Gangs And The Military


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1st of 7 sections (so videos could be embedded) Gangs and the Military presentation at the Northwest Gang Investigators Association , Missoula, Montana. October 2007
Al Valdez, Ph.D. University of California - Irvine & Carter F. Smith, J. D., Austin Peay State University

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  • Gangs And The Military

    1. 1. Gangs and the Military Presented at Northwest Gang Investigators Association October 2007 Al Valdez, Ph.D. UCI & Carter F. Smith, APSU
    2. 2. The views expressed in this presentation are those of the presenters and do not reflect the official policy or position of the Department of the Army, Department of Defense, or the U.S. Government.
    3. 3. 3G2 Based on the coining and development of the phrase Third Generation Street Gangs by John P. Sullivan and Dr. Robert Bunker Compiled from the listed references by the Gangfighters Network –
    4. 4. Third Generation Street Gangs <ul><li>Some gangs evolve/transition through three generations </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Turf gangs </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Market-oriented drug gangs </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Mix of political and mercenary elements </li></ul></ul>
    5. 5. Three factors determine evolutionary potential <ul><li>Politicization </li></ul><ul><li>Internationalization </li></ul><ul><li>Sophistication </li></ul>
    6. 6. Characteristics of Street Gang Generations
    7. 7. First Generation Gangs <ul><li>Traditional street gangs with a turf orientation </li></ul><ul><li>Operate at the lower end of extreme societal violence </li></ul><ul><li>Loose leadership </li></ul><ul><li>Focus their attention on turf protection and gang loyalty within their immediate environs </li></ul><ul><li>Criminal enterprise - largely opportunistic and local </li></ul><ul><li>Limited in political scope and sophistication </li></ul>
    8. 8. Second Generation Gangs <ul><li>Engaged in business </li></ul><ul><li>Entrepreneurial and drug-centered </li></ul><ul><li>Protect markets and use violence to control their competition </li></ul><ul><li>Have a broader, market focused, sometimes overtly political agenda </li></ul><ul><li>Operate in a broader spatial or geographic area. </li></ul><ul><li>Operations sometimes involve multi-state and even international areas. Tendency for centralized leadership and sophisticated operations for market protection places them in the center of the range of politicization, internationalization and sophistication </li></ul>
    9. 9. Third Generation Gangs <ul><li>Evolved political aims </li></ul><ul><li>Operate or aspire to operate globally </li></ul><ul><li>Use sophistication to garner power, aid financial acquisition and engage in mercenary-type activities </li></ul><ul><li>Most third generation gang s have been primarily mercenary in orientation; yet, in some cases they have sought to further their own political and social objectives </li></ul>
    10. 10. Potential Third Generation Gangs:
    11. 11. Third generation gang activity <ul><li>Can lead to: </li></ul><ul><li>Control of parts of targeted counties or subregions within a country </li></ul><ul><li>Creation of enclaves that are essentially para-states, or </li></ul><ul><li>Taking either indirect or direct control of an entire state and establishing a criminal, narco-state―or a narco-criminal state </li></ul>
    12. 12. Third Generation Gangs <ul><li>Can generate the economic and military power to equal or better that of many nation-states. </li></ul><ul><li>Have a propensity for indiscriminate violence, intimidation, coercion, transcending borders, and targeting nation-states </li></ul><ul><li>Pose significant national security threats </li></ul><ul><li>Are both a regional and transnational gang phenomenon </li></ul>
    13. 13. Military/Federal Gang Laws & Regulations <ul><li>AR 600-20 ( Army Command Policy ) </li></ul><ul><li>DOD Directive 1325.6 (Guidelines for Handling Dissident and Protest Activities Among Members of the Armed Forces) </li></ul><ul><li>DA Pamphlet 600–15 (Extremist Activities) </li></ul><ul><li>Uniform Code of Military Justice (UCMJ) </li></ul><ul><li>Various States’ Gang/Terrorism laws </li></ul>
    14. 14. Gangs and the Military