, carbon monoxide decrease the oxygen intake. – Engage in moderate exercise – Rest & relax : have sufficient sleep – Maintain a healthy weight
EXERCISE 1.61. Cardiovascular diseases are disorders of the …………………. and the …………….2. The narrowing of the lumen of the arteries due to gradual deposits of cholesterol and fats causes a condition known as ……………………3. List FIVE risk factors for cardiovascular diseases.