Diet And Disease 2


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Diet And Disease 2

  1. 1. Diet and Disease<br />
  2. 2. What is a balanced diet?<br />A balanced diet is one that contains all the nutrients required for health in appropriate proportions<br /> There are seven components in a balanced diet: <br />
  3. 3. How much of each component do we need?<br />Table Typical mass of each component required per day by a 17-year-old-girl<br />
  4. 4. One important aspect of nutrition is energy intake. <br />This is different for everyone as it depends on the level of activity <br />Energy should come from carbohydrates (57%), Dairy (30%) and protein (13%) <br />A good guide to whether your diet contains enough energy is change in mass or weight. <br />
  5. 5. Malnutrition <br />a state of poor nutrition; can result from insufficient or excessive or unbalanced diet or from inability to absorb foods <br />
  6. 6. Malnutrition<br />Malnutrition is caused by an unbalanced diet. Most people think of malnutrition as deficiency. However the biggest form of malnutrition in the developed world is obesity <br />
  7. 7. Obesity<br />Obesity is caused by consuming too much energy. <br />Excess energy is deposited as fat in the Adiopse tissues<br />Obesity is the condition in which excessive fat disposition impairs health. <br />Usually indicated by a Body mass index (BMI) of 30 or over. This indicates a body weight of 20% above weight for your height.<br />
  8. 8. Obesity and Disease <br />
  9. 9. Coronary heart Disease and Obesity<br />Obesity can be linked to a disease known as Coronary heart disease. <br />Coronary heart disease is the term that describes what happens when your heart's blood supply is blocked or interrupted by a build-up of fatty substances in the coronary arteries. <br />If your coronary arteries become narrow due to a build up of Atheroma, the blood supply to your heart will be restricted. This can cause angina (chest pains).If a coronary artery becomes completely blocked, it can cause a heart attack.<br />
  10. 10. Diet and blood pressure<br />High Bloodis mostly linked to poor diet. <br />Excess salt in your diet decreases water potential in your cell, as a result more water is held in the cells, increasing blood pressure particularly the pressure in a resting heart. <br />This is called hypertension and can <br />Damage the inner lining of the arteries.<br />Causing atherosclerosis <br />
  11. 11. Atherosclerosis<br />When a tear occurs in the endothelium chemicals signals are sent out. <br />These are picked up by a form of phagocytes called macrophages, they enter the damage tissue through the endothelium through a process known as leukocyte extravasation<br /> The macrophages encourage the growth <br />of smooth muscle and the disposition<br /> of fatty substances (Low density lipoproteins). <br />
  12. 12. Atherosclerosis<br />The macrophages can also turn them selves into foam cells to help repair the cells.<br />The end result of this process is an Atheroma. This formation is strong enough to last for the persons life. <br />
  13. 13. Low-density liproprotein (LDL) and atherosclerosis <br />High cholesterol with an excess of LDL can cause the Atheroma to grow in size. This is due to the excess cholesterol in the blood , <br />the macrophages continue to build up<br /> the Atheroma and will eventually<br /> form a bulge in the endothelium <br />called a plaque <br />This will continue to grow and will <br />decrease the lumen of the artery,<br /> therefore increasing blood pressure<br /> further. <br />
  14. 14. Why is this bad? And how can it be stopped?<br />This reduced lumen size increases the chance of a blood clot (thrombosis) dramatically. this can lead to Myocardial infarction (heart attack) <br />The risk can be reduced by eating foods high in High-density lipoproteins (HDL) and keeping the ration of HDLs to LDLs High. <br />
  15. 15. High Density Lipoproteins (HDL)<br />Unsaturated fats. This substance helps to reduce blood cholesterol levels <br />They help to stop Atherosclerosis and also may remove some of the disposition already there. <br />
  16. 16. How To Improve Your Diet<br />By reducing the chances of contracting Coronary Heart Disease <br />
  17. 17. Eat Less Saturated Fat <br />These foods all contain high amount of LDLs: <br />
  18. 18. Other things to try...<br />Loose Weight<br />Research hints that losing even a small amount of weight (5% to 10%) may help lower LDL levels. <br />Exercise<br />Aerobic exercises, such as running, cycling, jogging, and swimming, appear to benefit cholesterol the most by lowering LDL by 5% to 10%. Other forms of exercise, such as yoga, walking and weight-bearing exercises, have also been shown to decrease LDL levels. <br />Drink Alcohol<br />Although moderate consumption of alcohol can significantly raise HDL levels, it can also lower LDL by about 4% to 8%<br />Stop Smoking<br />Increases LDL, Lowers HDL<br />
  19. 19. THANKS FOR WATCHING <br />By Lewis Arthurton<br />