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Heart Health - A Healthy Living Model

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I developed and facilitated a Group Lifestyle Balance Follow-Up Session for active duty personnel, dependents and retirees. I provide background information, statistics and informational resources pertaining to heart health. I worked with patients to develop individualized strategies to meet their lifestyle goals.

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Heart Health - A Healthy Living Model

  1. 1. Heart HealthMarissa Yovetich MS, HE
  2. 2. Heart Health  What is it?  Current Statistics  Signs & Symptoms  Eating for heart health  Exercising for heart health
  3. 3. What is it?  The human heart is the body’s engine. It is roughly the size of the owner’s clenched fist. It resides securely in the middle of the chest behind the breastbone and between the lungs.  Composed of “involuntary” cardiac muscle  Composed of 4 chambers, upper/low on left/right sides  Blood pumps through upper portion, atrium, to lower ventricle and up through pulmonary artery to the lungs to receive oxygen  Aorta transports freshly oxygenated blood to the body, “A” and away  Veins bring blood to the heart
  4. 4. At the Heart of the Matter
  5. 5. What is it?  The heart pumps blood through a 60,000 – mile – long network of vessels  Beats ~ 70 – 80 x per minute, 100,000 x per day, 40 million x per year, 3 billion x per life  Blood supplies oxygen from the lungs to organs and tissues, while removing carbon dioxide.  Blood facilitates nutrient distribution, immune system regulation, hormone delivery and delivers waste products to the kidneys and liver to be filtered.
  6. 6. What is it?  Heart Disease: an umbrella term for several types of heart conditions  Coronary Artery Disease  Heart Attack  Other Related Conditions (i.e. angina, arrhythmias, atherosclerosis)  Coronary Artery Disease (CAD): caused by plague buildup in artery walls that supply blood to the heart.  The most common type of heart disease in the United States  Cholesterol deposits accumulate creating plaque, which narrows the arteries and reduces blood flow
  7. 7. At the Heart of the Matter
  8. 8. Heart Disease Risk Factors  Existing health conditions, lifestyle choices, age and family history can increase one’s risk of heart disease  Key Risk Factors:  High blood pressure  High cholesterol  Smoking *47% of Americans have at least one of these risk factors  Controllable vs. Non – controllable risk factors  Behavior/Conditions/Family History
  9. 9. Interconnected Diseases
  10. 10. The Pulse of The Nation  Heart disease is the leading cause of death for both men and women  Coronary Heart Disease (CHD) is the most common  Nearly 80 million adults in the United States have at least one form of heart disease  Roughly 610, 000 people die of heart disease every year in the United States  1 in 4 deaths due to heart disease  Every year 735,000 Americans have a heart attack  71.4% are first time sufferers  28.5% are second time sufferers  In the United States, someone has a heart attack every 34 seconds. Someone dies of a heart disease – related event every 60 seconds, in the United States.
  11. 11. Alarming Numbers
  12. 12. The Pulse of The Nation • Prior to age 75, a higher proportion of CVD events attributable to CHD occur in men than in women. A higher proportion of events attributable to stroke occur in women than in men.
  13. 13. The Pulse of The Nation  Direct and indirect costs associated with heart disease amount to more than $320.1 billion.
  14. 14. The Pulse of The Nation • “Life’s Simple 7” • The American Heart Association defines “ideal cardiovascular health” as the absence of disease and presence of seven key health factors and behaviors.
  15. 15. By The Numbers…
  16. 16. It’s a Women’s World  More than 1 in 3 female adults has some form of cardiovascular disease  In 2013, CVD accounted for 1 death every 80 seconds among females. This is equivalent to the number of female deaths from cancer, chronic lower respiratory disease, and diabetes combined.  Approximately 3 million females are living with heart failure (HF). 475,000 new cases of HF are diagnosed each year.  23% of women 45 years of age and older who have an initial heart attack die within a year compared to 18% of men
  17. 17. Signs & Symptoms  The common signs and symptoms for cardiovascular disease include, but are not limited to:  Chest pain (angina)  Shortness of breath  Pain, numbness, weakness or coldness in your legs or arms due to narrowing of blood vessels  Pain in the neck, jaw, throat, upper abdomen or back  Signs and symptoms may manifest differently in men and women. Men are more likely to experience chest pain, while women are more likely to experience shortness of breath, nausea and extreme fatigue.
  18. 18. Signs & Symptoms
  19. 19. Healthy Measures
  20. 20. Eating For Heart Health  To maintain weight, caloric consumption must equal caloric expenditure  Dependent on resting metabolic rate (RMR), activity level and existing conditions  Limit foods rich in saturated fats, trans fats and sodium  Reduce consumption of “nutrient – poor foods”, those high in calories but low in nutrients – limit alcohol consumption to no more than one drink/day for women and two drinks/day for men  Select lean cuts of red meat, chicken/poultry and fish  Consume vegetables in abundance – (yay fiber!)  Consume fruits in moderation
  21. 21. Periodic Table of “Real” Food
  22. 22. Eating For Heart Health  Quality over quantity!  Eating from a 8.5 inch plate vs. a 12 inch plate saves approximately 400 calories  Increase consumption of foods rich in Omega – 3’s
  23. 23. Daily Dose of Goodness
  24. 24. Fatty Acid Frenzy  Fatty acids are formed when fat is metabolized or broken down  Insoluble in water  Used as energy by most cells in the body  Can be monounsaturated, poly – unsaturated, or saturated  Help move oxygen through the body, aid cell membrane development, strength, and function  Help rid the arteries of cholesterol build up, “plaque”  Promote proper clotting  Assist in blood pressure regulation
  25. 25. Fatty Acid Frenzy
  26. 26. “O” Is For Omega!  There are 3 main types of fatty acids, omega – 3, omega – 6, omega – 9  Omega – 3 and Omega – 6 are “essential” fatty acids - NOT produced in the body  The typical American diet consists of 10 x more Omega – 6 than Omega – 3  Results in reduced metabolism and secretion of blood and tissue omega – 3’s  Promotes inflammatory response within the body  Reducing dietary ratios of omega – 6 to omega – 3 fatty acids has been shown to prevent death after a heart attack
  27. 27. “O” is For Omega  Omega – 3 Poly Unsaturated Fatty Acids  Composed of EPA and DHA  Have been shown to have anti – inflammatory effects  “polyunsaturated” = two, three, four or more carbon – carbon double bonds  Naturally occurring fatty acids assume cis configuration, both hydrogens are on the same side of the double bond.  Trans fatty acids, link to heart disease, have hydrogens on opposing sides of the double bond. (i.e. margarine, liquid vegetable oils)
  28. 28. Omega – 3 Rich Foods
  29. 29. “O” is For Omega  Omega – 3 fatty acids have a higher oxidative rate than saturated fatty acids  Omega – 3 fatty acids, specifically EPA and DHA have been shown to:  Increase the body’s ability to breakdown fatty acids  Suppress the formation of new fat (lipogenesis)  Support insulin sensitivity  Regulate appetite  Direct nutrients, amino acids and glucose, toward lean body mass and away from fat mass
  30. 30. Recommendations  The American Heart Association recommends that healthy adults consume fish at least two times per week  Fish rich in omega – 3’s include: catfish, halibut, salmon, striped sea bass, and albacore tuna  The World Health Organization recommends a daily EPA and DHA intake of 0.3 – 0.5 grams  Fish oil dosage can vary widely, depending on existing health conditions. Consult your primary care physician for dosage recommendations.
  31. 31. Recommendations  Things to keep in mind when looking for a fish oil supplement:  Make sure that the supplement is fresh  (old supplements may contain high levels of peroxidation – breakdown of fats)  Molecularly distilled and pure  Lowest possible levels of heavy metals and organic contaminants  Supported by third – party testing and clinical research  www. Labdoor.com supplement rating/verification site  Omega – 3’s are derived from FISH forms  Plant derived forms are popular in supplements, due to lower cost to produce. However, the body does not convert plant omega – 3’s as efficiently as fish forms
  32. 32. Exercising For Heart Health  The age old adage, “if you don’t use it, you lose it” applies to heart health  Strengthening the heart allows it to work more efficiently and longer  Both cardiovascular and muscular strength training are needed as the heart is a muscle and the “heart” of our cardio system  Regular cardiovascular and muscular strength training can decrease cardiac demands of muscular work and slow age – and disease – related declines in muscular strength and mass  A lack of cardiovascular and muscular strength training can result in a loss of up to 30% muscle mass between the ages of 50 – 70
  33. 33. Exercising For Heart Health  Muscular Strength  2 + days/ week  2 – 3 sets, 10 – 15 repetitions  20 + minutes for 5 – 6 muscle groups  Target major body parts: 3 – 4 exercises & minor body parts: 1 – 2 exercises  Perform major body part (large muscle) exercises before minor body part exercises!  Use free weights, machines, body weight, medicine ball, resistance bands, etc.
  34. 34. Exercising For Heart Health  150 minutes of “moderate” intensity physical activity or 75 minutes of vigorous activity, or a combination of both, is recommended each week  For cardiovascular benefits, aim for physical activity sessions that last at least 10 minutes  To lower cholesterol and or blood pressure, the American Heart Association recommends 40 minutes of aerobic exercise of moderate to vigorous intensity three to four days per week
  35. 35. References  American College of Sports Medicine. (2010). ACSM's Guidelines for Exercise Testing and Prescription (Eigth ed.). Wolters Kluwer Health.  Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. (2015, August 10). Heart Disease. Retrieved August 26, 2016, from http://www.cdc.gov/heartdisease/about.htm  Lopez, H. L., Nelson, M. T., & Bibus, D. M. (2013). Fat. In A. E. Smith, PhD, Cscs*D, CISSN & J. Antonio, FNSCA, FISSN, CSCS (Authors), Sports Nutrition & Performance Enhancing Supplements (pp. 111-164). Linus Learning.  Mayo Clinic. (2014, July 14). Heart Disease. Retrieved August 26, 2016, from http://www.mayoclinic.org/diseases-conditions/heart-disease/basics/symptoms/CON- 20034056  Mayo Clinic. (2015, March 18). Heart - Healthy Diet: 8 Steps To Prevent Heart Disease. Retrieved August 26, 2016, from http://www.mayoclinic.org/diseases-conditions/heart-disease/in-depth/ heart- healthy-diet/ART-20047702  Mayo Clinic. (2013, November 1). Omega - 3 Fatty Acids, Fish Oil, Alpha - Linolenic Acid. Retrieved August 29, 2016, from http://www.mayoclinic.org/drugs-supplements/ omega-3-fatty-acids-fish- oil-alpha- linolenic-acid/dosing/hrb-20059372  Mozaffarian D, Benjamin EJ, Go AS, Arnett DK, Blaha MJ, Cushman M, Das SR, de Ferranti S, DesprésJ-P, Fullerton HJ, Howard VJ, Huffman MD, Isasi CR, Jiménez MC, Judd SE, Kissela BM, Lichtman JH, Lisabeth LD, Liu S, Mackey RH, Magid DJ, McGuire DK, Mohler ER III, Moy CS, Muntner P, Mussolino ME, Nasir K, Neumar RW, Nichol G, Palaniappan L, Pandey DK, Reeves MJ, Rodriguez CJ, Rosamond W, Sorlie PD, Stein J, Towfighi A, Turan TN, Virani SS, Woo D, Yeh RW, Turner MB; on behalf of the American Heart Association Statistics Committee and Stroke Statistics Subcommittee. Heart disease and stroke statistics—2016 update: a report from the American Heart Association. Circulation. 2016; 133(4):e38-e360.  National Geographic. (n.d.). Heart. Retrieved August 26, 2016, from http://science.nationalgeographic.com/science/health-andhuman- body/human- body/heart-article/  The American Heart Association. (2015, August). The American Heart Association's Diet and Lifestyle Recommendations. Retrieved August 26, 2016, from http://www.heart.org/HEARTORG/HealthyLiving/ HealthyEating/Nutrition/ The-American-Heart-Associations-Diet-and-Lifestyle- Recommendations_UCM_305855_Article.jsp#.V8Cz-3nVx7g  The Heart Foundation. (2015). Heart Disease: Scope and Impact. Retrieved August 26, 2016, from http://www.theheartfoundation.org/heart-disease-facts/heart-disease-statistics/  U.S. Food and Drug Administration. (2011, February 8). Eat for a Healthy Heart. Retrieved August 26, 2016, from http://www.fda.gov/ForConsumers/ConsumerUpdates/ucm199058.htm  WiseGeek. (n.d.). What are Fatty Acids? Retrieved August 29, 2016, from http://www.wisegeekhealth.com/what-are-fatty-acids.htm

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