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Assestment in English Skill


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Assessment in English Skill

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Assestment in English Skill

  1. 1. 1 Created by : Laili Pitriana Anggraini NIM 13331849 English Departement Teacher Training and Education Faculty Muhammadyah University of Ponorogo 2014
  2. 2. 2 Preface Praise author prayed to Allah for mercy and bless so that I can complete a paper entitled "Language Learning assessment" This paper is made to fulfill individual tasks assessment subjects.In this paper the authors experience any difficulties. But thanks to the guidance and direction of the various parties can be resolved properly. Therefore, the authors would like to thank: 1. Lecturer of LLA subject for their guidance and material that has been given. 2. Parents who have provided assistance in the form of material and non-material. 3. All parties who have provided support, which can not be mentioned one by one. The author realizes that this paper is still a lot of shortcomings. For the sake of this paper perfectly constructive criticism and suggestions so I hoped. End the authors hope that this paper can be useful for the reader. Writer
  3. 3. 3 LIST OF CONTENT PREFACE ………… ….......................................................................... i LIST OF CONTENT ……………………………………………………… ii PART 1 READING SKILL A. construct ………………………………………………………… 1 B. indicator ……………………………………………………… 2 C. blueprint ………………………………………………………………… 3 D. question ……………………………………………………………….. 3 PART 2 WRITING SKILL A. construct ……..………………………………………………… 10 B. indicator ..……………………………………………………………. 10 C. blueprint …………………………………………………………….. 11 D. question ……………………………………………………………… 11 PART 3 LISTENING SKILL A. construct …………………………………………………………….. 17 B. indicator………………………………………………………………….. 18 C. blueprint ……………………………………………………………… 18 D. question …………………………………………………………………. 19 PART 4 SPEAKING SKILL A. construct…………………………………………………………………. 22 B. indicator ………………………………………..………………………. 23 C. blueprint…………………………………………………………………. 24 D. question ………………………………………………………………… 24 JOURNAL ………………………………………………………………….. 28 DAFTAR PUSTAKA …………………………………………………….. 35
  4. 4. 4 READING SKILL 1. Variabel : Reading Skill 2. Construct variable : a) definiton  A broader definition of reading presented by Rubin (1982:2) is that “reading is the bringing and the getting of meaning from the printed page”.  Lines (2005:71) states that reading comprehension is a process of negotiating understanding between the writer and reader.  According to Cartel et al (2001:144) state that reading is the interaction between readers and text that makes dynamic relationship between two. So, the conclusion of definition reading skill according to some expert above is a process understanding and getting meaning of the text to make relation between two. b) Reading process : (Lapp & Flood (1978:6)) 1. Letter and word recognition 2. Comprehension of concepts 3. Reaction and assimiliation of the new knowledge with the reader’s past experience c) Type of reading : There are the following types of reading and the corresponding types of activities to develop the corresponding reading skills:  Skimming reading is reading to confirm expectations; reading for communicative tasks.  General reading or scanning is reading to extract specific information; reading for general understanding.  Close reading or searching reading is reading for complete understanding; reading for detailed comprehension (information; function and discourse).
  5. 5. 5 d) Purpose : The purpose of reading is to connect the ideas on the page to what you already know. (martin, 1991) 3. Indicator of Reading :  (Brown (1980)) 1. Clarifying the purpose of reading. 2. Identifying the important aspects of a message. 3. Focusing attention on the major content. 4. Monitoring ongoing activities to determine whether comprehension is occurring. 5. Engaging in self-questioning to determine whether goals are being achieved 6. Taking corrective action when failures in comprehension are detected.  (Baker & Brown (1984)) 1. Note taking 2. Summarizing 3. Student questioning 4. Outlining 5. Networking 6. Mapping 7. Schematizing  (Lapp & Flood (1978:6)) 4. Letter and word recognition 5. Comprehension of concepts 6. Reaction and assimiliation of the new knowledge with the reader’s past experience Conclusion from some indicator of reading above : 1. Purpose of text 2. Taking attention 3. Describe text
  6. 6. 6 4. Identifying 4. Blueprint of Reading : No Indicator Number of Item 1. Identifying purpose from the text 1 , 2 , 11 2. Describe text 3 , 4 , 8 , 9 , 12 , 14 , 15 , 16 , 18 , 19 , 20 3. Identifying synonym from the word 5 , 6 , 7, 10 , 13 , 17 Questions Reading Skill Choose the best answer to each question based on the information which is stated or implied in the text. No student of a foreign language needs to be told that grammar is complex. By changing word sequences and by adding a range of auxiliary verbs and suffixes, we are able to communicate tiny variations in meaning. We can turn a statement into a question, state whether an action has taken place or is soon to take place, and perform many other word tricks to convey subtle differences in meaning. Nor is this complexity inherent to the English language. All languages, even those of so-called ‘primitive’ tribes have clever grammatical components. The Cherokee pronoun system, for example, can distinguish between ‘you and I’, ‘several other people and I’ and ‘you, another person and I’. In English, all these meanings are summed up in the one, crude pronoun ‘we’. Grammar is universal and plays a part in every language, no matter how widespread it is. So the question which has baffled many linguists is – who created grammar? At first, it would appear that this question is impossible to answer. To find out how grammar is created, someone needs to be present at the time of a language’s creation, documenting its emergence. Many historical linguists are able to trace modern complex languages back to earlier
  7. 7. 7 languages, but in order to answer the question of how complex languages are actually formed, the researcher needs to observe how languages are started from scratch. Amazingly, however, this is possible. Some of the most recent languages evolved due to the Atlantic slave trade. At that time, slaves from a number of different ethnicities were forced to work together under colonizer’s rule. Since they had no opportunity to learn each other’s languages, they developed a make-shift language called a pidgin. Pidgins are strings of words copied from the language of the landowner. They have little in the way of grammar, and in many cases it is difficult for a listener to deduce when an event happened, and who did what to whom. [A] Speakers need to use circumlocution in order to make their meaning understood. [B] Interestingly, however, all it takes for a pidgin to become a complex language is for a group of children to be exposed to it at the time when they learn their mother tongue. [C] Slave children did not simply copy the strings of words uttered by their elders, they adapted their words to create a new, expressive language. [D] Complex grammar systems which emerge from pidgins are termed creoles, and they are invented by children. Further evidence of this can be seen in studying sign languages for the deaf. Sign languages are not simply a series of gestures; they utilise the same grammatical machinery that is found in spoken languages. Moreover, there are many different languages used worldwide. The creation of one such language was documented quite recently in Nicaragua. Previously, all deaf people were isolated from each other, but in 1979 a new government introduced schools for the deaf. Although children were taught speech and lip reading in the classroom, in the playgrounds they began to invent their own sign system, using the gestures that they used at home. It was basically a pidgin. Each child used the signs differently, and there was no consistent grammar. However, children who joined the school later, when this inventive sign system was already around, developed a quite different sign language. Although it was based on the signs of the older children, the younger children’s language was more fluid and compact, and it utilised a large range of grammatical devices to clarify meaning. What is more, all the children used the signs in the same way. A new creole was born. Some linguists believe that many of the world’s most established languages were creoles at first. The English past tense –ed ending may have evolved from the verb ‘do’. ‘It ended’mayonce
  8. 8. 8 have been’It end-did’. Therefore it would appear that even the most widespread languages were partly created by children. Children appear to have innate grammatical machinery in their brains, which springs to life when they are first trying to make sense of the world around them. Their minds can serve to create logical, complex structures, even when there is no grammar present for them to copy 1. In paragraph 1, why does the writer include information about the Cherokee language? a. To show how simple, traditional cultures can have complicated grammar structures. b. To show how English grammar differs from Cherokee grammar. c. To prove that complex grammar structures were invented by the Cherokees. d. To demonstrate how difficult it is to learn the Cherokee language. 2. What can be inferred about the slaves’ pidgin language? a. It contained complex grammar. b. It was based on many different languages. c. It was difficult to understand, even among slaves. d. It was created by the land-owners. 3. All the following sentences about Nicaraguan sign language are true EXCEPT: a. The language has been created since 1979. b. The language is based on speech and lip reading. c. The language incorporates signs which children used at home. d. The language was perfected by younger children. 4. In paragraph 3, where can the following sentence be placed? It included standardised word orders and grammatical markers that existed in neither the pidgin language, nor the language of the colonizers. a. A b. B c. C d. D 5. ’From scratch’ in paragraph 2 is closest in meaning to: a. from the very beginning b. in simple cultures c. by copying something else d. by using written information 6. ’Make-shift’ in paragraph 3 is closest in meaning to: a. complicated and expressive
  9. 9. 9 b. simple and temporary c. extensive and diverse d. private and personal 7. Which sentence is closest in meaning to the highlighted sentence? Grammar is universal and plays a part in every language, no matter how widespread it is. a. All languages, whether they are spoken by a few people or a lot of people, contain grammar. b. Some languages include a lot of grammar, whereas other languages contain a little. c. Languages which contain a lot of grammar are more common that languages that contain a little. d. The grammar of all languages is the same, no matter where the languages evolved. 8. All of the following are features of the new Nicaraguan sign language EXCEPT: a. All children used the same gestures to show meaning. b. The meaning was clearer than the previous sign language. c. The hand movements were smoother and smaller. d. New gestures were created for everyday objects and activities. 9. Which idea is presented in the final paragraph? a. English was probably once a creole. b. The English past tense system is inaccurate. c. Linguists have proven that English was created by children. d. Children say English past tenses differently from adults. 10. Look at the word ‘consistent’ in paragraph 4. This word could best be replaced by which of the following? a. Natural b. Predictable c. Imaginable d. uniform MEMO Famous Corp. From Date To Subject : Thomas Jackson : Saturday, January 25 , 2014 : Marketing Staff : Room change for next meeting The meeting on Monday, January 27, 2014, has been changed to Room 102. Please be there before 9.00 a.m.
  10. 10. 10 Thank you. 11. Thomas Jackson wrote the memo because ... a. The company is looking for a marketing staff b. He wants to warn the accounting staff c. The meeting place has been changed d. The meeting has been canceled 12. From the memo we can take conclusion that Thomas Jackson is ... a. The marketing staff b. The Event organizer staff c. The head of Marketing department d. The chief of Office boy department 13. “Please be there before 9.00 a.m.” The underlined word has the same meaning with ... a. In front of b. At the back c. The day before d. At an earlier time 14. Where will the marketing staff probably be at 10.00? a. Present the report b. Have a meeting c. Have lunch d. Work To : Cc : Subject : Annual Conference Rooming List Message : Dear Delegates, Please find enclosed, your rooming list. If you have any question, please don’t hesitate to contact me. And, if you get this e- mail, please reply to confirm that you get it. Thanks, Vivianne Chang
  11. 11. 11 15. What should you do if you have question? a. Open the e-mail b. Check the room list c. Come to the conference d. Contact Vivianne Chang 16. How many people are supposed to receive this e-mail? a. One b. Two c. Some d. All delegates 17. “ ... to confirm that you get it.” The underlined word refers to ... a. List b. Room c. E-mail d. Question 18. What is being attached? a. An e-mail b. A price list c. A rooming list d. The conference list Jalan Karet Bivak 33 South Jakarta January 21, 2014 Mr. Hendra Wijaya Director of Administration Marryland Inc. Jln. Sudirman 2 Jakarta Dear Mr. Wijaya, Your advertisement on December 26 issue of the “Republika” was attractive because I believe I have the proven skills you require for the administrative assistant position. My name is Izzy Amalia and I am 22 years old. I recently completed a three- month course on the Apple computer system. The specialization skills I learned have proven valuable in my work for the past eight monts as an assisstant accountant at the Galaxy Building. Since proven skills are best explained in person I would appreciate an interview with you. Please phone me in the afternoon between 2 and 5 p.m. at (021) 3456718 to let me know the day time most convenient for you.
  12. 12. 12 Sincerely, Izzy Amalia 19. How does the applicant know the vacancy? a. From newspaper b. From her friend c. From magazine d. From internet 20. What does the applicant hope for after sending the letter? a. start training b. be a manager c. be interviewed d. receive a salary key answer 1. B 2. D 3. C 4. D 5. A 6. A 7. A 8. D 9. C 10. A 11. C 12. C 13. D 14. B 15. B 16. B 17. C 18. C 19. A 20. C
  13. 13. 13 WRITING SKILL 1. Variabel : Writing Skill 2. Construct variable : a) Definition  Writing is of fundamental importance to learning, to development of the person in each learner, and to success in the educational system. As teachers, we need to work continually to aid our students in their search for fulfillment as writers (Graham & Harris, 1993).  Lannon (1989) views writing as “the process of transforming the material discovered by research inspiration, accident, trial or error, or whatever into a message with a definite meaning- writing is a process of deliberate decision” (p.9). It means that writing must convey a message with a meaning.  According to Tarigan (1985: 5) writing is productive skills for writing an indirect communication and the nature of the character is very different from that expressed by speaking directly, therefore writing is included an ability. So, the conclusion of writing skill according to some expert above is process to transform something in mind into writing. b) Writing process : 1. Pre-writing 2. Drafting 3. Revising 4. Editing 5. Publishing c) Type of writing : 1. Narrative writing 2. Descriptive writing 3. Expository writing 4. Persuasive writing 3. Indicator of Writing :  (Hywel (2003)) 1. Descriptive skill (description of people, places and things) 2. Narrative skill (narrating stories, incidents, events with proper sequence in chronological order) 3. Expository skill (writing with the purpose to justify, explain, define, classify, compare and contrast). (Hywel (2003))
  14. 14. 14  (Shahid, 1999) 1. the grammatical or structural unity and coherence 2. cohesion 3. the unity of sense or meanings are also essential for high-quality writing.  (brown (2001: 357)) 1. Content 2. Organization 3. Discourse 4. Syntax 5. Vocabulary 6. Mechanics 4. Blueprint of Writing : No Indicator Number of Item 1. Determine grammatical 1,2,3,4,5,6,7,8,9,10 2. Identifying the kind of text and making sentences 11,12,13,14,15,16,17,18 3. Determine meaning 19,20 Questions Writing Skill I. 1. Everybody should be …. Tomorrow at 7 a.m a. Being b. Be c. To be d. Comes e. Came 2. My mother is one of English teachers in this school. She …… here everyday. a. Teaching b. taught c. teach d. teaches e. is teaching
  15. 15. 15 3. it looks like rain. If you are going out, you ….. bring your raincoat. a. Should b. Ought to c. Had better d. Must e. get better 4. my computer is out of order. So I …… it to computer center to repair it. a. Must b. May c. Shall d. Should e. can 5. what …….. you doing when I telephoned you last night ? a. are b. were c. have been d. has been e. did 6. it is raining hard , so you must ……. Drive your car slowly. a. Drive b. Driving c. To drive d. Driven e. Drives 7. Don’t let your baby …… outside ! a. Play b. Playing c. Is playing d. To play e. Plays 8. Brown is in hospital. I …… to visit him tomorrow. a. Will b. Decide c. Am going d. Am deciding e. Must 9. My teacher will …. Happy if I can answer his question well a. To be
  16. 16. 16 b. Be c. Being d. Been e. Has been 10. you …. Park your car because this place not safe. a. Must not b. May not c. Should not d. Cannot e. Have not better II. Make a descriptive text about : 11. House 12. Cat 13. School 14. Best friend 15. Market III. Make procedure text about : 16. How to make fried rice 17. How to make pudding 18. How to make fruit juice IV. Translate this sentences in to Indonesian. 19. He always washes his new car every Sunday. 20. There were many trees on the left part of my school. key answer I. 1. B 2. E 3. A 4. A 5. B 6. A 7. E 8. C 9. B 10. A II. Example : 16. How to make fried rice : Ingredients Simple Fried Rice : 4 cups cooked white rice, 1 carrot, 1 medium yellow onion, 1 clove garlic, 1 tsp. fresh ginger, 1 cup bean sprouts, 3 eggs, 1 pinch black
  17. 17. 17 pepper, 1 tsp. salt, 3 tbsp. soy sauce, 2 tbsp. vegetable oil, 2 tbsp, sesame oil, Green onion for garnish, 1/2 lb. cooked chicken Method : Cook 4 cups of white rice. Just place the rice in boiling water and cook it for the amount of time listed on the instructions. Some types of white rice can take just 10 or so minutes to boil, while others can take 30 minutes or more. You can also microwave instant rice in the microwave, but it may not be as tasty. Prepare the vegetables. First, wash 2 cups of carrots, 1 medium onion, 1 clove of garlic, one ginger root, and 1 cup of bean sprouts. Then, dice the carrots and onions, and mince just 1 tsp. of fresh ginger. Set these ingredients aside. Pour 2 tbsp. of vegetable oil into a large pan. The pan should be very deep, almost like a wok. Place it over medium heat. Make sure the pan is clear of any trace of water, because the oil crackles and flies everywhere. Cook the vegetables in the pan for 3 minutes. Place the carrots, onion, garlic, bean sprouts, and ginger into the pan. Throw in 1 tsp. of salt and a pinch of black pepper. The vegetables should sweat a bit, but they shouldn't turn brown. 17. How to make pudding : 1. Get a bowl and liquid measuring cup 2. Use the liquid measuring cup to measure and pour 1-1/2 cups of milk into the bowl. 3. Open the pudding mix and pour it into the bowl 4. Stir the milk and pudding mix for 1-3 minutes with a spoon, until the pudding is well blended. No dry pudding powder should be floating on top of the milk. 5. Cover and chill the pudding in a refrigerator for five minutes to an hour, then remove and enjoy! 18. how to make fruit juice : 1. Buy five or six tropical passion fruit - the yellow kind. They need to be crinkly but not rotten. Don't let the look put you off because they need to be very ripe to make the juice. 2. Cut each in half and scoop out the flesh into a blender. 3. Add about 3 times the amount of water and run the blender for a minute or so.The black seed will separate from the jelly. Don't over blend as the seeds will break up and create a grit.
  18. 18. 18 4. Pour the mixture into a large jug or bowl through a sieve to catch the seeds.Rub in the mixture in the sieve to get every drop. 5. Add about three times as much cold water again and sugar to taste. Use a teaspoon to taste the juice until you get the right amount. You may still need to add more water, but do it cautiously as you don't want to make the juice too weak. 6. Run the juice through a funnel into a jug or bottle and cool. 5 passion fruit will make around 2 1⁄2 liters (0.7 US gal) of juice, so make sure your bottle is large enough. 7. Enjoy straight from the fridge, with ice, or as a cocktail with rum or vodka! III. a. Dia selalu mencuci mobil barunya setiap minggu b. Ada banyak pohon di sisi kiri sekolahku.
  19. 19. 19 RUBRIK PENILAIAN WRITING No. Aspek yang di nilai Kriteria Score 1. Pilihan kosa kata Sangat tepat 5 Tepat 4 Cukup tepat 3 Kurang tepat 2 Tidak tepat 1 2. Pilihan Tata Bahasa Sangat tepat 5 Tepat 4 Cukup tepat 3 Kurang tepat 2 Tidak tepat 1 3. Penulisankosa kata Sangat tepat 5 Tepat 4 Cukup tepat 3 Kurang tepat 2 Tidak tepat 1 4. Kerapihantulisan Tulisan rapih dan mudah dibaca 5 Tulisan kurang rapih tetapi mudah dibaca 4 Tulisan tidak rapih tetapi mudah dibaca 3 Tulisan tidak rapih dan sulit di baca 2 PenilaianKeterampilanWriting : Setiap jawaban benar diberiskor 2,5 Setiap jawaban salah diberi skor 0,5 Tidak menjawab 0 Perhitungan skor akhir menggunakan rumus : Skordiperoleh X 4 = Skorakhir Skormaksimal
  20. 20. 20 LISTENING SKILL 1. Variabel : Listening Skill 2. Construct variable : a) Definition :  Purdy (1997) defined listening as "the active and dynamic process of attending, perceiving, interpreting, remembering, and responding to the expressed (verbal and nonverbal), needs, concerns, and information offered by other human beings" (p. 8).  Rost (2002) defined listening as a process of receiving what the speaker actually says, constructing and representing meaning, negotiating meaning with the speaker and responding, and creating meaning through involvement, imagination and empathy.  Listening involves listening for thoughts, feelings, and intentions. Doing so requires active involvement, effort and practice (Shen, Guizhou, Wichura, Kiattichai, 2007). The conclusion is listening skill is the process of perceiving and understanding meaning and information offered by other human being. b) listening process :  Woottipong (2014) stated that listening process they are : 1. Top-down and bottom-up processing 2. Interactive Processing  Calico jurnal 1. Recognizing vocabulary 2. Discovering paraphrases 3. Predicting discourse 4. Transcribing (taking dictation) c) Type of listening :  According to : 1. Discriminative listening 2. Comprehension listening 3. Critical listening
  21. 21. 21 4. Biased listening 5. Evaluate listening 6. Appreative listening 7. Sympathetic listening 8. Empathetic listening 9. Therapeutic listening 10. Dialog listening 11. Relationship listening d) Purpose : 1. Discriminative (tapes of animal sounds, and other noises) 2. Comprehensive listening (required in instructional activities) 3. Critical listening (to evaluate messages-propaganda) 4. Appreciative listening (speakers, readers, classmates) 5. Therapeutic listening (sympathetic listening) 3. Indicator of listening :  Purdy (1997) 1. Attending 2. Perceiving 3. Interpreting 4. Temembering 5. Responding to the expressed (verbal and nonverbal)  1. Vocabulary: identify synonyms / antonyms of words on list and write down as heard. 2. Paraphrase: shown a printed paraphrase of a broadcast segment, write in the equivalent that was heard 3. Give news a little: provide an open-ended headline for the broadcast, based on what was heard 4. Content check: answer open – ended and true/false questions. 5. Transcription: fill in a partially deleted text. 6. Discussion topics for the classroom: follow-up activities 7. Matching: join matching halves of sentences taken from the text of the broadcast. 4. Blueprint of listening : No Indicator Number of Item 1. Identifying object 1 , 2 , 3 , 12 , 14, 15, 16, 17, 18, 19 , 20.
  22. 22. 22 2. Identifying purpose 4 , 5, 6, 7, 9, 10. 3. Identifying place 8, 11, 13. Questions Listening Skill Complete the blank ! I. Intelligence The BBC's Clare Arthurs looks at some of the words and phrases often used in the news and their meanings in various contexts. In this feature she talks about the word intelligence Intelligence. You'll hear it used quite a lot in the (1.) ……… as a noun, as in, Intelligence Ministry or intelligence (2.) ……… . Put simply, we use it in the news to refer to (3.) …………………………. , provided by government agencies on matters of national interest or state security. Who is the information, intelligence or the analysis of knowledge provided to? It goes to the government of the day, and it’s usually (4.) ………….. , and given, in secret. To quote from the American secret service, the CIA or (5.) …………………………… : "We are the eyes and ears of the nation and at times its hidden hand." Britain's security service, MI5, says it exists to protect national security, using techniques such as (6.) …………… , or following people, and listening to their conversations. We most often hear about the activities of (7.) ………………….. . when things go wrong, or their work crosses into the (8.) …………………... You'll hear talk of intelligence agents, secret service people, spies, or, very informally, spooks. You'll also hear intelligence used in other news stories, stories about human intelligence, or how (9.) …………………… whether there's intelligent life on other planets, another reference to the ability of the brain; and (10.) …………….. intelligence, which refers to the problem-solving abilities of computers. Now, I wonder if they know how to keep a secret. II. To see red Feifei : Hello and welcome to The English We Speak from BBC Learning English. I'm Feifei and I'm joined today by Jen.
  23. 23. 23 Jennifer : Hi there, we're going to go on a day trip today – and we're going to explore how the colour red fits into (11.) ……….. . I've packed my sandwiches… Feifei : And I've got my camera – let's go! <out on the street> Jennifer : So here we are on Oxford Street – it's one of the busiest streets in London. So let's play a game: (12.) ………………………. You go first, Feifei! Feifei : It's easy to see red things in London. (13.) ………………. - there's a red (14.) …………… . There are hundreds of them around the UK, although some of them were painted gold after the (15)………… ! Jennifer : Oh yes. That's a good one. Ok, my turn. There are a couple of red telephone boxes over there. Not many people use them nowadays, because almost everyone has mobile phones, but they are certainly another (16.) ………………….. of London. Feifei : If something is iconic, it typically represents something – so a red telephone box typically represents London. Here comes one of the most iconic symbols of London – a big, red double decker bus! Jennifer : Shall we get on it and (17.) …………… to Hyde Park for a stroll? Feifei : Good idea. I'll stick my hand out for the bus… <bus drives past> Hey! It didn't stop! Jennifer : Oh that's (18.) ……………. ! It really makes me see red! Feifei : Oh me too! Here, the phrase 'to see red' can be used to describe getting really angry about something. Jennifer : Well don't worry. We can catch the next one… in fact, here comes (19.)………. . <sting> Feifei : We made it! Off to Hyde Park we go. Shall we (20.) …………. inside and get a seat? There's a couple at the back there.
  24. 24. 24 Key answer I. 1. News 2. Agents 3. Information or analysis 4. Gathered 5. Central Intelligency Agency 6. Surveillance 7. Intelligence agencies 8. Political arena 9. Clever we are 10. Artificial II. 11. London life 12. how many red things can you see? 13. Look over there 14. Post box 15. Olympics 16. Iconic symbol 17. Head over 18. So annoying 19. Another 20. Move down
  25. 25. 25 SPEAKING SKILL 1. Variabel : Speaking Skill 2. Construct variable : a) Definition  Louma (2004), speaking is a way to distinguish aspects of speaker’s personality and attitudes through the manner the spoken language sounds.  Fulcher, (2003, cited in Itkonen, 2010) states that speaking is: “…the verbal use of the language to communicate with others” (p. 23).  Kavaliauskienė (2006) defines speaking as a productive skill, whose objective is to facilitate communication. Conclusion , speaking is a way to communicate with other which use language as media. b) Speaking process :  Levelt (1989) proposed that speech production involves four major processes : Conceptualization, formulation, articulation, and self monitoring.  Lado (1977: 200) says also that either four of five components are generally recognized in analysis of speech process. They are : 1. Pronunciation (including the segmental features-vowels and consonant and the stress and intonation / pattern) 2. Grammar 3. Vocabulary 4. Fluency (the case and the speech of the flow of speech) 5. comprehension c) Type of speaking : Brown (2004: 140) says that there are five basic types of speaking. They are: 1. Imitative. This type of speaking performance is the ability to imitate a word or phrase or possibly a sentence.
  26. 26. 26 2. Intensive. This second type of speaking frequently employed in assessments context is in the production of short stretches of oral language designed to demonstrate competence in a narrow band of grammatical, phrasal, lexical or phonological relationships. 3. Responsive. This type includes interaction and test comprehension but at the somewhat limited level of very short conversations, standard greeting and small talk, simple request and comments and the like. The stimulus is usually a spoken prompt in order to preserve authenticity. 4. Interactive. Interaction can take the two forms of transactional language, which has the purpose of exchanging specific information, or interpersonal exchanges, which have the purpose of maintaining social relationships 5. Extensive. Extensive oral production tasks include speeches, oral presentations, and story telling, during which the opportunity for oral interaction from listeners is either highly limited or ruled out altogether. 3. Indicator :  Kitao (1996) 1. Found grammar 2. Pronunciation 3. Fluency 4. Content 5. Organization 6. Vocabulary  Likewise, Knight (1992) 1. Grammar 2. Vocabulary 3. Pronunciation 4. Fluency 5. Non-verbal skill 6. content
  27. 27. 27 4. Blueprint of Speaking : No Indicator Number of Item 1. Intonation and fluency 1, 14 2. Identifying grammatical 2,3,4,5,6,7,8,9,10,11,12,13,15,16,17,18,19,20. Questions Speaking Skill Exercise: 2.. everything has changed . translate this sentence ! .(kakak saya membersihkan rumah) . Change this sentences into English and into : 3. Simple present tense 4. Simple continues tense Translate this word ! 5. Village 6. shady 7. Tree 8. Comfortable 9. Crowd 10. Clean 11. Road 12. Aware 13. Years 1. Read the text and speak in front of class… My village was clean few years ago. It was also very shady. There were many trees along the main road to my village. Not too many people live in my village. They were really aware of cleanliness. Now, everything has changed . it is dirty . too many people live in small village now. It is very crowded. It is not comfortable anymore. I don’t really like my village.
  28. 28. 28 (They use cell phones to talk to their friend during class time.) Change the sentence into ….. 14. Simple continues tense ! 15. simple past tense ! Translate this word : 16. allow 17.Reasonable 18. fair 19.anywhere 20. cheating Key answer 1. 2. everything has changed = segalanya telah berubah . Read the text and speak in front of class....... Many schools do not allow students to bring cell phones to school. It is very reasonable because bringing phone to school potentially disrupts the learning process. Most students use cell phones irresponsibly. They use cell phones to talk to their friend during class time. They also use the calculator and camera features in the class as well. Those potentially lead less concentration in the time of learning and teaching process. Students go to school to learn and behave fair way. Mobile phones provide a large temptation to cheat in tests. They can communicate to anyone and almost anywhere in the world. Because of the small size of the cell phone, students can send a text quietly and discreetly. The text can go unnoticed anywhere to get help on answering tests, homework, and other class assignment. Learning in school is to behave fair not cheating. Read the text and speak in front of class… My village was clean few years ago. It was also very shady. There were many trees along the main road to my village. Not too many people live in my village. They were really aware of cleanliness. Now, everything has changed . it is dirty . too many people live in small village now. It is very crowded. It is not comfortable anymore. I don’t really like my village.
  29. 29. 29 3. simple present tense = my brother clean house everyday 4. simple continous tense= my brother cleaning house now 5. Village = desa 6. Shady = rindang 7. Tree = pohon 8. Comfortable = nyaman 9. Crowd = ramai 10. Clean = bersih 11. Road = jalan 12. Aware = sadar 13. Years = tahun 14. Simple continous tense = they are using cellphones to talk to their friends now 15. Simple past tense = they used cellphones to talk to their friend last week 16. . allow = mengizinkan 17. Reasonable = pantas 18. Fair = adil 19. Anywhere = segalanya 20. Cheating = menyontek
  30. 30. 30 RUBRIK PENILAIAN SPEAKING NO. Aspek yang dinilai 1 2 3 4 5 Catatan 1. Fluency 2. Intonation 3. Accuracy 4 Pronunciation Keterangan: a. Kriteria untuk penilaian fluency: 1. Tidak lancar 2. Kurang lancar 3. Cukup lancar 4. Lancar 5. Sangat lancar b. Kriteria untuk penilaian intonation: 1. Terlalu banyak kesalahan dan mengganggu makna 2. Banyak kesalahan dan mengganggu makna 3. Ada beberapa kesalahan dan mengganggu makna 4. Ada beberapa kesalahan tidak mengganggu makna 5. Hampir sempurna c. Kriteria untuk penilaian accuracy: 1. Tidak teliti 2. Kurang teliti 3. Cukup teliti 4. Teliti 5. Sangatteliti d. Kriteria penelitian untuk pronunciation 1. Banyak kesalahan dan mengganggu makna 2. Ada beberapa kesalahan dan mengganggu makna
  31. 31. 31 Journals
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  38. 38. 38 Reference Baker, L. & Brown, A. L. 1984. Metacognitive Skills and Reading. In Pearson, P.D. (Ed.), Handbook of Reading Research (pp. 353-394). New York: Longman. Brown, A. L. 1980. Metacognitive Development and Reading. In Spiro, R. J. Bruce, B. C. & Brewer, W. F. (Eds.), Theoretical Issues in Reading Comprehension. Hilsdale, New Jersey: Erlbaum. Brown. 2004. Language Assessment Principles and Classroom Practices. New York: Pearson Education,Inc. Hywel, J. (2003). The Language Skills. (4th Ed Block A). Rawalpindi: Sigma Press. Allama Iqbal Open University Islamabad. Kavaliauskienė, G. (2006). Good Practice in teaching ESP presentations. Retrieved May 20th/2011, from Kitao, S. K., & Kitao, K. (1996). Testing speaking. Retrieved January 18th/ 2013 from Lapp, D., & Flood, J. 1986. Teaching Student to Read. NY: Macmillan Publishing Company Louma, S. (2004). Assessing Speaking (Cambridge Language Assessment). Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. Purdy, M. (1997). What is listening? In M. Purdy & D. Borisoff (Eds.), Listening in everyday life: A personal and professional approach (2nd ed.) (pp. 1-20). Lanham, MD: University Press of America. Shahid, S. M. (1999). Teaching of English. Lahore: Majeed Book Depot. Woottipong, Kretsai. 2014. Effect of Using Video Materials in the Teaching of Listening Skills for University Students. Retrieved August 16th 2014 from