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A2 Media Studies

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A2 Media Studies
Coursework
Research and Planning
Connor Filby
M.I.G.R.A.I.N – Meaning:
symbolism
Symbolism is the usage of images and symbols to tell a story to an audience,
it relays meaning to them without telling them directly.
Black is used to represent death or evil.
White often is used to represent life and purity.
Red can symbolize blood, passion, danger, or immoral character.
Purple is a royal colour and is sometimes used as a colour of evil
Yellow can stand for violence, decay, cowardice and perhaps anxiety
Blue represents peacefulness and calm
Green represents nature, purity and the undisturbed
Symbolic codes
 Symbolic codes include:
 Setting: an example of setting creating meaning could
be a dark forest, this could mean evil lurking nearby
 Mise en scene: an example of Mise en scene creating
meaning could be a large array of weapons in frame
to create a meaning of danger.
 Acting: an example of Acting creating meaning could
be someone acting relieved, this could mean that
they just managed to escape a bad situation or get to
safety
 Lighting: lighting can create meaning with the colour
of the light and the brightness, such as if there is
a soft glow of red it could mean that there is an
unknown danger that will be an issue later.
 Colour: an example of colour creating meaning could
be a screen filled with red to mean love or blood or
even violence, or a screen filled with black to signify
death or an ending
Technical codes
 Meaning can be created by
technical codes in film
 Examples of these technical
codes are via props and camera
angles,
 for example in this image here
we see a close up of a soldiers
face after his freind has been
mortally wounded and is going to
presumably die, we can see the
emotion and every look on their
face because of the close up
shot, the angle shows the second
soldiers injury as well as both of
the mens faces, in the
background we can see a fire
burning in the remains of a barn
or a similar building, this could
provide meaning as the second
soldiers life quickly burning out,
or perhaps it could represent the
destruction and death being
inflicted during this war, it is all
up for interpretation.
Colour
representations
 Colours when used in film can
have meanings depending on
how they are used, some
example colors
 Red: red represents blood, love,
passion and violence.
 Green represents life, nature
and sometimes evil as can be
seen in many Disney movies
where a lime mist will emerge
when a villain is introduced
 Black represents death,
nothingness and depression, this
is because in many stories of
death he is portrayed as a
corpse wearing a black robe,
nothingness as black is not a
colour but the lack of colour
and depression because when
people are depressed they feel
down, dark and have what is
known as “ dark thoughts”

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Media asmt connor

  • 1. A2 Media Studies Coursework Research and Planning Connor Filby
  • 3. symbolism Symbolism is the usage of images and symbols to tell a story to an audience, it relays meaning to them without telling them directly. Black is used to represent death or evil. White often is used to represent life and purity. Red can symbolize blood, passion, danger, or immoral character. Purple is a royal colour and is sometimes used as a colour of evil Yellow can stand for violence, decay, cowardice and perhaps anxiety Blue represents peacefulness and calm Green represents nature, purity and the undisturbed
  • 4. Symbolic codes  Symbolic codes include:  Setting: an example of setting creating meaning could be a dark forest, this could mean evil lurking nearby  Mise en scene: an example of Mise en scene creating meaning could be a large array of weapons in frame to create a meaning of danger.  Acting: an example of Acting creating meaning could be someone acting relieved, this could mean that they just managed to escape a bad situation or get to safety  Lighting: lighting can create meaning with the colour of the light and the brightness, such as if there is a soft glow of red it could mean that there is an unknown danger that will be an issue later.  Colour: an example of colour creating meaning could be a screen filled with red to mean love or blood or even violence, or a screen filled with black to signify death or an ending
  • 5. Technical codes  Meaning can be created by technical codes in film  Examples of these technical codes are via props and camera angles,  for example in this image here we see a close up of a soldiers face after his freind has been mortally wounded and is going to presumably die, we can see the emotion and every look on their face because of the close up shot, the angle shows the second soldiers injury as well as both of the mens faces, in the background we can see a fire burning in the remains of a barn or a similar building, this could provide meaning as the second soldiers life quickly burning out, or perhaps it could represent the destruction and death being inflicted during this war, it is all up for interpretation.
  • 6. Colour representations  Colours when used in film can have meanings depending on how they are used, some example colors  Red: red represents blood, love, passion and violence.  Green represents life, nature and sometimes evil as can be seen in many Disney movies where a lime mist will emerge when a villain is introduced  Black represents death, nothingness and depression, this is because in many stories of death he is portrayed as a corpse wearing a black robe, nothingness as black is not a colour but the lack of colour and depression because when people are depressed they feel down, dark and have what is known as “ dark thoughts”
  • 7. Representation theorists Baudrillard – Hyper Reality: “Some texts are difficult to distinguish in terms of the representation of reality from a simulation of reality e.g. Big Brother. The boundaries are blurred as codes and conventions create a set of signifiers which we understand but in fact the representation is a copy of a copy”. Judith Butler – Queer Theory: “Gender is what you do, not who you are with the theory contesting the categorization of gender and sexuality – identities are not fixed and they cannot be labelled e.g. potentially androgynous representations like Gok Wan. Carol Clover – Last Girl Theory (Horror): “In many horror films, like Halloween typically the last girl that survives is pure, chaste and virginal while all of her friends with looser morals have been killed. Even the name of the last girl is often unisex e.g. Sidney, Teddy or Billie and has elements of androgyny and sometimes also a shared history with the killer”. Richard Dyer – Stereotypes Legitimize Inequality: “A way to ensure unequal power relations are maintained is to continually stereotype – GTAV is a misogynist video game where players have the opportunity to kill prostitutes in their own violent way – the game is entirely male point of view and arguably serves to maintain dominant male culture”. Stuart Hall – Dominant, Oppositional and Negotiated Readings of Representation: “Stuart Hall’s theory (see audiences) is also useful in understanding how some representations reflect the dominant culture e.g. patriarchy, women in The Sun and in Men’s Magazines like FHM. Angela McRobbie – Post Feminist Icon Theory: “Lara Croft, Lady Gaga and Madonna for example could be identified as post feminist icons as they exhibit the stereotypical characteristics of both the male and female – strength, courage, control and logic but also are willing to be sexualized for the male gaze. This control element of their own representation is crucial in understanding the theory”. Andy Medhurst – Stereotyping is Shorthand for Identification: “One way that texts like Waterloo Road and Skins for example allow for audience identification is through stereotyping and giving characters an extreme representation”. Laura Mulvey – Male Gaze/Female Gaze: “Women on the front cover of FHM are sexualized and objectified for the male audience while the same can be said for male models in perfume adverts, sexualized for a female demographic”. Tessa Perkins – Stereotyping has Elements of Truth: “Although stereotyping can have negative effects often it is based of some degree of reality but distorted and manipulated for the purpose of entertainment values”
  • 8. Stuart halls reception theory  Reception theory asserts that media texts are encoded and decoded. The producer encodes messages and values into their media which are then decoded by the audience. However, different audience members will decode the media in different ways and possibly not in the way the producer originally intended.  Stuart Hall states that audience members adopt one of the following three positions when they decode the text:  Dominant, or Preferred Reading - how the producer wants the audience to view the media text. Audience members will take this position if the messages are clear and if the audience member is the same age and culture; if it has an easy to follow narrative and if it deals with themes that are relevant to the audience.  Oppositional Reading - when the audience rejects the preferred reading, and creates their own meaning for the text. This can happen if the media contains controversial themes that the audience member disagrees with. It can also arise when the media has a complex narrative structure perhaps not dealing with themes in modern society. Oppositional reading can also occur if the audience member has different beliefs or is of a different age or a different culture.  Negotiated Reading - a compromise between the dominant and oppositional readings, where the audience accepts parts of the producer's views, but has their own views on parts as well. This can occur if there is a combination of some of the above e.g. audience member likes the media, is of the same age as you and understands some of the messages, but the narrative is complex and this inhibits full understanding.
  • 9. Reception theory example For example we have an advertisement for iPhone The preferred reading for this advertisement would be that the audience thinks this phone is advanced and extremely useful and therefore want to swap out the phone they may have for this one. The negotiated reading would be that someone would find this phone to be useful but refuse to swap from android or Samsung because they find those to be more useful, yet they do appreciate this phones usefulness The oppositional reading would be that people think this phone is awful as it does not have a home button, it breaks to easily and more and thus would refuse to ever use it outright
  • 11. The big 5  The walt Disney company  Universal pictures  Paramount pictures  Warner bros  Columbia pictures  These 5 companies make up the big 5, previously known as the big six until Fox media was bought by Disney for 71.3 billion USD, they run the majority of media in the modern world, they are large companies that in order to keep their success they either suffocate or buy out smaller studios that couldn't hope to compete. They are gatekeepers, they all have a 360 degree status as they are involved in every branch of media, they are the largest media producers in the world, making up a huge oligopoly in the media sector 
  • 12. What do film institutions do?  Film institutions are large media producers such as Disney, universal studios and more, they do multiple things such as marketing, producing films, Production: When producing a film institutions must consider budget, actors and setting, budget is how much money they have allocated to the film for its production, the equipment, pay of actors and workers, props, transport, • Budget • Actors • Setting Marketing & Distribution: Film institutions will produce and put out advertising for their products, either show or film, they will produce these advertisements and show them across all the platforms and sectors they have influence and control in to maximize views and profit Exchange: Where the product is consumed by the audience
  • 13. Institutional research - production labels  Production labels are companies that market movies and shows They engage in a wide range of functions in the film industry such as film publishing and copyright enforcement
  • 14.  The British Board of Film Classification is a non government organisation founded by the film industry in 1912 and responsible for the national classification and censorship of films shown at cinemas and video works released on physical media within the United Kingdom. It has a statutory requirement to classify all video works released on VHS, DVD, Blu ray and, to a lesser extent, some video games under the video recordings act of 1984 The BBFC was also the designated regulator for the UK age verification scheme which was abandoned before being implemented. The BBFC
  • 16. Genre: When watching a film we can put it into a certain category based on genre, genre being French for "type" or "class" we can easily see meaning being created, because of how each genre can be easily noted by use of tropes, such as the abuse of one character until they take out their hate on others, characters, such as oblivious college kids who do not see the killer or monster until it is too late or a killer who is seeking revenge for an act that had been done against them, Standard settings or themes, such as a dark abandoned mansion or foggy woods with ominous noises emanating.
  • 17. Genre Theorists:  Rick Altman – Semantics and Synactic’s  David Buckingham – Genre in Constant Process of Negotiation and Change  Daniel Chandler – Genre is Too Restricting  John Hartley – Genre is Interpreted Culturally  John Fiske – Genre as ‘Convenience’ for Producers and Audiences  Henry Jenkins – Genre constantly ‘Breaks Rules’ e.g. evolving hybridization  Jason Mittel – Industry Uses Genre Commercially  Steve Neale – Genre as Repetition and Difference  Keith Grant- the term Genre has 3 major meanings
  • 18. What are some of the codes and conventions of genre? what do you expect to see in a horror/sci fi/western/comedy etc.
  • 19. Horror  In a horror film you would expect to see dark lighting such as the exessive shade under a forest or the pure blackness of the night,  jumpscares such as the monster, demon or killer jumping out of places such as a sewer or from a place just out of sight,  screaming, either as background diagetic noice to build tension, create a scenario or scare the main character, or an on screen character being killed or attacked and screaming in fear,  suspenseful music to slowly build tension, often being quite loud when compared to characters speaking so that every pitch change or sudden note is very audible  and blood and death, either as an unknown or background character to set the scene or a character with buildup and development to shock the veiwer
  • 20. Sci-fi  In a Science fiction film you would expect to see aliens such as the xenomorphs in the “Alien” series or the predator in the “predator” series which may be a few different things such as an enemy, a benefactor, an ally or a hunter,  advanced technology such as laser guns, giant robots or vehicles or super advanced medical systems, spaceships, lasers and different planets.
  • 21. Western  In a western you would expect to see cowboys,  a desert town, horses, ranches, draws and old revolvers,  you would also expect to see a worn young man ride into a crime ridden town and whip it up into shape by fighting off the criminals and outlaws, he is hurt and thought to be out for the count but is nursed back to heath when he fights the full force of the antagonists and wins despite being hurt badly.
  • 22. Comedy  In a comedy you would expect to see lighthearted characters and a lack of any serious tones within the film, there would be weird camera angles, odd sound effects, odd facial features made to help push the comedy,  exaggerated and clumsy movement and less serious conversations in order to preserve the fact that it is a comedy and is made to be light hearted and funny.
  • 23. Sub-genres  Sub genres refers to a cross between two or more main genres  such as a romantic comedy, an action sci fi, a sci fi comedy, and more, the list of sub genres is very long and is hard to name them all as many sub genres are made of already existing sub genres
  • 24. What do people say about genre?  A style of classification that can apply to many different subjects such as art, film, televison shows, books, music, games and even food,  the word genre is used as a classification word, in short different genres mean different themes and such.
  • 25. Why is genre so hard to define?  Because genre can apply to so many different things and is not focused on just one area for example films,  almost all forms of media and many other things have genres and all of these groups define it differently so there can never be one true definition.
  • 27. The Alvarado theory, Manuel Alvarado  The Alvarado theory is based upon racial stereotypes and said stereotypes in action in film production, these stereotypes include:  Exotic  The pitied  The humorous  The dangerous  He created his theory to show both the positives and negatives of each of the stereotype category he made, he showed how they were used in film and television.
  • 28. Alvarado theory, exotic  This stereotype links closely to what theorist Stuart Hall called 'the secret fascination of 'otherness' – this is the way in which the media represents people who are different from us.  This can be viewed both positively and negatively but is usually a construction by the text. The 'exotic' stereotype presents the individual in terms of how they look, what they wear, what they eat and their 'different' customs  This can be negative as calling their customs and such “exotic” may be rude as whilst it may be unfamiliar to many of us, it is quite normal and is just tradition to others, for example wearing a baseball cap may be normal for many people however for others it may be unusual, so it would be ‘exotic” from their perspective.
  • 29. Alvarado theory, the pitied  In certain texts ethnic minorities are stereotyped as vulnerable and as victims.  This is true of many newspaper and television news reports of developing countries, this is largely because the only time certain countries appear in the news is when they are linked to disasters, for example famine and earthquakes.  Similar representations are used for charity campaigns in order to shock the audience into action.
  • 30. Alvarado theory, the humorous  In the context of certain texts, for example situation comedies and film, the audience is encouraged to laugh at the ethnic stereotypes contained within the text.  These stereotypes have often been built up over time and, as with all stereotypes, they exaggerate recognisable features and attributes.  In the early days of sitcoms racist humour was seen as an acceptable way of making people laugh.  This is no longer the case but texts like Citizen Khan have attracted a range of views about the programme which was written by British Muslim Adil Ray. It was one of the most complained-about programmes to Ofcom with accusations that it stereotyped the Pakistani community in Britain.
  • 31. Alvarado theory, the dangerous  Alvarado states that some texts represent ethnic minorities as a threat to society and they are often blamed for social problems.  Immigrants are stereotypically represented as benefit cheats and scroungers.  The ghettoization of some social groups reinforces the idea of difference as they become marooned communities who are seen as apart from the norm. Some newspapers manipulate the readers' fear of the unknown by grouping together individuals under the common title of 'immigrants'. This lack of personalisation makes it easier to blame them for a range of social problems
  • 32. Laura Mulvey and the male gaze Laura Mulvey is a feminist film theorist from Britain, best known for her essay on Visual Pleasure and Narrative Cinema. Her theories are influenced by the likes of Sigmund Freud and Jacques Lacan, whilst also including psychoanalysis and feminism in her works. Mulvey is predominantly known for her theory regarding sexual objectification on women in the media, more commonly known as “The Male Gaze” theory. Being one of the most notable film theorists in the world, her ideas and clear proof of misogyny in film opened up the eyes of many, and in 1975, something that people simply accepted was finally questioned. Although Mulvey‘s theory has helped identify issues with gender in film, why do we still have the same issues decades later? Why do we still see the same roles for women in film and television reused over and over again? The Male Gaze theory is where women in the media are viewed from the eyes of a heterosexual man, and that these women are represented as passive objects of male desire. Audiences are forced to view women from the point of view of a heterosexual male, even if they are heterosexual women or homosexual men. From the feminist perspective, this theory can be viewed in three ways: How men look at women, how women look at themselves and finally, how women look at other women. Typical examples of the male gaze include medium close-up shots of women from over a man’s shoulder, shots that pan and fixate on a woman’s body, and scenes that frequently occur which show a man actively observing a passive woman.
  • 34. The hypodermic needle theory- Harold Laswell  The Hypodermic Needle Theory is a linear communication theory which suggests that media messages are injected directly into the brains of a passive audience. It suggests that we’re all the same and we all respond to media messages in the same way.  This way of thinking about communication and media influence is no longer really accepted. In the 1930s, many researchers realized the limitations of this idea and some dispute whether early media theorists gave the idea any serious attention at all. Nevertheless, The Hypodermic Needle Theory continues to influence the way we talk about the media. People believe that the mass media has a powerful effect. Parents worry about the influence of television and violent video games. News outlets run headlines like ‘Is Google making us stupid’ and ‘Grand Theft Auto led teen to kill’.
  • 35. The uses and gratification theory- Elihu Katz The uses and gratification theory is an approach to understanding why and how people actively seek out specific media to satisfy specific needs. It is an audience-centred approach to understanding mass communication. It assumes that audience members are not passive consumers of media and do not just blindly enjoy everything they are shown and demand specific media. The theory discusses the effects of the media on people. It explains how people use the media for their own need and get satisfied when their needs are fulfilled. In other words, it can be said that the theory argues what people do with media rather than what media does to people. Also, this theory is in contradiction to the magic bullet theory which states that the audience is passive. This theory has a user/audience-centred approach. Even for communication, say – interpersonal, people refer to the media for the topic to discuss among themselves. By referring the media, they gain more knowledge and exposure to the world beyond their limited eyesight.
  • 36. The cultivation theory, George Gerbner The cultivation theory suggests that the more time people spend 'living' in the television world, the more likely they are to believe social reality is the same as the reality portrayed on television. The theory argues that the media generally presents an image of the world that does not reflect reality. Television images are an exaggeration or fantasy of what actually exists. There is a disproportionate number of handsome gentlemen, beautiful women, crime, wealth and violence. As a result, people end up perceiving the real world in a distorted manner and viewing actuality through a ‘television perspective.’ Television offers a plethora of ideas and conceptions on a variety of social and cultural dynamics like race, gender, sexuality and more Over a period of time, a fixed image of various groups of people is formed and viewers start to absorb these ideas which they then use as a map to navigate through life. This constant exposure to the media content cultivates specific values, beliefs, attitudes and desires in people. These newly preconceived notions shape their perception of the world and they ultimately influence how others perceive them. People, therefore, end up unconsciously shaping their thought processes and behavior based on what they consume. In today’s world, people are increasingly starting to depend on television more than any other medium to understand the intricate web of the norms, values and mindset of the society in which they live.
  • 37. Passive audience theory  A passive audience is likely to accept the messages encoded in a media text without any challenges and therefore more likely to be directly affected by the messages. The audience accepts and believes all messages in any media text that they receive. This is the passive audience model. They accept the preferred reading and don't question it. In this model the media is seen as powerful and able to inject ideas into an audience who are seen as weak and passive
  • 38. Active audience theory  An active audience engages, interprets and responds to media in different ways and is capable of challenging the ideas within the media piece, they do not just sit back and watch what is given to them with no opinions or complaints, they choose what to watch, are specific on their tastes in media and will interpret things more creatively, if there is something they deem worthy of criticism then they shall criticize it with intent to make future creations or episodes better.
  • 39. Hypodermic needle theory  This hypothesis was established sometime in the 1920s or early 1930s, it hypothesises a communication theory that proposes that media signals are specifically implanted into the minds of passive viewers. For example news networks within the united states of America are biased and may push their views on other people, such as their opinion on abortion laws, religion, immigrants and more.
  • 40. Cultivation theory  The cultivation theory was created by George Gerbner in the 1960s it examines the long term effects of television. The theory suggests that the more times a person stays in the world of television the more likely they are to believe that their own reality is the same as the reality portrayed by the showings on television, Gerbner also suggested that those who watched television for extended periods of time would see the outside world to be a cruel place and therefore become very hesitant on leaving their comfort zone to do new things.
  • 41. The two step flow theory  The two step flow theory was made by Katz and Paul Lazarfelds, it says that there is an opinion leader who gets information from a media source.  The opinion leader then passes it to other people. This could cause a bad influence on other people if they heard negative things about it from the opinion leader this could affect the reputation of the content resulting in low views.
  • 42. Stuart hall and the reception theory  Reception theory is a version of reader response literary theory that emphasizes each particular reader's reception or interpretation in making meaning from a literary text.  Essentially what this means is that each viewer can see a piece of media and interpret it entirely differently than another viewer, a prime example of this would be the recent “burger king sexism” twitter drama, I personally saw it as an attempt of dark humour by using sexist stereotypes to draw in the audience and then do a as I like to call it “bait and switch” in which they will quickly change the meaning all together just by providing more context, I found it humorous but risky.  Many people on twitter saw it as burger king actively trying to be offensive and sexist and thus burger king received a large amount of criticism and hate, backfiring completely on what burger king originally intended.
  • 43. The moral panic theory  The moral panic theory, created by Stanley Cohen in 1972 states that moral panic happens when someone or something is defined by the media as a threat to the values or interests of society. Moral panic can play an important role in enforcing alarm, even by just reporting the news. In extreme cases, moral panic creates mass hysteria within the community. The general public start to believe whatever is being reported on is occurring everywhere in society  An example of moral panic would be news stations claiming that a group known as HAMAS was in fact a terrorist organisation and sought to harm innocents, civilians and American citizens, the organisation itself however has put out statements saying that its goal is to drive out Israeli occupation and return Palestine to a Islamic state.
  • 44. Maslow's Hierarchy of Needs  Maslow's hierarchy of needs has five sections:  Self-actualisation, people would be motivated by a character they've seen in a movie or a celebrity posting about their lives. they'd have the desire to achieve the absolute best they can and media would motivate them.  Psychological needs: food, water, shelter, sleep, clothing, reproduction and air  Esteem: recognition, strength, freedom, status, respect and self esteem.  Safety needs: resources, health, employment, personal security and property  Love and belonging: a sense of connection, a family, friends and a group they can connect to
  • 45. M.I.G.R.A.I.N – Ideology:  a system of ideas and ideals, especially one which forms the basis of economic or political theory and policy
  • 46. Ideology: Marxism  Definition of Marxism: Marxism is the political and economic belief that there is no social classes and that every person within the society works for a common good, and class struggle is theoretically gone. The theory is that this will eliminate the social gap between the bourgeoisie and the proletariat and this will eventually lead to communism. the person who created this theory is Karl Marx. Marxism was first theorised in September 1844  Positives of Marxism: it has equal gender roles, equal education access and health care as part of its foundation, It protects the rights of the union, and instead by being exploited by its managers, Marxism encourages the formation of unions to stand up for personal rights. This is an advantage as it shows how people who choose this ideology have freedom to express their rights. Choosing to be Marxist reduces the tendency of debt, as communities choose to work together to achieve success as all people provide for one another.  Negatives of Marxism: it tries to abolish religion, it negatively effects the educational system, Marxist philosophy on education sees economics lying at the root of human activity therefore they do not agree with the curriculum construction and examination system, it limits opportunities for entrepreneurs as you are basically working for the government, limiting diversity. Almost every time Marxism was used it lead to communism which is believed to lead society without anyone being motivated, lowering the economy  Effects of Marxism in media: it is believed that very wealthy business owners would instruct editors and journalists to put across certain messages to audience. This would spread dominant ideology that questions the power and privilege of the bourgeois
  • 47. Ideology: socialism  Definition: Socialism is a a political and economic theory which believes that the means of making, moving and trading wealth should be owned or controlled by workers. This means the money made belongs to the people who make the things, instead of a group of private owners, so every person in the community has an equal share of the various elements of production  Positives of socialism: Socialism creates a society that focuses on economic equality, there is a reduction in poverty when socialism works. The presence of universal healthcare improves the living standards for all citizens. it is possible within a socialist society to create higher levels of social cohesion because the general welfare of everyone is the priority. More equality often leads to improvements in social cohesion. When a society has more equality in it for the average person this helps to stop inequality, therefore, the existence of monopolies and oligopolies. As a result, there is more cohesiveness that develops over time. Environmental protections can be implemented more readily. “One of the most common actions taken with this advantage of socialism is a regulatory reduction of pollution. Even though the activities that create the desired result will lower the levels of profit earned, the long-term existence of an industry that can provide excellent jobs is worth the investment to the average worker.  Negatives of socialism: Socialism creates a significantly higher tax burden for individuals. When an economy has a high rate of progressive taxation, then there are more disincentives than benefits to consider when working or creating a business opportunity. The creation of a welfare state can lead to industrial disincentives. This means that a socialist government is too giving to its citizens, allowing it’s people to be more relaxed about earning their own money. This can lead to poverty in the future. Unions can exist in socialist countries to create divides between workers and owners. However, this only occurs if the government is working on strengthening trade unions as that will create a bad relationship between the government and its people almost as if it was ‘’ us vs them’’ It reduces innovation opportunities for the society. A socialism-style government structure tends to focus on internal needs rather than new possibilities and ideas. This however, limits the options for innovation because there is little engagement with the government to develop new concepts. It forces the government to do all of the spending. Therefore, more imports may become necessary to maintain the status quo. If this issue continues for some time, then trade deficits can lead to high levels of debt  Effect of socialism in the media, many media outlets especially in he united states use the idea of socialism as a definite negative, describing it as un American and with how they talk about it it sounds as if it is a gateway to either Marxism or socialism because of their aged and stereotypical views that they wish to push on other people
  • 48. Ideology: liberalism  Liberalism is a political philosophy or worldview based and founded on ideas of liberty and equality for all, it holds freedom of speech, freedom of the press, freedom of religion, free markets, civil rights, democratic societies and gender equality all in very high regard  Advantages of liberalism: Provides individual freedom such as freedom of speech, most if not all liberalists fight for equality, they want more cultural diversity in schools, workplaces and everywhere, liberalism promotes economic growth for the country in a way that does not take advantage of others including other countries, it preserves human rights and holds them in very high regard.  Disadvantages of liberalism: The market can be very inconsistent, it is very over-dependent on everyone working together and does not take human nature into much account in that manner, liberalists expect other counties to all come together for the greater good completely ignoring the fact that many of these countries do not want to work together for a multitude of reasons. Government criticism, many governments around the world criticize liberalism heavily because they believe it is not realistic to have it as a governmental system, thus they are unwilling to try it, meaning it is difficult to see it in use. Cultural issues, many governments around the world were originally formed around religion or certain beliefs or traditions which may conflict with if the government was liberalist.  Effect of liberalism in media: many news outlets, movie producers and television producers have been pressured by liberalism to be more inclusive, include more people of colour, more people with disabilities, people with sexualities other than heterosexual and more, if a show is not very inclusive and does not have much in the way of diversity many liberalists will likely complain and direct criticism towards the show, it can however get to a level where it is simply unnecessary and pointless.
  • 49. Ideology: capitalism  Capitalism is an economic system in which private individuals or businesses own capital goods. It is also a political system in which a country's trade and industry is controlled by few private owners.  Advantages of capitalism: with capitalism there is more economic freedoms than other political ideologies such as Marxism, people have more input on what is happening to their money, and this can lead to more political freedom as well. Another advantage of people having the freedom to do what they want with their money is that people are able to set up a business if they want to and can provide goods and services without being heavily restricted, this creates competition between companies, which benefits consumers because the companies in attempt to constantly make themselves more appealing than their rivals they decrease prices to get more sales, making their products cheaper than if it were a few select providers.  Disadvantages of capitalism: Many people don't care about others concerns about inequality and oppression as they are too busy trying to succeed in life and live comfortably as a capitalist society is very competitive and thus being kind could be seen as a weakness and taken advantage of, meaning people do not have time to care about one another because if you are to care too much it could ruin you. Most billionaires and rich individuals in positions of power over workers very often take advantage of this power and do immoral things simply for the sake of making just a little more profit, workers will be laid off, have their pays reduced, their schedules will be precisely designed so that they cannot come together and discuss, unionising can be severely punished and more, this is highly immoral and scummy, and yet these rich owners can do this as capitalism lets them get away with it. Most capitalists do not care about the external damage they inflict as long as their profit margins are steady or rise, they would destroy whole forests if it meant their profits would remain intact, this severely damages the world and yet they do not want to do anything about it because that would not be profitable.
  • 51. Narrative: Narrative creates meaning in media because of how it is being narrated, if there was a film about a bank robber who is planning a heist and the narration describes them as horrible greedy monsters whom want only money and power then the audience will dislike them and think of them in only that way, however if the narration describes them as a poor person whom has been kicked around by society and the government and this being his only choice then he would receive pity and sympathy for his situation. Point Break
  • 52. Todorov's Narrative Theory In 1969, Todorov proposed a theory which he believed was applicable to all films. He believed that all films follow the same narrative pattern going through 5 stages. These are the Equilibrium, disequilibrium, acknowledgement, solving and again the equilibrium. Equilibrium The equilibrium is the first stage of Todorov’s theory. This stage is found at the beginning of the film, where everything is as it should be and the characters lives are normal. Disequilibrium The second stage is the disruption stage. This is when the state of equilibrium is disturbed by an event occurring. Acknowledgement Next, Todorov believes that the film has an acknowledgment stage, where there is recognition of the event that disturbed the equilibrium. Solving The solving stage is the part of the film where there is an attempt to repair the damage of the disruption that has been made. Equilibrium The final stage, is the equilibrium stage again. This is the part where there is a return or restoration of a new equilibrium.
  • 53. Propp's Character Types  The Villain — struggles against the hero; usually an older, ugly, sly and manipulative male.  The Dispatcher — sends the hero off on his quest.  The helper — helps the hero in their quest, usually less good-looking or clever, but essential to their success.  The Donor — prepares the hero or gives the hero some magical or essential object in order to aid them on their quest  The Princess — the hero deserves her throughout the story but is unable to marry her because of an unfair evil, usually because of the villain. The hero's journey is often ended when he marries the princess, thereby thwarting and beating the villain. The princess tends to be beautiful and good natured, but ultimately weak and passive, a pawn or prize to be won.  The Oracle – an older wise figure, usually male, who provides essential wisdom, information or clues to aid the hero on his quest
  • 54. Propp's Character Types continued  The Hero or victim— young, brave and strong, traditionally almost always male; quick to accept his task and commence his quest; reacts to the donor, wins and weds the princess.  8. False Hero — takes credit for the hero’s actions or tries to marry the princess.
  • 55. What is a trailer, a teaser trailer and what's the difference between the 2?  A trailer is normally a short video on an expected movie release, a new season of a show or even a new video game title, normally featuring scenes of the product, characters that appear in said product, they usually provide basic information on the film such as who stars in it, the characters in said film, the setting and most of the time even the basic story, they usually can last from 2 – 5 minutes, a teaser trailer is a much shorter version of a trailer that shows normally only one or two scenes with the main character in them, they usually are between 15 seconds and 1.5 minutes and act as a way to get people exited and be eagerly anticipating the actual trailer and from there the film itself.  An example of a teaser trailer from the lion king:  https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=4CbLXeGSDxg  An example of a normal trailer from the lion king:  https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=36oE0EBeESM  We can see the difference between the two is that the teaser trailer is one minute and thirty three seconds long, the trailer is three minutes and forty seconds long.
  • 56. How have trailers evolved over the years?  Trailers over the years have changed as well as the films these trailers are for, as an example the batman series has changes massively, in the year 1966 this was an advertisement for a batman film: https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=hc5C8ihR7DQ  As can be seen the advertisement acts as a sort of infomercial on what the film will be, with the characters introducing them and being extremely presentable for the advertisement, they seem much brighter and cheery, it is much more cheesy and doesn’t seem to take itself seriously, in contrast to this a newer film in the batman series, the dark knight, released in 2008  https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=EXeTwQWrcwY  We can see that the situation is a lot more dark, serious, it seems to be much more action packed with explosions fire and more, we can also see that costumes have evolved as well, the batman looking a lot more armoured and militaristic compared to in the 60s.
  • 57. How trailers have become more contemporary  In trailers for films set in the modern day we see use of daily modern things such as mobile phones, tablets, drones or other such technologies without there being an extreme emphasis on the use of these devices and not as much emphasis on these devices being extremely advanced as people have become more used to them, this small detail really makes these adverts seem more like real life as there is not that much of a deal about these devices, just like in real life.  In advertising for movies and such characters are becoming more relatable or at least more realistic and less dramatized, they feel more genuine, like they are real and are not just actors  An example of a film with the inclusion and relative focus is countdown, a movie about an app that tells you when you are going to die, it is more modern day and uses a every day item to most people as a plot device, this makes it slightly more relatable compared to if it were an ancient artifact or some other unfamiliar device
  • 58. What makes a good trailer?  A good trailer catches peoples attention and excites them for the advertised film, enough so that once the film releases, said people want to go and watch it as soon as they can, a good example of this would be avengers endgame:  https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=TcMBFSGVi1c  People were ecstatic when this advertisement came out, they could not wait until the release of the film, there were theories made by everyone on the topic, people made videos on what they thought would happen in the film and other people watched them, when the film finally released it broke records, for example, it holds the title for biggest global opening weekend with $1.2 billion, best domestic launch with $357 million and strongest international bow with $866 million, it also holds the title for highest grossing film of all time, part of this may be due to other factors, but were it not for the advertising and build-up from Disney and marvel over this film then its great success at release may have been impacted
  • 59. Are independent films up to the same standard as Conglomerates  Independent films are most of the time not up to the same standard as conglomerates, this is because conglomerate made films usually have a large amount of funding in their production, a prime example of a comparison between a conglomerate made film and an independent made film is Disney’s "beauty and the beast” which released at a similar date as “before I fall” made by Jon Shestack productions and a small company called Awesomeness.  Before I fall was not very successful as a film, there were not many people going to see it as many people had never even heard of it, this is because these independent producers could not afford advertising to the same scale as larger producers, they could not afford well known actors and thus couldn’t promote their films through large followings on social media, they did not have the same camera quality, editing capacity, lighting quality and microphone quality as larger conglomerates such as Disney.  Disney's beauty and the beast however was very successful, Disney could afford vast amounts of advertising, they could afford to have well known actors play roles within the film, such as Emma Watson to play one of the main roles, the inclusion of famous actors such as Emma Watson inevitably pulled more people to watch the film as these actors spread word of the film on their social media, Disney could afford every luxury when it came to filming, they had the best cameras, the best lighting, the best microphones, the best editing and more.  In conclusion whilst they are capable of producing good films, independent producers do not have the same budget as large conglomerates and thus cannot afford to make films of the same quality.
  • 60. Why do films include movie posters?  Most if not all films have movie posters as a way of showing what the film is about to a potential audience, as well as showing them what the film will look like, for example, batman the dark knight, the poster shows us batman dressed in an armoured bat suit standing in front of a building with a fiery bat symbol burning on it, this shows that within the actual movie there may be destruction, fire, explosions, disasters and more, perhaps the fire has a significant presence in the movie, it could create a new villain or kill a significant character.  The smoke that is present could represent confusion, clouded judgment, not being able to see crucial things and more, it is all up for interpretation of the viewer.  To conclude, films include movie posters so if someone is trying to decide on what to watch at a cinema, sees the movie poster and finds it interesting then it may sway them into choosing to watch said movie over other films showing.
  • 61. Why is it important to include branding across movie promotional packs  By including branding of companies such as Coca cola, Ford, Ferrari or other companies within a film advertisement it is also creating advertising for them, and in order to get this advertising these large companies pay large sums of money so that their brand name is seen by large scale audiences, this money can then be used by the studio on the film, investing the money back into the film to make it better  A good example of this is Jurassic worlds new entry to the series, we can see in the poster alone that in the centre of the poster a velociraptor is standing on top of a Jeep car, this is a prime example of branding in a promotional pack, unfortunately the official trailer has not released yet, only a teaser trailer, so I am unable to use that as an example.
  • 62. Analysis of Trailer 1: mission impossible, fallout  The trailer begins with a quick sequence of action scenes with intense music playing in the background before a sudden blackscreen that fades into a title screen of the name of the film and then shows a landscape of Paris, suggesting that the film will find itself set in France at some point, then a medium high pitch low volume piano begins playing as a man is narrating calmly, he suddenly stops as another man begins talking, presumably to the main character of the film as more intense music beings playing and climbing, some action scenes, vehicles, people and more are shown in quick succession, a man talks about how the main character keeps being used by his government and cast aside, and how what if one day he has had enough, perhaps suggesting in this film the main character rebels and fights back against his previous commanders, there is then a brawl in a bathroom between the main character and two other men in suits, more action scenes are then shown in quick succession, some being the same as the ones shown in the beginning before a title screen is shown and the trailer ends.  The meaning of the trailer in my eyes is that the main character has faced enough abuse from their employer and is fighting back against them by searching on their history and removing assets of their employers to weaken them and make them vulnerable so he and his friends can strike, whilst his employers have dispatched a team to neutralise him.  The institutions that produced this film are paramount films, skydance and bad robot, the main contributor in terms of budget in this film production I assume to be paramount as it is the largest corporation of the three, the other two are not exactly small but are not to the same level. KEY CONCEPTS: Meaning Institution Genre Representatio n Audience Ideology Narrative
  • 63. Analysis of Poster 1: mission impossible, fallout  from the poster we can see the main characters upper torso and face enlarged in the background, in front of them is the Eiffel tower, half of a helicopter in the bottom right corner and 4 people, 3 of them are looking at the camera, the first man is dressed in black and has a handgun, the woman is also dressed in black and seems to be on the side of the first man, the other two dress more casually and do not have as much black in their outfits.  Taking a look at this poster we can assume the two people in black are the antagonists of this story, the two men dressed more casually may be friends or allies with the main character. We can also see that the film must take place even if not permanently in Paris with the inclusion of the Eiffel tower, the helicopter may be a key plot point within the films story or is used or represented in a way that significantly affects the story.
  • 64. Analysis of Social Media Page 1: mission impossible fallout The social media account for the mission impossible series promoted the release of the film very heavily and constantly updated what platforms it was released on to keep potential audiences invested, this was the most relevant of their dozens upon dozens of posts, they stated what platforms it could be watched on, whom was in the film and even the roles played by these actors, my analysis would be that they want to ensure as many people as possible knew about the film and saw it, they are still promoting it to this day.
  • 65. Branding: mission impossible fallout  After the release of the film paramount pictures negotiated a deal with a company that owned popular game at the time pubg, this partnership meant that the game was allowed to use characters from the film as in game avatars, this was prime advertising for the movie as it was being incorporated in modern culture such as video games that were popular at the time.