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Component 3
Media Key Concepts
Research
Name: Iris Michaelidou
How is meaning created?
In media there is two layers of meaning, Significier (Denotation) which is
what we actually see while watching something and Signifies
(Connotation) which is what you associate with the image, the deeper or
hidden meanings and associations. For example a scene where people
are physically fighting, you think about why they're actually fighting and
how they're feeling while fighting. There could be a reason to while it
lead to violence, so it’s just thinking about it in debt and the different
reasons why something is happening.
Meaning is created in a moving image by using symbolic and technical
codes, they are the key elements that help you understand how meaning
is created in media texts and moving images.
Symbolism is things like an object, color, character, plot, special effects
and camera angles or an event in a story that carries more than the
literal meaning and therefore represents something signficant to
understanding the meaning of a work of literature. In other words
symbols always have a literal (concrete) meaning and a figurative
(abstract) meaning.
Stuart Hall's Reception Theory
(how audiences can read media)
 Reception theory as developed by Stuart Hall asserts that media texts are encoded and
decoded. The producer adds in messages and values into their media which are then decoded
by the audience. Theres three theory's that Stuart descovered:
 Preffered reading: the audience sees what the director intended you to see in that scene and
it makes the audience understand the message that's being portrayed. The audience sees it
exactly how it was supposed to come out, no other view just how it’s supposed to be and they
understand it completely.
 Negotiated reading: the audience understands the preffered message in a scene but you can
also see another side to the message that’s showing. They fully understand what the director is
trying to tell you but they can also have another view of what they see and a different opinion
from what’s actually shown but they still understand what the actual meaning is they just see
it from two different meanings
 Oppositional reading: the audience opposes the original messsage and actually sees it for
something else. The audience doesn’t actually see the real message the director is trying to
show but actually makes up they’re own meaning behind the scene. They might not really
understand the meaning behind the scenes correctly and gets a whole different meaning.
 Different spectators will decode the text in different ways, not always in the way the
producer intended it to.
 Encoding/decoding- it is the model of the relationship between text and audience, the text is
usually encoded by the producer and decoded by the reader
Dove advert
The dove advert was created an advert to show that
they’re body wash is meant for everybody and
everyone with all races. The black woman removed
her top after using the lotion and it revealed a white
woman underneath, after that the white woman
removed her top and turn into a middle eastern
woman. Dove had gotten into a lot of contriversy
with the public because to some people it cam
across as very racist, but the message of the ad was
completely different. Dove later explained that it
was trying to say that the body wash was for every
woman and to be a celebration of diversity. This is a
clear example of Stuart Halls theory when he talks
about oppositional reading, the audience got the
message completely wrong and sees it for something
else.
Symbolic codes
Symbolic codes show what us beneath the surface of what we
actually see. There are codes that are used to convey a
symbolic, rather than literal meaning.For example, a
character's actions show you how the character is really feeling.
Symbolic codes:
Mise-en-scene
Costume
• Time period/age/social
class
• Low/high quality
production values
• Status/role/occasion
• Ethnicity/race/sexuality
• Realism/escapist
• Coordination with
setting
Settings
• Studio set design/ on
location
• Decor/style/interiors
• Genre conventions
• Audience identification
• Backdrop
• Natural
• Stylised
Lighting/color
• High key and low key
lighting
• Single source and fill
lighting
• Use of shadows and
silouettes
• Bright primary colors
• Black and white
Body language
• Pose and posture
• Eye contact
• Actors movement/style
Objects and props
• Clues to characters
• Objects to help
understand scenes
• Props could be used for
super heroe capes or
for example in harry
potter they're wands
• Motifs
Technical codes
 Technical codes are all the ways in which equipment is being used
to tell the story in a media text and for example camera work in a
film.
 This includes sound, camera angles, types of shots and lighting as
well as camera techniques, framing, depth of field, lighting,
exposure and juxtaposition.
Technical codes and conventions:
 Slow motion
 A lot of camera movement
 Eye line action
 Lots of close ups
 Rhythmic editing
 Pulled focus
 Moving lights
 Diegetic and non-diegetic lighting
 Technical codes are codes that are very specific to a media form
and actually don’t live outside of them. For instance,
our understanding of different camera shots and their connotations
make sense when we watch and film and also photographs but they
really mean nothing to us outside of those forms

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Iris key concepts

  • 1. Component 3 Media Key Concepts Research Name: Iris Michaelidou
  • 2. How is meaning created? In media there is two layers of meaning, Significier (Denotation) which is what we actually see while watching something and Signifies (Connotation) which is what you associate with the image, the deeper or hidden meanings and associations. For example a scene where people are physically fighting, you think about why they're actually fighting and how they're feeling while fighting. There could be a reason to while it lead to violence, so it’s just thinking about it in debt and the different reasons why something is happening. Meaning is created in a moving image by using symbolic and technical codes, they are the key elements that help you understand how meaning is created in media texts and moving images. Symbolism is things like an object, color, character, plot, special effects and camera angles or an event in a story that carries more than the literal meaning and therefore represents something signficant to understanding the meaning of a work of literature. In other words symbols always have a literal (concrete) meaning and a figurative (abstract) meaning.
  • 3. Stuart Hall's Reception Theory (how audiences can read media)  Reception theory as developed by Stuart Hall asserts that media texts are encoded and decoded. The producer adds in messages and values into their media which are then decoded by the audience. Theres three theory's that Stuart descovered:  Preffered reading: the audience sees what the director intended you to see in that scene and it makes the audience understand the message that's being portrayed. The audience sees it exactly how it was supposed to come out, no other view just how it’s supposed to be and they understand it completely.  Negotiated reading: the audience understands the preffered message in a scene but you can also see another side to the message that’s showing. They fully understand what the director is trying to tell you but they can also have another view of what they see and a different opinion from what’s actually shown but they still understand what the actual meaning is they just see it from two different meanings  Oppositional reading: the audience opposes the original messsage and actually sees it for something else. The audience doesn’t actually see the real message the director is trying to show but actually makes up they’re own meaning behind the scene. They might not really understand the meaning behind the scenes correctly and gets a whole different meaning.  Different spectators will decode the text in different ways, not always in the way the producer intended it to.  Encoding/decoding- it is the model of the relationship between text and audience, the text is usually encoded by the producer and decoded by the reader
  • 4. Dove advert The dove advert was created an advert to show that they’re body wash is meant for everybody and everyone with all races. The black woman removed her top after using the lotion and it revealed a white woman underneath, after that the white woman removed her top and turn into a middle eastern woman. Dove had gotten into a lot of contriversy with the public because to some people it cam across as very racist, but the message of the ad was completely different. Dove later explained that it was trying to say that the body wash was for every woman and to be a celebration of diversity. This is a clear example of Stuart Halls theory when he talks about oppositional reading, the audience got the message completely wrong and sees it for something else.
  • 5. Symbolic codes Symbolic codes show what us beneath the surface of what we actually see. There are codes that are used to convey a symbolic, rather than literal meaning.For example, a character's actions show you how the character is really feeling. Symbolic codes: Mise-en-scene Costume • Time period/age/social class • Low/high quality production values • Status/role/occasion • Ethnicity/race/sexuality • Realism/escapist • Coordination with setting Settings • Studio set design/ on location • Decor/style/interiors • Genre conventions • Audience identification • Backdrop • Natural • Stylised Lighting/color • High key and low key lighting • Single source and fill lighting • Use of shadows and silouettes • Bright primary colors • Black and white Body language • Pose and posture • Eye contact • Actors movement/style Objects and props • Clues to characters • Objects to help understand scenes • Props could be used for super heroe capes or for example in harry potter they're wands • Motifs
  • 6. Technical codes  Technical codes are all the ways in which equipment is being used to tell the story in a media text and for example camera work in a film.  This includes sound, camera angles, types of shots and lighting as well as camera techniques, framing, depth of field, lighting, exposure and juxtaposition. Technical codes and conventions:  Slow motion  A lot of camera movement  Eye line action  Lots of close ups  Rhythmic editing  Pulled focus  Moving lights  Diegetic and non-diegetic lighting  Technical codes are codes that are very specific to a media form and actually don’t live outside of them. For instance, our understanding of different camera shots and their connotations make sense when we watch and film and also photographs but they really mean nothing to us outside of those forms
  • 7. Examples of technical codes (camera shots)
  • 10. Examples of technical codes (camera shots)
  • 11. Examples of technical codes (camera shots)
  • 12. Examples of technical codes (camera angles)
  • 13. Examples of technical codes (camera movements)
  • 14. Examples of technical codes (camera movements)
  • 15. Examples of technical codes (camera movements)
  • 16. Examples of technical codes (camera composition)
  • 17. Editing  Once all of the elements are filmed, the editor pieces it all together. Many argue that this is the single most important job in filmmaking. Combining shots into sequences , good editing is a critical element in getting the audience to understand the films story, by creating a mood.  Good editing is a critical element in getting the audience to understand the film’s story, by creating or enhancing mood, emotion and character  The director should always create a bunch of shots for the editor to choose from to actually tell the story.
  • 18. Sound  There are three main types of sounds in films:  Dialogue which is when the characters are talking with each other  Background music or just music in general creates an atmosphere and elicits emotions  Sound FX adds to the actions happening on screen. These made be recorded in different locations and added later. For example, they may have been created for a scene such as a gun shots, raining sounds, someone being punched, cars crashing.  Diegetic and non-diegetic sounds:  Diegetic sound is the sound that the camera picks up while filming that are just natural sounds. For example, voices of character and the majority of speech and also sounds that are made by objects being used in the story.  Non-diegetic sounds are sounds not picked up by the camera when filming, it has been created and added post-production for a specific part in the story. For example, the narrator’s dialogue which is too hard for the camera to pick up additionally, sound effects added for an increased dramatic effect, music is also included as non-diegetic, its often created to create a mood for the audience. Diegetic sound: Car sounds Non-diegetic sound: Background voices could be a narrator
  • 19. Colour symbolism  The media producers use colour to specifically connect the connetations to specific scenes, objects or even characters. Red, for example comes across as a color of passion, love, danger or violence. Blue is seen as a colour of calmness and patience, yellow is warm and inviting and green is presenting nature or sickness.  For example in horror movies the colours that would mostly be used are dark colours such as black or grey which immediately makes the audience think of death or something evil could be happening. Also the color red is used a lot, in the movie cover "US" the characters are all wearing red body suits which is a sign of danger which also links perfectly to the movie because they are the characters that kill.
  • 20. Examples of colours and what they symbolize
  • 21. Movie covers or scenes with the colour red The colour red is mostly used in this movie cover because it’s trying to make the audience understand the story of the movie just by looking at the cover, this is because the characters are wearing all red and also the title of the movie "US" is white which means freedom, it could be trying to show that other characters are trying to escape and be free from the danger that they bring. They are fully clothed with red which means danger so it makes them stand out and come across as evil and dangerous. Deadpool's cover is fully red and it connects with the story of the movie perfectly. He tries to hunt down someone that apparently almost ruined his life which link to the colour red by passion and danger but also because in a specific part of the movie he falls in love which also links to the colour red
  • 22. Movie covers or scenes with the colour green The cover of this movie is mostly green to show that the setting of the movie would be in nature or for example on a forest also because zombies are a very unpleasant creature to look at so the green could also represent disgust and feeling sick by The matrix cover is also all green with black the green could represent the fact that it's talking about the environment and how they find out the real world and the color that represents that is green, also the black to show that they'res evil things
  • 23. Movie covers or scenes with the colour blue The color blue is used in the title and in most of the background, the title joy is put in blue because it symbolizes joy and calmness, the audience would think that it's a calm and relaxed movie, nothing bad would happen The tangled is a cartoon about two characters falling in love and the girl finding her real parents, the background is in blue to make the audience think its gonna be a calm and joyful movie. The title is also in gold to show royalty and wealth and this also link to the girl character because she finds out she's a princess
  • 24. Mise-en-scene  Mise-en-scene is the arrangement of the scenery and stage properties in a play or movie. It is a French word and when translated it means "setting the stage" but in the film industry the word mise-en-scene is basically everything in front of the camera also including the set designs, lighting and actors. Its also now used in film studies to explain all of the elements that make up a scene in a movie or film. The directors use mise-en-scene to guide or manipulate how the audience views or responds to the film. Everything we all see in a film is considered mise en scene but to make it easier the term can be split into different areas. 5 elements of mise en scene:  Settings and props  Costume, hair & make up  Facial expressions & body language  Colours  Positions of character and objects within the frame
  • 25. The importance of denotation and connotation  Denotations refers to an actual word, place or objects  Connotations refers to all the images, metaphors, words and things that they're associated with that flood into our mind when we mention that word, place or objects.  An example is, Los angeles the audience would think about how it's glamorous, celebrities, oscars, palm trees  The cinema is relying on the audience decoding the images they see to make sense of the movie they watch. This process relies on the concept of denotation and connotation
  • 26. Lighting Low key lighting Low key lighting is a lightong technique for films that focuses on accentuating shadows and this made by using a hard source of lighting in a scene. Low key lighting always aims to increase contrast through the use of shadows and dark tones. Highkey lighting  A high key look often gives you less shadows and makes your talent flawless and elegant. It produces an even amount of light that spreads across the entire scene. For example, high key lighting is used in beauty and make up commercials and mostly in comedies too. This represents heat, passion or extreme emotions Lighting is fundamental to films because it creates an atmosphere and a sense of meaning for the audience. Whether it's the light covering the whole scene or only focusing in an actor or object every step in the filming process effects the lighting set ups. Lighting is used to basically tell the audience where to look during a scene. For example, if it was a scene of two people talking and at the background they're was a restaurant with people, the director would have to place the light to the people talking if they want the audience to pay attention to what the people are talking about.
  • 27. Facial expressions Angry Her face shows clearly that she feels angry because her eyebrows are going in wards and her mouth is closed tighly Sad/upset Her eyes are shut which might indicate that she’s about to cry, her lips were pushed down to create a frown and her eye brows are raised and squished Shocked her eyes are wide open to show that she’s surprised by something, her mouth is fully open and her eye brows are fully raised up everything is over exadurated Disgusted Her eyes are squinted and her nose is moved to the side and her lips are sort of on the side, she’s squinting her eyes because maybe she really doesn’t want look at something Happy Her eyes are squinting and shes smiling with her teeth which just clearly shows that shes happy because when were happy we smile Facial expressions are ways to show how someone is feeling from just the movement of they’re facial features to express how they truly feel without talking. The audience would almost immediately understand what the scenes theme and what the atmosphere would be like whether it’ll be negative or positive.
  • 28. Facial expressions p2  Eyebrows: Eyebrows tell a lot about how someone is feeling  They can be raised and arched to show that they’re surprised  Lowered and close together to show anger  Inner corners drawn up to show when they’re upset or sad  Eyes: The other other thing that shows more is the eyes themselves  Wide open eyes mean that they’re trying to show that they’re surprised  Intesely staring is to also show anger  When someone’s eyes are squinting and crinkles start to show  Mouth: The final facial expression has to do with the mouth  A dropped jaw is trying to show when someone’s surprised  Open mouth to show fear  One side of the mouth raised to show hate  Corners of mouth raised to show happiness  Corners lowered down to show sadness
  • 29. Body language  Body language is a mysterious way of non-verbal communication, a character doesn't have to talk to express how they feel. The way a character walks or stands it all contributes to the audiences understanding of that specific character. The character could be sitting down and they're upper body is lowered down to show that they're upset or vunlerable and the oppositite of that would be if someone's shoulders are up and they’re head is help up high it makes us understand that they're happy and excited about something. Its another way of expressing how someone feels without having to say it out loud. They use they're body to clearly state how they feel. How someone walks or runs also shows how they feel, for example if someone was running fast it could show that they're scared of something or stressing out about being late, if someone is walking slowly it shows that they could be lazy or tired. The finger pointing at the women shows that he’s telling her off and he has a high posture to show that hes at a higher state than her The woman has her hand out in a way where shes asking a question and hes trying to defend himself by putting his arms back
  • 30. Props and costumes  Props: The objects or props that are placed and used in scenes by characters are deliberately chosen to create a certain atmosphere and may also have a symbolic meaning. For example, if an actor is in a room full of books the audience would immediately assume he’s intelligent and talented. Using props could also help the audience realize what setting they’re in, what country, year or even century. For example if they’re were eating bagguetes and wearing a beret hat, the audience would immediately think they’re in France because of the steryotypes that have been told for a while. If they’re was a device from the olden times then the people who were born at that time they’d know it was from that time. For example, If the movie was based on witches then the props would need to be a wand and a robe just like in harry potter. It creates the setting and makes them understand the personality and the qualities the character has.  Costumes: Costumes are what the actors wear while filming and have to be in character. This may include wigs or hats even specific jewelery that only depends on how they’re character is. For example if they’re wealthy or not. Costumes also shows how they’re personality is or what they’re interested in and they’re clothes might show they’re attitude and the audience can almost immediately understand how that character is going to act. Costumes build on the character just like props. The audience must beileve that every person in a story has a life before the movie. It helps the actors transform into new and beilevable people on the screen. It also clearly shows the characters persona and who the character really is also you can tell where and when something is taking place and what is going on in the scene and story Costumes in this picture are scary costumes to show that they might be dangerous and not friendly also links back to colour symbolism because they’re black which symbolizes death and evil. Wands is an example for props because its an essential thing that wizards use to show that they have powers and are powerful
  • 31. How is meaning created? They both look like they’ve been through something tragic both because of the setting they’re in and the background and also because of they’re dirty clothes that look like they’re gone through a lot to get there. The colours used are mostly like blue and yellowish colours to show that now everything is finally okay and there’s no chaos but they’re also red and orange from the fire to show that its dangerous. This is a medium long wide shot because we can only see the upper half of they’re body and not they’re feet, also a wide shot because we can clearly see the environment behind them. A medium long shot is used so we can clearly see them and where they are so we can understand a bit more about what’s happening due to the wide shot showing us the background They’re facial expressions also helps us understand that they’re in a very vunrable situation and the young boy looks sort of terrified like he doesn’t know what else is gonna happen and if he’s going to survive.
  • 34. Genre Genre in other words categorizes movies. Categorizing movies makes it easier for the viewer to discover what he or she likes and will want to see. Putting a movie into a particular genre or category does not portray how the quality of the movie by assuming that if it can be put into a genre, the movie is ordinary and lacks originality and creativity. Genre consists of four elements or parts: there’s the characters, the actual story behind a movie, the plot, and where the movie was set. The elements above equal to a specific category of a movie. These element are discussed relating to how their variations created different category of movies. Like other forms of popular media, the film relies on the concept of genre in order to establish an audience and work within a particular narrative framework. A genre is an informal set of conventions, references, rules and settings that establish a particular film within a particular tradition of similar films. Within each genre, there are usually subgenres, or more specific variations on a larger genre tradition. For instance, within the larger genre category of science fiction films, it's possible to distinguish subgenres, for example alien abduction narratives or time travel scenarios. These are some examples of types of genres: horror and romantic comedy
  • 35. Horror  Horror is the oldest and most well-established genres in the history of film. Early horror films like Dracula in 1931 and also Mr Hyde elaborated on and often adapted the gothic and the victorian horror novels of the previous century. In order to give viewers a sense of romantic wonder, combined with a fear of the unknown and the supernatural, horror movies typically aim to create a spooky, halloween like atmoshphere. It’s a genre that intends to frighten or scare or disgust the specific audience. Horror is frequently supernatural, though it might also be non-supernatural. Horror can be inteprented as a metaphor for the larger fears of a society. It can be interpreted in many different ways, but there is often a certain villain, monster, or threat that is often a reflection of the fears being experienced by society at the same time. This creature or person is called the "other", a term that refers to someone that is feared because they are different or misunderstood. This is also why horror has changed throughout the years. fears and cultures change and so does horror. Some elements of the horror genre-  Themes: The horror genre is often a reflection of the culture and what it fears at the time (for example, covid 19,diseases, invasions)  Character types: Besides the evil character, monster, or threat, the various sub genres contain a certain hero (for example, harry potter defeats voldemort)  Setting: Horror can have many different setting. Such as a haunted house, a cemetery, a gothic castle, small town, cabin in the woods. It can take place in the past, present or future  Music: This is an important thing in the horror genre. It can be used with great effect to build the atmosphere and suspence
  • 36. Romantic comedy  One of the most common and enduring film genres is Romantic comedy (some times shortened to RomCom).romantic comedies, while often derided by criti cs as shallo w and sentimental, still continue to draw large audiences. Light, comic narratives surrounding the romantic courtship of two people are typical ly romantic comedies. The two romantic protagonists involved normally begin the film as an unlikely and sometimes antagonistic pairing, but through a seri es of unfortunate and humorous events they end up falling in love but in a way where the audience would find it a strange and funny way of finding love. They are light hearted, humorous movies and dramatic stories centered around romantic ideals such as a " true love". Romantic comedy films are a sub-genre of comedy films as well as of romance films.
  • 37. Rick Altman’s Semantics and Syntactics  A theory that was developed by rick altman suggests that audiences can identify a particular genre through two different elements. These two are called syntactics and semantic elements. Semantic elemts are physical objects that can be seen by the audiences that would automatically represent or show that the media product is of a certain genre. For example if it was a gun placed somewhere this could signify that the media products is under action genre or if there was a clown mask on a table it could represent that it’s under the horror genre.  Semantic feature are often considered “obvious” indications for genres. The same features are present in documentaries those certain codes can help illustrate sub-genre. For my documentary if i had a musical instrument or a book with music notes then the sub genre for the documentary is music.  Syntactic elements are less obvious, and they often represent feeling, themes and emotions that aren’t so clear to see. Feelings like love or hate are considered syntactic elements, and these are processes that audiences could actually feel and understand. Directors commonly communicate syntactic elements through the use of actions within characters. For example, if they wanted to show the emotion love they could put two characters together being affectionate or if it was to show that two people hate each other it could be a scene where they’re arguing.  Semantic codes are way easier to find than syntactic. Just like documentaries often show certain objects or places that would be associated with the genres of the documentary.
  • 38. Mood board for the different genres
  • 39. Genre theorists  Genre theory refers to the research and ideas surrounding genre. The importance of audience in genre is high, as much of genre is about the audience identifying with it and recognizing it. The filmmakers are trying to break the conventions of these genres in order to defy audience’s expectations and create interest. Steve neale says “genres are instances of repetition and difference”  Daniel chandler said “ conventional definitions of genre are based on the idea that they share particular convention of content, for example themes or setting”  John heartley said “ the same text can belong to different genres in different countries or times”  David Buckingham said “ genre is a constant process of negotiation and change”  John fiske said “ genre attempts to structure some order itno a wide range of texts and meaning that circulate in our culture for the conveniences of both producers and audiences”
  • 40. Narrative: In the film industry, narrative films are those that tell a story. Movies like the wizard of Oz is an example of a narrative film because it has a been driven by a story that has a particular structure. According to narrative theory , this film follows a pattern best described through example. The wizard of Oz, which starts by introducing the characters like Auntie Em, Miss Gulch and Dorothy. The characters then experience an upset to their equilibrium which is the tornado, that presents them with a challenge that they have to overcome. Finally the story resolves itself when Dorothy finally makes it home and restores equilibrium to her fictional world. In general, each part of a narrative film serves the purpose of moving the story forward.
  • 41. Open/Closed Narrative  An open structured narrative leaves an audience to wonder what happens next or to make sense of the ending themselves.. An open structure is mostly used within a series of films. The next film will continue where the last one has left off.  A closed narrative its when the film comes to an end. The audience is not left to wonder what happens next. There is a clear conclusion for the audience. Often the audience are invited to make ‘verdicts’ of the characters in the film, identifying the narrative roles.
  • 42. Todorov’s Narrative Theory  According to Tzvetan Todorov, a Bulgarian-French historian, philosopher, stories have common narrative structure:  1. Equilibrium- the story begins with normality  2. Disruption- a problem occurs and creates a disruption to the normality  3. recognition of disruption- characters become aware of the problem  4. attempt to repair the disruption- characters prepare to overcome the problem  5. new equilibrium- the final stage of the story presents characters with a new normality.
  • 43. Propp’s Character Types: The hero- the savior, he saves Fiona from the castle and the villain The helper- the donkey supports and helps him to save fioana from the castle The villain- he takes Fiona away from shrek The princess- she needed to be saved by shrek The donor- the baker creates the ginger bread man who helps them escape later on in the movie The princess’s father- protective over Fiona, he wants her to be happy and safe The false hero- he looks like hes the right person for Fiona but turns out to be evil
  • 44. Alvarado theory:  Pitied: For example ,when adverts or documentaries are displayed for African children and African families dying in poverty or from lack of food and clean water also shelter isn’t stable, the impression this would give off to the people watching creates a feeling of pity. It makes the audience feel as if they should help them and find ways to make they’re life better and it creates an atmosphere of pity.  Dangerous: ethnic groups can be displayed as dangerous through their behavior. For example coldemort in Harry Potter is known as the extremely dangerous and evil character. This makes the audience relate to his behavior to the ethnic group  Exotic: Ethnic groups can be shown as exotic, like latino Americans are shown to be sex symbols and rather exotic through racy costume and controversial behavior. For example Shakira and Rhianna  Humorous: For example, the simpsons, the character that is playing the groundskeeper Willie is convayed as being Irish through his red hair and heavy accent. His lines are always humorous and
  • 45. Stereotypes:  A stereotype is a fixed general image or set of characteristics that a lot of people believe represents a particular type of person or thing.  Woman have the stereotype of not being as strong as men and are mostly seen as weak and emotional human beings.  Arabs are stereotyped to be terrorists because of past events or to be rich and have multiple wives  Asians are stereotyped to be be very intelligent and very successful in life  Mexicans are stereotyped to be thieves or to follow bad paths and always end up in prison